Miller/Knox Regional Shoreline
Miller/Knox Regional Shoreline is a 295-acre bayside park in the Brickyard Cove neighborhood of the Point Richmond District in Richmond, California. The park is centered on the Miller/Knox lagoon, depicted on a large 200 foot by 50 foot mural at the Richmond Municipal Natatorium nearby; the park affords panoramic views of the Bay Area the Oakland and San Francisco skylines, islands and the North Bay mountains. The views are the farthest from the park's high point: Nicholls Knob; the regional shoreline includes Keller Beach on San Pablo Bay in addition to large picnic and barbecue areas, parking and a fishing pier. There is a former train ferry pier and other assorted ruins; the park is home to the Golden State Model Railroad Museum. The park is named for former state senator George Miller, Jr. and former State Assembly member and Point Richmond resident John T. Knox; the park features many trails for cyclists, dog-walkers, hikers, a salt water lagoon where ducks and Canada Geese frolic. The beach reopened months later.
List of beaches in California List of California state parks Miller/Knox Regional Shoreline - at the East Bay Regional Park District website
A merchant navy or merchant marine or mercantile marine is the fleet of merchant vessels that are registered in a specific country. On merchant vessels, seafarers of various ranks and sometimes members of maritime trade unions are required by the International Convention on Standards of Training and Watchkeeping for Seafarers to carry Merchant Mariner's Documents. King George V bestowed the title of the "Merchant Navy" on the British merchant shipping fleets following their service in the First World War; the following is a partial list of the merchant navies or merchant marines of various countries. In many countries the fleet's proper name is the capitalized version of the common noun; the British Merchant Navy comprises the British merchant ships that transport cargo and people during time of peace and war. For much of its history, the merchant navy was the largest merchant fleet in the world, but with the decline of the British Empire in the mid-20th century it slipped down the rankings.
In 1939, the merchant navy was the largest in the world with 33% of total tonnage. By 2012, the merchant navy—still remaining one of the largest in the world—held only 3% of total tonnage; as of the year ending 2012, British Merchant Marine interests consists of 1,504 ships of 100 GT or over. This includes parent owned or managed by a British company; this amounts to: 59,413,000 GT or alternatively 75,265,000 DWT. This is according to the annual maritime shipping statistics provided by the British government and the Department for Transport. British shipping is globally by the UK Chamber of Shipping. Canada, like several other Commonwealth nations, created its own merchant navy in a large-scale effort in World War II. Established in 1939, the Canadian Merchant Navy played a major role in the Battle of the Atlantic bolstering the Allies' merchant fleet due to high losses in the British Merchant Navy. Thousands of Canadians served in the merchant navy aboard hundreds of Canadian merchant ships, notably the "Park Ship", the Canadian equivalent of the American "Liberty Ship".
A school at St. Margarets Bay, Nova Scotia, trained Canadian merchant mariners. "Manning pools", merchant navy barracks, were built in Canadian ports. The Greek maritime fleet is today engaged in commerce and transportation of goods and services universally, it consists of the merchant vessels owned by Greek civilians, flying either the Greek flag or a flag of convenience. Greece is a maritime nation by tradition, as shipping is arguably the oldest form of occupation of the Greeks and a key element of Greek economic activity since ancient times. In 2015, the Greek Merchant Navy controlled the world's largest merchant fleet in terms of tonnage with a total DWT of 334,649,089 tons and a fleet of 5,226 Greek owned vessels, according to Lloyd's List. Greece is ranked regarding all types of ships, including first for tankers and bulk carriers; the birth of the modern Indian Merchant Navy occurred before independence from the United Kingdom, when in 1919 SS Loyalty sailed from India to Britain. Today, India ranks 15th in the world in terms of total DWT.
