Anne, Princess Royal
Anne, Princess Royal, KG KT GCVO GCStJ QSO GCL CD is the second child and only daughter of Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh. At the time of her birth, she was third in the line of succession, behind her mother – Princess Elizabeth – and elder brother and she rose to second after her mothers accession, but is currently 12th in line. Anne is known for her work, and is patron of over 200 organisations. Princess Anne has held the title of Princess Royal since 1987 and is its seventh holder, Anne was married to Captain Mark Phillips in 1973, they divorced in 1992. They have two children and three grandchildren, in 1992, within months of her divorce, Anne married Vice Admiral Sir Timothy Laurence, whom she had met while he served as her mothers equerry between 1986 and 1989. Anne was born at Clarence House on 15 August 1950 at 11,50 am, as the child and only daughter of Princess Elizabeth, Duchess of Edinburgh. She was the grandchild of King George VI and Queen Elizabeth. Anne was baptised in the Music Room of Buckingham Palace on 21 October 1950, by Archbishop of York, after the death of George VI, Annes mother ascended the throne as Queen Elizabeth II.
Given her young age at the time, she did not attend the coronation, the Company was active until 1963, when Anne went to boarding school. Anne enrolled at Benenden School in 1963, in 1968 she left school with six GCE O-Levels and two A-Levels. In the next couple of years, Anne started dating, in 1970 her first boyfriend was Andrew Parker Bowles, who became the first husband of Camilla Shand. Following the wedding and her husband lived at Gatcombe Park and he was made acting captain by the start of 1974 when he was appointed a personal aide-de-camp to Queen Elizabeth II. By 1989, Princess Anne and Mark Phillips announced their intention to separate, the couple divorced on 23 April 1992. The Queen had offered Phillips an earldom on his wedding day, the couple had two children, Peter Phillips and Zara Phillips. As female-line descendants of royalty, the children have no title despite being the grandchildren of a monarch, Anne became a grandmother on 29 December 2010 when Peter and his wife Autumn had a daughter, Savannah.
On 29 March 2012, the couple had daughter, Isla. Annes third granddaughter, Mia Grace, was born on 17 January 2014 to Zara and her husband Mike Tindall. As Princess Anne and Mark Phillips were returning to Buckingham Palace on 20 March 1974, from a charity event on Pall Mall, the driver of the Escort, Ian Ball, jumped out and began firing a pistol
Mappin & Webb
Mappin & Webb is a jewellery company headquartered in the United Kingdom. Mappin & Webb traces its origins to a workshop founded in 1775. It now has stores in the UK. It has held Royal Warrants to British monarchs since 1897, the companys master craftsman Martin Swift is the current Crown Jeweller of the United Kingdom. Mappin & Webb traces its origins to 1775, when Jonathan Mappin opened a workshop in Sheffield. The business eventually became Mappin Brothers, the first Mappin & Webb store opened in 1860 at 77-78 Oxford Street and the company’s candleabras, fine silverware and vanity products swiftly gained renown. As a natural progression from silverware, Mappin & Webb began designing jewellery, Webb & Co. acquired Mappin Brothers in 1903. Mappin & Webb expanded internationally beginning in the 1890s and its first overseas store was established in Johannesburg and stores soon followed in Buenos Aires, Sao Paulo, Hong Kong, Shanghai and Bombay. However all international stores closed in the half of the 20th century.
Mappin & Webb has created jewellery for royalty both in the United Kingdom and internationally, patrons have included Queen of France Marie-Antoinette, the Empress of Russia and Princess Grace of Monaco. The company historically held Royal Warrants to both the Russian Empire and the Japanese Royal Household, Queen Victoria was the first British monarch to commission Mappin & Webb. Victorias Golden Jubilee necklace was created by the house in 1888 and was designated by the queen as an heirloom of the Crown, Mappin & Webb has held Royal Warrants in the UK since 1897. Today, Mappin & Webb holds warrants to both the Queen and the Prince of Wales, the brand has a strong sporting heritage, it produced the original Ryder Cup trophy, and made trophies for the Royal Ascot horse races for 75 years. Mappin & Webb merged with Elkington and Walker & Hall in 1963, in 1973 Mappin & Webb was bought by Sears Holdings. The company was bought by Baugur, which became insolvent in 2010. After a brief spell in the Asprey Garrard group, the company now part of the retail group Aurum Holdings.
