Anthony Chabot Regional Park
Anthony Chabot Regional Park is a regional park in Oakland, California in the United States. It covers 5,067 acres in the San Leandro Hills adjacent to Oakland and it is part of the East Bay Regional Park District system. The terrain of the park is steep, consisting of grasslands, chaparral. The park is adjacent to Lake Chabot Regional Park, Redwood Regional Park, Dunsmuir Ridge Open Space, there are trails for hiking, horseback riding, and cycling that connect to other regional parks. Trailheads are located along Redwood Road and Skyline Boulevard in Oakland, the park houses two equestrian centers for private horse boarding and lessons, Chabot Equestrian Center and Skyline Ranch Equestrian Center. A marksmanship range was operated within the park by the non-profit Chabot Gun Club, the range closed in 2016, after operating 53 years, due to pollution problems caused by shell casings. Redwood Canyon Public Golf Course, a marina with rental boats, camping is a major activity in the park with a 75 campsite family campground and seven group camps.
Anthony Chabot Family Campground is open year-round and features 53 drive-to tent campsites,10 walk-to tent campsites, some campsites offer views overlooking Lake Chabot. The parks seven group campsites are for groups ranging in size from 11 to 300 campers, Bort Meadow Group Camp, with a capacity of 300, allows equestrian camping. Anthony Chabot Regional Park opened in 1952 as Grass Valley Regional Park, originally named for the dominant geographic feature of the part of the park. In 1965 the park was renamed in honor of Anthony Chabot, the lands that make up the park were originally ancestral land of the Jalquin, an Ohlone and Bay Miwok speaking tribe. The lands were divided by the Mexican land grants in the 1840s, the portion of the park to Rancho San Lorenzo. In the 1860s American settlers ranched the area including the 525-acre Grass Valley Ranch located in the area that is today Bort Meadow, cattle grazing continues in Grass Valley in modern times. Extensive coast redwood logging occurred in Anthony Chabot Regional Park and neighboring Redwood Regional Park from the late 1800s to early 1900s, while all the coast redwoods in Anthony Chabot Regional Park were logged, many regrowth trees are over 100 years old.
Various water companies, predecessors to the East Bay Municipal Utility District, beginning around 1910, the water companies were responsible for planting the large eucalyptus plantations that are still a dominant feature in the park. Some water company land was leased to ranchers in the 1900s, including the family of Manuel Maciel, the Maciel family, ranched the land in the area that is now the Anthony Chabot Family Campground and marksmanship range. The main access road to these facilities is named Marciel Road in the familys honor, in the area of Big Bear Staging Area along Redwood Road was the Big Bear Tavern. While no traces remain, this was the site began the traditional jazz revival
Point Pinole Regional Shoreline
The Point Pinole Regional Shoreline is a regional park on the shores of the San Pablo Bay, California. It is approximately 9 square kilometers in area, and is operated by the East Bay Regional Park District, Point Pinole is located in the city of Richmond, California. The other relic of the industrial past are the large number of eucalyptus glades which were planted around the factory site for safety reasons. The eucalyptus was planted in strategic groves between the Giant Powder Company and the town to block the sound and smell of occasional explosions. The park features the promontory of Point Pinole, located where the East Bay shoreline turns from running south towards Berkeley and Oakland to running eastwards, geologically, it is a result of movement on the Hayward Fault which runs along its western edge, creating a low scarp. The parks trails are flat and not at all challenging, there is a $3 parking fee, in 2009 the park acquired the Breuner Marsh site and added it to the Point Pinole Regional Shoreline park.