India supplies around 12.8% of officers and around 14.5% of ratings to the world seafaring community. This is one of the highest of any country. India trains its officers similar to coast guards with all equipment including combat training, they are trained to protect their vessels at all cost from pirates. In December 1939, 3,000 seafarers were employed and 186 merchant vessels were on the New Zealand Registry; some foreign vessels were impressed, including Pamir. New Zealand, like several other Commonwealth nations, created a merchant navy. However, the "wartime Merchant Navy was neither a military force nor a single coherent body", instead it was a "a diverse collection of private companies and ships". Although some ships were involved in the Atlantic and North Pacific trade this involved domestic and South Pacific cargos. New Zealand-owned ships were involved in trade with the United Kingdom and the majority of New Zealand seamen had served with the British Merchant Navy. Over the course of the war, 64 ships were sunk by enemy action on the New Zealand–UK route, 140 merchant seafarers lost their lives.
The Pakistan Merchant Navy was formed in 1947. The Ministry of Port and Shipping, Mercantile Marine Department and Shipping Office established by the Government of Pakistan were authorized to flag the ships and ensured that the vessels were sea worthy. All of the private shipping companies merged and formed the National Shipping Corporation and the Pakistan Shipping Corporation and as a result they had a common flag. Among these companies were the Muhammadi Steamship Company Limited and the East & West Steamship Company. In the Indo-Pak war of 1971 Pakistan suffered a great loss of its merchant vessels at the hands of Indians. On 1 January 1974, President of Pakistan Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto nationalized the National Shipping Corporation and Pakistan Shipping Corporation, formed the Pakistan National Shipping Corporation with the intent of reestablishing the Pakistan Merchant Navy; the company was incorporated under the provisions of the Pakistan National Shipping Corporation Ordinance of 1979 and the Companies Ordinance of 1984.
Today, the Pakistan National Shipping Corporation is the national flag carrier. The corporation's head office is located in Karachi. A regional office based in Lahore caters for
Del Valle Regional Park
Del Valle Regional Park is a part of the East Bay Regional Park District in an unincorporated region of Alameda County, California, 10 miles south of the city of Livermore. The park covers 4,316 acres; the park surrounds Lake Del Valle, an artificial reservoir made in 1968 by damming Arroyo Valle, a small river. The lake provides a source of recreation for visitors including swimming and boating. There are lifeguards present at designated swimming areas; the park offers 28 miles of hiking and bicycle trails, in addition to 150 camping sites. It is the eastern gate for the Ohlone Wilderness Trail, which leads to Sunol and Mission Peak Regional Parks; the park, like many East Bay Regional Parks, has numerous trails. One trail, the East Shore Trail, leads from the Arroyo Road staging area to a ridge above Del Valle, follows the lake for several miles toward the boat launch; the Sailor Camp Trail leads to the Ohlone Wilderness Trail, an unnamed trail leads to Mendenhall Road. Most of the trails climb hills around the lake.
The park can be approached from Del Valle Park Road or Arroyo Road, where the parking meter is broken. Del Valle Road connects to the southern end of the park, while Arroyo Road connects to the northern staging area. Mines Road can be reached from Tesla Road and the California State Route 130. Arroyo Road can be reached from Wetmore Road. You can reach the Arroyo staging area along a narrow footpath which connects to Sycamore Grove Park and the general LARPD trail network. Construction crews began work on the lake in 1966; the construction of Del Valle Reservoir was finished in 1968. Del Valle Regional Park was opened to the public in 1970, 36 years after the EBRPD was founded in 1934. In the early- to mid-2010s, a severe drought struck the California region, including the East Bay; the East Bay Regional Park District wrote an article to help with the drought. Shortly after the California drought in the 2010s, Del Valle Regional Park suffered widespread damage from the unusually heavy rains and La Niña that struck the East Bay in early 2017.