A branch of Mappin & Webb once occupied a location in the City of London at the junction of Poultry and Queen Victoria Street, adjacent to Bank junction, in the City of London. In the Jules Dassin classic film noir Rififi, a gang execute a brilliant, the Sheffield Knife Book, by G. Tweedale, Hallamshire Press, ISBN 1-874718-11-3 Media related to Mappin & Webb at Wikimedia Commons Homepage of Mappin & Webb
Buckingham Palace is the London residence and administrative headquarters of the reigning monarch of the United Kingdom. Located in the City of Westminster, the palace is often at the centre of state occasions and it has been a focal point for the British people at times of national rejoicing and mourning. It was acquired by King George III in 1761 as a residence for Queen Charlotte. During the 19th century it was enlarged, principally by architects John Nash and Edward Blore, Buckingham Palace became the London residence of the British monarch on the accession of Queen Victoria in 1837. The palace chapel was destroyed by a German bomb during World War II, the original early 19th-century interior designs, many of which survive, include widespread use of brightly coloured scagliola and blue and pink lapis, on the advice of Sir Charles Long. King Edward VII oversaw a partial redecoration in a Belle Époque cream, many smaller reception rooms are furnished in the Chinese regency style with furniture and fittings brought from the Royal Pavilion at Brighton and from Carlton House.
The palace has 775 rooms, and the garden is the largest private garden in London, the state rooms, used for official and state entertaining, are open to the public each year for most of August and September and on some days in winter and spring. In the Middle Ages, the site of the palace formed part of the Manor of Ebury. The marshy ground was watered by the river Tyburn, which flows below the courtyard. Where the river was fordable, the village of Eye Cross grew, ownership of the site changed hands many times, owners included Edward the Confessor and his queen consort Edith of Wessex in late Saxon times, after the Norman Conquest, William the Conqueror. William gave the site to Geoffrey de Mandeville, who bequeathed it to the monks of Westminster Abbey, in 1531, King Henry VIII acquired the Hospital of St James from Eton College, and in 1536 he took the Manor of Ebury from Westminster Abbey. These transfers brought the site of Buckingham Palace back into royal hands for the first time since William the Conqueror had given it away almost 500 years earlier, various owners leased it from royal landlords and the freehold was the subject of frenzied speculation during the 17th century.
By then, the old village of Eye Cross had long fallen into decay. Needing money, James I sold off part of the Crown freehold, clement Walker in Anarchia Anglicana refers to new-erected sodoms and spintries at the Mulberry Garden at S. Jamess, this suggests it may have been a place of debauchery. Eventually, in the late 17th century, the freehold was inherited from the property tycoon Sir Hugh Audley by the great heiress Mary Davies, possibly the first house erected within the site was that of a Sir William Blake, around 1624. The next owner was Lord Goring, who from 1633 extended Blakes house and he did not, obtain the freehold interest in the mulberry garden. Unbeknown to Goring, in 1640 the document failed to pass the Great Seal before King Charles I fled London and it was this critical omission that helped the British royal family regain the freehold under King George III. The improvident Goring defaulted on his rents, Henry Bennet, 1st Earl of Arlington obtained the mansion and was occupying it, now known as Goring House, Arlington House rose on the site—the location of the southern wing of todays palace—the next year
Tower of London
The Tower of London, officially Her Majestys Royal Palace and Fortress of the Tower of London, is a historic castle located on the north bank of the River Thames in central London. It lies within the London Borough of Tower Hamlets, separated from the edge of the square mile of the City of London by the open space known as Tower Hill. It was founded towards the end of 1066 as part of the Norman Conquest of England. The White Tower, which gives the castle its name, was built by William the Conqueror in 1078 and was a resented symbol of oppression. The castle was used as a prison from 1100 until 1952, a grand palace early in its history, it served as a royal residence. As a whole, the Tower is a complex of buildings set within two concentric rings of defensive walls and a moat. There were several phases of expansion, mainly under Kings Richard the Lionheart, Henry III, the general layout established by the late 13th century remains despite activity on the site. The Tower of London has played a prominent role in English history and it was besieged several times, and controlling it has been important to controlling the country.
The Tower has served variously as an armoury, a treasury, a menagerie, the home of the Royal Mint, a record office. From the early 14th century until the reign of Charles II, in the absence of the monarch, the Constable of the Tower is in charge of the castle. This was a powerful and trusted position in the medieval period, in the late 15th century, the castle was the prison of the Princes in the Tower. Under the Tudors, the Tower became used less as a royal residence and this use has led to the phrase sent to the Tower. Executions were more commonly held on the notorious Tower Hill to the north of the castle, in the latter half of the 19th century, institutions such as the Royal Mint moved out of the castle to other locations, leaving many buildings empty. Anthony Salvin and John Taylor took the opportunity to restore the Tower to what was felt to be its medieval appearance, in the First and Second World Wars, the Tower was again used as a prison and witnessed the executions of 12 men for espionage.