The park is a mixture of grassland and woodland, with beaches and low cliffs, and it has a rich bird life, including many ducks and shorebirds. It is located on the Pacific Flyway, so many migrant species are seen, the park is located on the Hayward Fault, whose exact position is marked by monuments erected by the United States Geological Survey. The USGS has a seismometer posted along the Union Pacific Railroad, which divides the park from the mainland, the San Francisco Bay Trail runs through the park. The park can be reached by the AC Transit bus service, by car and cyclist admission is free, but there is a parking fee. East Bay Regional Park District, official Point Pinole Regional Shoreline website A short history of California Historical Landmarks — including #1002, Aerial image of Point Pinole
Tilden Regional Park
Tilden Regional Park, known as Tilden Park or Tilden /ˈtɪldən/, is a 2, 079-acre regional park in the East Bay, part of the San Francisco Bay Area in California. It is between the Berkeley Hills and San Pablo Ridge, the park is managed by the East Bay Regional Park District, created from the first land the District purchased in 1936. Tilden Regional Park was named in honor of Charles Lee Tilden, Tilden Park is largely located within unincorporated areas of Contra Costa County, while parts of the park are within the cities of Oakland and Berkeley. Its steep valleys and dense stands of timber offer a rare wilderness experience so close to the city and its high ridges and peaks give wide views over the San Francisco Bay and inland across other preserved land to Mount Diablo. The eastern limit of the park is approximately at the crest of the San Pablo Ridge, the western boundary nearly follows the crest of the Berkeley Hills. Parts of the land had previously been cleared for agricultural use. In many places, exotic trees such as eucalyptus have been planted, there are some relatively recently planted stands of giant sequoia.
However, current conservation efforts are aimed at restoring native vegetation as much as possible, the East Bay Regional Parks District uses grazing as a means of vegetation reduction, with a herd of goats grazing each summer in Tilden. AC Transit bus line 67 from the Berkeley BART station runs into the park on weekends, the bus line stops at the Tilden Nature Area/Little Farm, Lone Oak Road, Lake Anza/Merry-Go-Round, and the Brazilian Room/Botanic Garden before returning to Berkeley. Prior to being a park, the lands that are now Tilden Park were ancestral lands of Ohlone Indians. Spanish explorers and Mexican ranchos drove the Ohlone off the land as ranching became the dominant activity in Wildcat Canyon, american ranchers of the late 1800s and early 1900s included the Curran family ranch and the Sweet Briar Dairy. The eucalyptus plantations within the park were planted around 1910 by Frank C, havens Eucalyptus, Mahogany, & Land Company. The first parkland was purchased by the East Bay Regional Park District from the East Bay Municipal Utility District on June 4,1936, the 2,162 acres purchased included land for Tilden Park, Lake Temescal and Robert Sibley Volcanic Regional Preserve.
Upper Wildcat Canyon was officially named Charles Lee Tilden Regional Park on July 16,1936. At the June 4,1936 board meeting of East Bay Regional Park District, the meeting that authorized the land purchase. In doing so, they met their matching fund obligation in order to qualify for $1 million in relief funds for park development. From 1935 to 1941 a Civilian Conservation Corps camp, Camp Wildcat Canyon was located in what is now the Tilden Nature Area, the CCC crews built much of the parks earlier infrastructure and features including roads, bridges, picnic areas, and golf course. Works Progress Administration crews built the Lake Anza dam and stone buildings including restrooms, the original Lake Anza beach house, the aesthetic of the park today is directly derived from the original work performed by the CCC and WPA
Coyote Hills Regional Park
Coyote Hills Regional Park is a regional park encompassing nearly 978 acres of land and administered by the East Bay Regional Park District. The park, which was dedicated to use in 1967, is located in Fremont, California. In addition to the hills themselves, the park encloses an area of wetlands. There are a number of sites within the park, preserving evidence of habitation by Native Americans of the Ohlone group of tribes. Access to these sites is not allowed for visitors. There is a network of hiking trails in the park, most of them available to equestrians. Most of the trails are wide fireroads that go around the hills and the marshes, there are few narrow trails which are off limits to bikers and equestrians. These trails connect to others in the east bay, and the San Francisco Bay Trail passes through the park, cross country meets for local schools are held occasionally in the park. The waters to the south and west of the park part of the San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge. Coyote Hills is home to the remnants of a large Project Nike missile base and it has intact facilities that are in disrepair and some still in place are used as radio transmission & microwave antenna stations.