Much of the damage was around Lake Del Valle, where runoff overflowed five times into beaches and picnic areas. Some of the trails were needed to be rebuilt; the park was closed for nearly three months, before reopening on April 15, 2017. EBRPD estimated the cost to repair this park alone at $1.8 billion, said the cost would rise further if the rains continued. With another La Niña scheduled for the 2017-2018 winter, it seemed quite possible that repairs would have to be done after that winter as well. In early 2019, heavy rains again came to the Del Valle Regional Park area, as a result, the park closed in mid-February 2019, it was scheduled to re-open in early March. Lake Del Valle Del Valle Park at the EBRPD website
Anthony Chabot Regional Park
Anthony Chabot Regional Park is a regional park in Oakland, Alameda County, California in the United States. It is part of the East Bay Regional Park District system, covers 5,067 acres in the San Leandro Hills adjacent to Oakland, San Leandro and Castro Valley. Popular activities include hiking and horseback riding. A gun range operated by the Chabot Gun Club was shut down in 2016, following complaints about pollution; the terrain of the park is steep, consisting of grasslands and eucalyptus groves. The park is adjacent to Lake Chabot Regional Park, Redwood Regional Park, Dunsmuir Ridge Open Space, the Upper San Leandro Reservoir. There are trails for hiking, horseback riding, cycling that connect to other regional parks. Trailheads are located along Skyline Boulevard in Oakland; the park houses two equestrian centers for private horse boarding and lessons: Chabot Equestrian Center and Skyline Ranch Equestrian Center. A marksmanship range was operated within the park by the non-profit Chabot Gun Club.
The range closed after operating 53 years, due to pollution caused by shell casings. Redwood Canyon Public Golf Course, a marina with rental boats, picnic areas are located at adjacent Lake Chabot Regional Park. Camping is a major activity in the park with seven group camps. Anthony Chabot Family Campground is open year round and features 53 drive-to tent campsites, 10 walk-to tent campsites, 12 RV/trailer campsites; some campsites offer views overlooking Lake Chabot. The park's seven group campsites are for groups ranging in size from 11 to 300 campers. Bort Meadow Group Camp, with a capacity of 300 allows equestrian camping. Anthony Chabot Regional Park opened in 1952 as Grass Valley Regional Park named for the dominant geographic feature of the northern part of the park, Grass Valley. In 1965 the park was renamed in honor of Anthony Chabot, the builder of Lake Chabot and Oakland's first public water system; the lands that make up the park were ancestral land of the Jalquin, an Ohlone and Bay Miwok speaking tribe.
The lands were divided by the Mexican land grants in the 1840s, the southern portion of the park to Rancho San Lorenzo and the northern portion to Rancho San Antonio. In the 1860s American settlers ranched the area including the 525-acre Grass Valley Ranch located in the area, today Bort Meadow. Cattle grazing continues in Grass Valley. Extensive coast redwood logging occurred in Anthony Chabot Regional Park and neighboring Redwood Regional Park from the late 1800s to early 1900s. While all the original coast redwoods in Anthony Chabot Regional Park were logged, many regrowth trees are over 100 years old. Various water companies, predecessors to the East Bay Municipal Utility District, consolidated much of the land for watershed purposes. Beginning around 1910, the water companies were responsible for planting the large eucalyptus plantations that are still a dominant feature in the park; some water company land was leased to ranchers in the 1900s, including the family of Manuel Maciel, an Azorean immigrant.
The Maciel family, ranched the land in the area, now the Anthony Chabot Family Campground and marksmanship range. The main access road to these facilities is named Marciel Road in the family's honor. In the area of Big Bear Staging Area along Redwood Road was the Big Bear Tavern. While no traces remain, this was the site. In 1940, Lu Watters formed the Yerba Buena Jazz Band as a way to reject big band music of the era which he viewed to be bland. Jam sessions were held at the Big Bear Tavern where crowds of up to 400 could assemble on the dance floor; the tavern is memorialized by the band's song "Big Bear Stomp". A ropes course, archery range, motorcycle park were once located at the park. On March 1, 2016, the East Bay Regional Park District Board of Directors voted unanimously to shut down the marksmanship range operated by the Chabot Gun Club; the range, in operation since 1963, ceased operations on September 5, 2016. A service station film set was built along Redwood Road at the Big Bear Staging Area in Anthony Chabot Regional Park for a chase scene in Clint Eastwood's True Crime.