After the Second World War, damage caused during the Blitz was repaired, the Tower of London is one of the countrys most popular tourist attractions. Under the ceremonial charge of the Constable of the Tower, it is cared for by the charity Historic Royal Palaces and is protected as a World Heritage Site. The Tower was orientated with its strongest and most impressive defences overlooking Saxon London and it would have visually dominated the surrounding area and stood out to traffic on the River Thames. The castle is made up of three wards, or enclosures, the innermost ward contains the White Tower and is the earliest phase of the castle
Albert, Prince Consort
Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha was the husband of Queen Victoria. He was born in the Saxon duchy of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld to a family connected to many of Europes ruling monarchs, at the age of 20, he married his first cousin, Queen Victoria, they had nine children. He was heavily involved with the organisation of the Great Exhibition of 1851, the Queen came to depend more and more on his support and guidance. Albert died at the young age of 42, plunging the Queen into deep mourning for the rest of her life. Upon Queen Victorias death in 1901, their eldest son succeeded as Edward VII, Albert was born at Schloss Rosenau, near Coburg, the second son of Ernest III, Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld, and his first wife, Louise of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg. Alberts future wife, was earlier in the same year with the assistance of the same midwife. Albert was baptised into the Lutheran Evangelical Church on 19 September 1819 in the Marble Hall at Schloss Rosenau with water taken from the local river, in 1825, Alberts great-uncle, Frederick IV, Duke of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg, died.
His death led to a realignment of Saxon duchies the following year and Alberts father became the first reigning duke of Saxe-Coburg and his elder brother, spent their youth in a close companionship marred by their parents turbulent marriage and eventual separation and divorce. After their mother was exiled from court in 1824, she married her lover, Alexander von Hanstein, Count of Polzig and she presumably never saw her children again, and died of cancer at the age of 30 in 1831. The brothers were educated privately at home by Christoph Florschütz and studied in Brussels, like many other German princes, Albert attended the University of Bonn, where he studied law, political economics and the history of art. He played music and excelled at sport, especially fencing and riding and his tutors at Bonn included the philosopher Fichte and the poet Schlegel. By 1836, the idea of marriage between Albert and his cousin, had arisen in the mind of their ambitious uncle Leopold, at this time, Victoria was the heiress presumptive to the British throne.
Her father, Edward Augustus, Duke of Kent, the son of King George III, had died when she was a baby. Her mother the Duchess of Kent, was the sister of both Alberts father—the Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha—and King Leopold. Leopold arranged for his sister, Victorias mother, to invite the Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, William IV, disapproved of any match with the Coburgs, and instead favoured the suit of Prince Alexander, second son of the Prince of Orange. Victoria was well aware of the matrimonial plans and critically appraised a parade of eligible princes. Alexander, on the hand, she described as very plain. Victoria wrote to her uncle Leopold to thank him for the prospect of great happiness you have contributed to give me and he possesses every quality that could be desired to render me perfectly happy
Goldsmiths Hall is a Grade I building at the junction of Foster Lane and Gresham Street in the City of London. It has served as an office and the headquarters of Londons goldsmith guild. The Company has been based at this location since 1339, the present building being their third hall on the site, little is known about the first hall. The second hall was built circa 1634-36 and restored after the Great Fire of London in 1666, the third and present hall was designed by Philip Hardwick. The hall is entirely detached, and occupies an entire block, despite its great size, it is the second largest livery hall after the Worshipful Company of Plaisterers Plaisterers Hall at One London Wall. Those present at the dinner in 1835 included the Duke of Wellington. In 1941 a bomb exploded in its southwest corner, but amazingly the building survived and was restored after the World War II. From time to time, the Master and Wardens provide for open days to visit Goldsmiths Hall, samuel Pepys viewed the funeral of Sir Thomas Vyner from Goldsmiths Hall.