Guard stations are still visible throughout the park, a firing range and aquifer exist on the southernmost hills. The East Bay areas original inhabitants were the ancestors of the Ohlone Indians, at Coyote Hills Regional Park, some of this rich wetland is preserved, along with 2, 000-year-old Tuibun Ohlone Indian shellmound sites. Programs at the main shellmound site allow visitors to see a reconstructed tule house, shade shelter, pit house, large collection of photos and trail descriptions of Coyote Hills Coyote Hills official website Coyote Hills Trail Map
World War II
World War II, known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although related conflicts began earlier. It involved the vast majority of the worlds countries—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing alliances, the Allies and the Axis. It was the most widespread war in history, and directly involved more than 100 million people from over 30 countries. Marked by mass deaths of civilians, including the Holocaust and the bombing of industrial and population centres. These made World War II the deadliest conflict in human history, from late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, and formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. In December 1941, Japan attacked the United States and European colonies in the Pacific Ocean, and quickly conquered much of the Western Pacific.
The Axis advance halted in 1942 when Japan lost the critical Battle of Midway, near Hawaii, in 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained all of its territorial losses and invaded Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in South Central China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy, thus ended the war in Asia, cementing the total victory of the Allies. World War II altered the political alignment and social structure of the world, the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The victorious great powers—the United States, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union and the United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the Cold War, which lasted for the next 46 years. Meanwhile, the influence of European great powers waned, while the decolonisation of Asia, most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic recovery.
Political integration, especially in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities, the start of the war in Europe is generally held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland and France declared war on Germany two days later. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or even the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred simultaneously and this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935. The British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the forces of Mongolia and the Soviet Union from May to September 1939, the exact date of the wars end is not universally agreed upon.
It was generally accepted at the time that the war ended with the armistice of 14 August 1945, rather than the formal surrender of Japan
The loons or divers are a group of aquatic birds found in many parts of North America and northern Eurasia. All living species of loons are members of the genus Gavia, family Gaviidae, the loon, the size of a large duck or small goose, resembles these birds in shape when swimming. Like ducks and geese but unlike coots and grebes, the toes are connected by webbing. Flying loons resemble plump geese with seagulls wings that are small in proportion to the bulky body. The bird points its head slightly upwards during swimming, but less so than cormorants, in flight the head droops more than in similar aquatic birds. Male and female loons have identical plumage, plumage is largely patterned black-and-white in summer, with grey on the head and neck in some species. All species of divers have a spear-shaped bill, males are larger on average, but relative size is only apparent when the male and female are together. In winter plumage is grey above, with some indistinct lighter mottling on the wings. This trait is found in tubenoses and penguins, both relatives of the loons.
Loons are excellent swimmers, using their feet to propel themselves above, since their feet are located posteriorly on the body, loons cannot walk. Thus, loons avoid coming to land, except when nesting or severely injured, Loons fly strongly, though they have high wing-loading, which complicates takeoff. Indeed, most species must run upwind across the surface with wings flapping to generate sufficient lift to take flight. Only the red-throated loon can take off from land, once airborne, loons are capable of long flights during migration. North European loons migrate primarily via the South Baltic and directly over land to the Black Sea or Mediterranean, Loons can live as long as 30 years and can hold their breath for as long as 90 seconds while underwater. Loons find their prey by sight and they eat mainly fish, supplemented with amphibians and similar mid-sized aquatic fauna. Specifically, they have noted to feed on crayfish, snails, salamanders. They prefer clear lakes because they can easily see their prey through the water.