Ebparks.org - East Bay Regional Park District's Anthony Chabot Regional Park page "Anthony Chabot campground map". Anthony Chabot Park map: "text side". "north side". "south side"
Brooks Island Regional Preserve
Brooks Island Regional Preserve includes both the 75-acre of Brooks Island above the low-tide line and 300 acres of the surrounding bay. The only public access to the island now is via an East Bay Regional Park District naturalist tour. Brooks Island is a flat strip of land extending from a round hill, named Jefferds Hill, which peaks at 160 ft in San Francisco Bay, located just south of the Richmond Inner Harbor in Richmond, California. Named as Isla de Cármen by a Spanish explorer, the island was named Brooks Island on California maps in 1853; the eponymous Brooks has never been identified. It has been called Sheep Island and Rocky Island at various times; the island was bought by the regional parks district in 1968, was opened to the public in 1988. Access is now available through ranger-led guided tours. On the island are the remains of several shellmounds left from prolonged occupation by Native Americans, most people from the Ohlone tribe, sustained by the abundant sea life in the surrounding bay.
The park district's 1976 resource analysis identified the tribes as "Huchium or Chochenyo", speculated that as many as 15,000 people might have lived on the land over the course of 2,000 to 3,000 years. The first archeological excavation on Brooks Island was conducted by Nels Nelson of UC Berkeley in 1907. More systematic excavations of shellmounds on Brooks Island began in 1960 with the excavation of shellmound sites CCo-290 and CCo-291 on the northeast shore by George Coles of Contra Costa College, Vera-Mae and Dave Fredrickson. Coles' excavation of the largest shellmound during the 1960s, which produced carbon-14 dates of 1,700–2,000 years before present for the oldest materials in the mound. Coles estimated, his study found bones from cormorants and other waterbirds. Marine mammal bones included harbor seals, sea lions and whales; these early residents used harpoons with bone points. Though the mound showed evidence of large catches of fish herring, there were no fishhooks found, indicating that nets were used.
Mollusks such as mussels and clams were a large portion of the diet. From CCo-290, Vera-Mae Fredrickson reported the excavation of two small, painted pebbles of fine-grained sandstone, one with a single 4mm red band across it, the other with two. Frederickson was unable to find similar specimens elsewhere in central California, but did note similarities with pebbles excavated near Los Angeles. Comparison with other similar painted stones and shells suggested that they might have been used as gaming pieces or dice, or that the two designs might have been intended to symbolize male and female elements. Coles's research showed that the use of the island was stable over a long period, but not whether occupation there was year-round or seasonal. Kent Lightfoot of UC Berkeley is reanalyzing Coles's material to determine whether seasonal patterns can be identified; the latest carbon-14 date from the shellmound material is about 300 years ago, but it is possible that the island was used until the era of European contact.
The Richmond Museum of History acquired Coles's collection of Brooks Island artifacts following his death in 2015. Juan Manuel de Ayala conducted the first nautical survey of San Francisco Bay in 1775 and named the island Isla de Cármen. In the early 19th century, while California was a Spanish colony, it became part of Rancho San Pablo. However, Spanish records from that period do not mention any settlement on the island. By 1850, the island appears on a charts of the bay labeled Brooks Island, a name, formalized in the state legislature's definitive map of California in 1853. However, no record has been found as to. During the 19th century the island was called Sheep Island. One apocryphal story relates how a Croatian immigrant named Luccas Gargurevich who settled on the island in 1870 told his son Anton that "The man on Goat Island raised sheep, I raised goats, so I have named it Sheep Island." Despite this, Gargurevich seems unlikely to be the source for this alternative name as Sheep Island appears on an 1856 map.
In 1880, Gargurevich was joined on the island by his new wife Dominica, they had nine children while living there. To educate them, he hired a teacher who traveled from Oakland. After Dominica died in childbirth and his children left the island. Today, only a stone wall remains from the buildings of this period; as well as using the island to graze sheep and cattle in the 19th century, the nearshore waters were used for oyster farming. During the 1870s, the Central Pacific Railroad drew up plans to build a freight terminal on the island, but work was never begun; the first quarry opened on the southern flank of the island in 1892. Quarrying of the greywacke sandstone continued for 46 years until 1938, leading to another alternative name: Rocky Island; the quarrying operation continued in the early decades of the 20th century, with prisoners from San Quentin using the stone from this quarry to build the prison's south cell block. During World War I the U. S. Navy considered leveling Brooks Island to build a battleship dock.