Pepys wore his best silk suit for the occasion, but the hall was so full of people that he left for Paternoster Square to order a new, ordinary silk suit. The process by members of the hall evaluated and stamped precious metals gave rise to the term hallmarking. Originally, a hallmark was impressed or engraved on ingots of gold and silver to certify their composition, the term is now more commonly used figuratively. The City of London, A Companion Guide
Garrard & Co
Limited formerly Asprey & Garrard Limited designs and manufactures luxury jewellery and silver. George Wickes founded Garrard in London in 1735, Garrard is headquartered at Albemarle Street in Mayfair, London. Garrard has a presence in Harrods, Geneva, Qatar, Moscow, Garrard was the Crown Jeweller of the UK, charged with the upkeep of the British Crown Jewels, from 1843 to 2007. The ICC Cricket World Cup Trophy was designed and produced in 1999 in London by a team of craftsmen from Garrard & Co, the company that was to become Garrard was founded by George Wickes, who entered his mark in Goldsmiths Hall in 1722. Wickes was an accomplished silversmith known for his work in the rococo style, two apprentices of Wickes, John Parker and Edward Wakelin, purchased the company following Wickes retirement in 1760, replaced by John Wakelin and William Taylor in 1776. Following the death of William Taylor, Robert Garrard became a partner in the company in 1792, the company remained in the hands of the Garrard family until the death of Sebastian Henry Garrard, great-grandson of Robert Garrard senior, in 1946.
The name Garrard & Company Ltd was registered in 1909, in 1852, Garrard were given the responsibility of re-cutting the famous Koh-i-Noor diamond into a brilliant. In 1848 Garrard produced what is now referred to as The Americas Cup, in 1915, Garrard & Company were asked to manufacture precision range finders for the British Artillery as they had both the craftsmen and machinery needed. In 1915, the Garrard Engineering and Manufacturing Company was created, Garrard merged with the jewellery firm Asprey in 1998 to become Asprey & Garrard, moving from 112 Regent Street to premises on New Bond Street. The company demerged in 2002, with Garrard returning to the Albemarle Street site it first occupied in 1911, Garrard was acquired by the US private equity firm Yucaipa Companies in 2006, ending its partnership with Asprey. Jade Jagger was the director for the company from 2001 until being replaced by Stephen Webster in 2006. The current crown and G logo is based on Robert Garrards 1822 hallmark, in late 2002 Garrard embarked on an advertising campaign featuring pastiche by appointment warrants to show celebrity endorsements, e. g.
Garrard- by appointment to Missy Elliott. This was not well received by the Royal Warrant Holders Association, more recently, Garrard has been noted as being the maker of the sapphire engagement ring given by Charles, Prince of Wales, to Diana, Princess of Wales for their 1981 marriage. After Death of Diana, Princess of Wales, the passed to her sons. Garrard created the Premier League trophy, and produced the original prop of the Heart Of The Ocean for the 1997 film Titanic and this ended 166 years of Garrards tenure as the inaugural British Royal Jeweller. G. Collins and Sons were appointed the new Crown Jewellers by the Queen, although Garrard still holds a royal warrant from her son, culme, J. and Summers, W. Garrard, The Crown Jewellers for 150 Years. Crown Jeweller Forbes,21 March 2006, retrieved 21 November 2006
International Standard Book Number
The International Standard Book Number is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, the method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering created in 1966, the 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108. Occasionally, a book may appear without a printed ISBN if it is printed privately or the author does not follow the usual ISBN procedure, this can be rectified later. Another identifier, the International Standard Serial Number, identifies periodical publications such as magazines, the ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 in the United Kingdom by David Whitaker and in 1968 in the US by Emery Koltay.
The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108, the United Kingdom continued to use the 9-digit SBN code until 1974. The ISO on-line facility only refers back to 1978, an SBN may be converted to an ISBN by prefixing the digit 0. For example, the edition of Mr. J. G. Reeder Returns, published by Hodder in 1965, has SBN340013818 -340 indicating the publisher,01381 their serial number. This can be converted to ISBN 0-340-01381-8, the check digit does not need to be re-calculated, since 1 January 2007, ISBNs have contained 13 digits, a format that is compatible with Bookland European Article Number EAN-13s. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an ebook, a paperback, and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, a 13-digit ISBN can be separated into its parts, and when this is done it is customary to separate the parts with hyphens or spaces.