The loon uses its pointy bill to stab or grasp prey and they eat vertebrate prey headfirst to facilitate swallowing, and swallow all their prey whole
Middle Harbor Shoreline Park
Middle Harbor Shoreline Park is located on San Francisco Bay and the Port of Oakland entrance channel, west of downtown Oakland, California It is operated by the East Bay Regional Parks District. The park is primarily on land that was the site of the Oakland Naval Supply Depot. The Naval Supply Depot closed in 1998 and the property was transferred to the Port of Oakland, the interlocking tower from the railroads pier has been moved and partially restored as a small commemorative museum. The land was redeveloped for the park from 2002 to 2004, redevelopment of the land included restoration of beaches and creation of a lagoon. The mast of the USS Oakland is displayed at the entrance of the park, East Bay Regional Parks District, official Middle Harbor Shoreline Park website Map, 37°48′21″N 122°19′27″W
A grebe is a member of the order Podicipediformes and the only type of bird associated with this order. Grebes are a widely distributed order of freshwater diving birds, some of which visit the sea when migrating and this order contains only a single family, the Podicipedidae, containing 22 species in 6 extant genera. Grebes are small to medium-large in size, have lobed toes, although they can run for a short distance, they are prone to falling over, since they have their feet placed far back on the body. Grebes have narrow wings, and some species are reluctant to fly and they respond to danger by diving rather than flying, and are in any case much less wary than ducks. Extant species range in size from the least grebe, at 120 grams and 23.5 cm, to the great grebe, at 1.7 kg and 71 cm. The North American and Eurasian species are all, of necessity, migratory over much or all of their ranges, even the small freshwater pied-billed grebe of North America has occurred as a transatlantic vagrant to Europe on more than 30 occasions.
Bills vary from short and thick to long and pointed, depending on the diet, the feet are always large, with broad lobes on the toes and small webs connecting the front three toes. The hind toe has a small lobe, recent experimental work has shown that these lobes work like the hydrofoil blades of a propeller. Curiously, the same mechanism apparently evolved independently in the extinct Cretaceous-age Hesperornithiformes and it is dense and waterproof, and on the underside the feathers are at right-angles to the skin, sticking straight out to begin with and curling at the tip. By pressing their feathers against the body, grebes can adjust their buoyancy, they swim low in the water with just the head and neck exposed. In the non-breeding season, grebes are plain-coloured in dark browns, most have ornate and distinctive breeding plumages, often developing chestnut markings on the head area, and perform elaborate display rituals. The young, particularly those of the Podiceps genus, are often striped, in the breeding season, they mate at freshwater lakes and ponds, but some species spend their non-breeding season along seacoasts.
When preening, grebes eat their own feathers, and feed them to their young, the function of this behaviour is uncertain but it is believed to assist with pellet formation, and to reduce their vulnerability to gastric parasites. Grebes make floating nests of plant material concealed among reeds on the surface of the water, the young are precocial, and able to swim from birth. The grebes are a distinct group of birds as regards their anatomy. Accordingly, they were at first believed to be related to the loons, which are foot-propelled diving birds and loons are now separately classified orders of Podicipediformes and Gaviiformes, respectively. The cladistics vs. phenetics debate of the mid-20th century revived scientific interest in generalizing comparisons, as a consequence, the discredited grebe-loon link was discussed again. This even went as far as proposing monophyly for grebes, still – actually because of this – they do confirm that these birds form a fairly ancient evolutionary lineage, and they support the non-relatedness of loons and grebes
Del Valle Regional Park
Del Valle Regional Park is a park of the East Bay Regional Park District in unincorporated Alameda County, south of the city of Livermore. The park is 4,316 acres big, the park largely surrounds Lake Del Valle, an artificial reservoir made from the damming of Arroyo Valle, a small river. The lake provides a source of recreation for visitors including swimming, there are lifeguards present at designated swimming areas. The park offers 28 miles of hiking and bicycle trails, there are many prominent and locally famous cliffjumping locations around the lake including The Rock, The Swallow Bay Cliff, and The Pillars. All can be accessed through various trails surrounding the park, the park can be approached from Mines or Arroyo Road, where the parking meter is often broken. Del Valle Park at the EBRPD website