By 1917, the Navy had determined that the existing Mare Island Naval Shipyard was suitable only for ships with a maximum draft of 30 feet, that a new yard should be developed in San Francisco Bay to cater for ships up to 40 feet in draft. Starting with a list of 17 localities around the bay, the Navy narrowed this to four: Hunters Point, Goat Island and Richmond–Albany; the navy considered four alternative plans
The loons or divers are a group of aquatic birds found in many parts of North America and northern Eurasia. All living species of loons are members of family Gaviidae and order Gaviiformes. Loons, which are the size of a large duck or a small goose, resemble these birds in shape when swimming. Like ducks and geese, but unlike coots and grebes, the loon's toes are connected by webbing; the loons may be confused with the cormorants, which are not too distant relatives of divers, like them are heavy-set birds whose bellies, unlike those of ducks and geese, are submerged when swimming. Loons in flight resemble plump geese with seagulls' wings that are small in proportion to their bulky bodies; the bird points its head upwards while swimming, but less so than cormorants. In flight, the head droops more than in similar aquatic birds. Male and female loons have identical plumage, patterned black-and-white in summer, with grey on the head and neck in some species. All have a white belly; this resembles many sea-ducks – notably the smaller goldeneyes – but is distinct from most cormorants, which have white feathers, if so as large rounded patches rather than delicate patterns.
All species of divers have a spear-shaped bill. Males are larger on average, but relative size is only apparent when the male and female are together. In winter, plumage is dark grey above, with some indistinct lighter mottling on the wings, a white chin and underside; the specific species can be distinguished by certain features, such as the size and colour of the head, neck and bill. But reliable identification of wintering divers is difficult for experts – as the smaller immature birds look similar to winter-plumage adults, making size an unreliable means of identification. Gaviiformes are among the few groups of birds in which the young moult into a second coat of down feathers after shedding the first one, rather than growing juvenile feathers with downy tips that wear off, as is typical in many birds; this trait is found in tubenoses and penguins, both relatives of the loons. Loons are excellent swimmers, using their feet to propel themselves under water. However, since their feet are located posteriorly on the body, loons have difficulty walking on land.
Thus, loons avoid coming to land, except when nesting or injured. Loons fly though they have high wing-loading, which complicates takeoff. Indeed, most species must run upwind across the water's surface with wings flapping to generate sufficient lift to take flight. Only the red-throated loon can take off from land. Once airborne, loons are capable of long flights during migration. Scientists from the U. S. Geological Survey, who have implanted satellite transmitters in some individuals, have recorded daily flights of up to 1078 km in a 24-hour period, which resulted from single movements. North European loons migrate via the South Baltic and directly over land to the Black Sea or Mediterranean. Loons can live as long as 30 years and can hold their breath for as long as 90 seconds while underwater. Loons find their prey by sight, they eat fish, supplemented with amphibians and similar mid-sized aquatic fauna. They have been noted to feed on crayfish, snails and leeches, they prefer clear lakes because they can more see their prey through the water.
The loon uses its pointy bill to grasp prey. They eat vertebrate prey headfirst to facilitate swallowing, swallow all their prey whole. To help digestion, loons swallow small pebbles from the bottoms of lakes. Similar to grit eaten by chickens, these gastroliths may assist the loon's gizzard in crushing the hard parts of the loon's food such as the exoskeletons of crustaceans and the bones of frogs and salamanders; the gastroliths may be involved in stomach cleaning as an aid to regurgitation of indigestible food parts. Loons may inadvertently ingest small lead pellets, released by anglers and hunters, that will contribute to lead poisoning and the loon's eventual death. Jurisdictions that have banned the use of lead shot and sinkers include but are not limited to Maine, New Hampshire, some areas of Massachusetts, Yellowstone National Park, Great Britain, Canada and Denmark. Loons nest during the summer on freshwater lakes and/or large ponds. Smaller bodies of water will only have one pair. Larger lakes may have more than one pair, with each pair occupying a section of the lake.