Separating the parts of a 10-digit ISBN is done with either hyphens or spaces, figuring out how to correctly separate a given ISBN number is complicated, because most of the parts do not use a fixed number of digits. ISBN issuance is country-specific, in that ISBNs are issued by the ISBN registration agency that is responsible for country or territory regardless of the publication language. Some ISBN registration agencies are based in national libraries or within ministries of culture, in other cases, the ISBN registration service is provided by organisations such as bibliographic data providers that are not government funded. In Canada, ISBNs are issued at no cost with the purpose of encouraging Canadian culture. In the United Kingdom, United States, and some countries, where the service is provided by non-government-funded organisations. Australia, ISBNs are issued by the library services agency Thorpe-Bowker
Rundell and Bridge
Rundell & Bridge were a London firm of jewellers and goldsmiths formed by Philip Rundell and John Bridge. When Edmond Waller Rundell, nephew of Philip Rundell, was admitted as a partner in 1804 and that same year John Gawler Bridge, nephew of John Bridge joined the firm. The firm was appointed as one of the goldsmiths and jewellers to the king in 1797 and Principal Royal Goldsmiths & Jewellers in 1804, amongst its employees were the well-known artists John Flaxman and Thomas Stothard, who both designed and modelled silverware. The Royal Goldsmiths served four monarchs, George III, George IV, William IV, in addition, their name was attributed to the Rundell tiara, made for Princess Alexandra in 1863. After the Congress of Vienna, the firm prepared 22 snuff-boxes to a value of 1000 guineas each to be given as diplomatic gifts. Hartop, with foreword by HRH The Prince of Wales, introduction by Philippa Glanville and essays by Diana Scarisbrick, Charles Truman, David Watkin and Matthew Winterbottom
Private equity firm
Often described as a financial sponsor, each firm will raise funds that will be invested in accordance with one or more specific investment strategies. Typically, an equity firm will raise pools of capital. Private equity firms will receive a management fee as well as a share in the profits earned from each private equity fund managed. Private equity firms, with their investors, will acquire a controlling or substantial minority position in a company, Private equity firms characteristically make longer-hold investments in target industry sectors or specific investment areas where they have expertise. Preqin ltd, an independent data provider, provides a ranking of the 25 largest private equity investment managers, among the largest firms in that ranking were AlpInvest Partners, Ardian, AIG Investments, Goldman Sachs Private Equity Group, and Pantheon Ventures. Because private equity firms are continuously in the process of raising, other metrics can include the total value of companies purchased by a firm or an estimate of the size of a firms active portfolio plus capital available for new investments.
As with any list that focuses on size, the list does not provide any indication as to relative investment performance of funds or managers. History of private equity and venture capital Leveraged buyout List of private equity firms Management buyout Private equity Private equity fund Private equity – a guide for pension fund trustees, pensions Investment Research Consultants for the Trades Union Congress. Legal Structure of Private Equity Funds, Private Equity and Hedge Funds 2007. The Economics of the Private Equity Market, federal Reserve Bank of Dallas,1998
Elizabeth II has been Queen of the United Kingdom, Canada and New Zealand since 6 February 1952. Elizabeth was born in London as the eldest child of the Duke and Duchess of York, King George VI and Queen Elizabeth and her father acceded to the throne on the abdication of his brother Edward VIII in 1936, from which time she was the heir presumptive. She began to undertake duties during the Second World War. Elizabeths many historic visits and meetings include a visit to the Republic of Ireland. She has seen major changes, such as devolution in the United Kingdom, Canadian patriation. She has reigned through various wars and conflicts involving many of her realms and she is the worlds oldest reigning monarch as well as Britains longest-lived. In October 2016, she became the longest currently reigning monarch, in 2017 she became the first British monarch to commemorate a Sapphire Jubilee. Elizabeth has occasionally faced republican sentiments and press criticism of the family, support for the monarchy remains high.
Elizabeth was born at 02,40 on 21 April 1926, during the reign of her paternal grandfather and her father, Prince Albert, Duke of York, was the second son of the King. Her mother, Duchess of York, was the youngest daughter of Scottish aristocrat Claude Bowes-Lyon, 14th Earl of Strathmore and she was delivered by Caesarean section at her maternal grandfathers London house,17 Bruton Street, Mayfair. Elizabeths only sibling, Princess Margaret, was born in 1930, the two princesses were educated at home under the supervision of their mother and their governess, Marion Crawford, who was casually known as Crawfie. Lessons concentrated on history, language and music, Crawford published a biography of Elizabeth and Margarets childhood years entitled The Little Princesses in 1950, much to the dismay of the royal family. The book describes Elizabeths love of horses and dogs, her orderliness, others echoed such observations, Winston Churchill described Elizabeth when she was two as a character. She has an air of authority and reflectiveness astonishing in an infant and her cousin Margaret Rhodes described her as a jolly little girl, but fundamentally sensible and well-behaved.
During her grandfathers reign, Elizabeth was third in the line of succession to the throne, behind her uncle Edward, Prince of Wales, and her father, the Duke of York. Although her birth generated public interest, she was not expected to become queen, many people believed that he would marry and have children of his own. When her grandfather died in 1936 and her uncle succeeded as Edward VIII, she became second-in-line to the throne, that year, Edward abdicated, after his proposed marriage to divorced socialite Wallis Simpson provoked a constitutional crisis. Consequently, Elizabeths father became king, and she became heir presumptive, if her parents had had a son, she would have lost her position as first-in-line, as her brother would have been heir apparent and above her in the line of succession