The red-throated loon, may nest colonially, several pairs close together, in small Arctic tarns and feed at sea or in larger lakes, ferrying the food in for the young. Loons mate on land on the future nest site, build their nests close to the water, preferring sites that are surrounded by water such as islands or emergent vegetation. Loons use a variety of materials to build their nests including aquatic vegetation, pine needles, grass and mud. Sometimes, nest material is lacking. Both male and female incubate jointly for 28 days. If the eggs are lost, the pair may re-nest in a different location. Since the nest is close to the water, rising water may induce the birds to move the nest upwards, over a meter. Despite the equal participation of the sexes in nest building and incubation, analysis has shown that males alone select the location of the nest; this pattern has the important consequence that male loons, but not females, establish significant si
A kayak is a small, narrow watercraft, propelled by means of a double-bladed paddle. The word kayak originates from the Greenlandic word qajaq; the traditional kayak has one or more cockpits, each seating one paddler. The cockpit is sometimes covered by a spray deck that prevents the entry of water from waves or spray, differentiating the craft from a canoe; the spray deck makes it possible for suitably skilled kayakers to roll the kayak: that is, to capsize and right it without it filling with water or ejecting the paddler. Some modern boats vary from a traditional design but still claim the title "kayak", for instance in eliminating the cockpit by seating the paddler on top of the boat. Kayaks are being sailed, as well as propelled by means of small electric motors, by outboard gas engines; the kayak was first used by the indigenous Aleut, Inuit and Ainu hunters in subarctic regions of the world. Kayaks were developed by the Inuit, Yup'ik, Aleut, they used the boats to hunt on inland lakes and coastal waters of the Arctic Ocean, North Atlantic, Bering Sea and North Pacific oceans.
These first kayaks were constructed from stitched seal or other animal skins stretched over a wood or whalebone-skeleton frame.. Kayaks are believed to be at least 4,000 years old; the oldest existing kayaks are exhibited in the North America department of the State Museum of Ethnology in Munich, with the oldest dating from 1577. Native people made many types of boat for different purposes; the Aleut baidarka was made in double or triple cockpit designs, for hunting and transporting passengers or goods. An umiak is a large open sea canoe, ranging from 17 to 30 feet, made with wood, it is considered a kayak although it was paddled with single-bladed paddles, had more than one paddler. Native builders designed and built their boats based on their own experience and that of the generations before them, passed on through oral tradition; the word "kayak" means "man's boat" or "hunter's boat", native kayaks were a personal craft, each built by the man who used it—with assistance from his wife, who sewed the skins—and fitting his size for maximum maneuverability.
The paddler wore a tuilik, a garment, stretched over the rim of the kayak coaming, sealed with drawstrings at the coaming and hood edges. This enabled the "eskimo roll" and rescue to become the preferred methods of recovery after capsizing as few Inuit could swim. Instead of a tuilik, most traditional kayakers today use a spray deck made of waterproof synthetic material stretchy enough to fit around the cockpit rim and body of the kayaker, which can be released from the cockpit to permit easy exit. Inuit kayak builders had specific measurements for their boats; the length was three times the span of his outstretched arms. The width at the cockpit was the width of the builder's hips plus two fists; the typical depth was his fist plus the outstretched thumb. Thus typical dimensions were about 17 feet long by 20–22 inches wide by 7 inches deep; this measurement system confounded early European explorers who tried to duplicate the kayak, because each kayak was a little different. Traditional kayaks encompass three types: Baidarkas, from the Bering sea & Aleutian islands, the oldest design, whose rounded shape and numerous chines give them an Blimp-like appearance.
Most of the Aleut people in the Aleutian Islands eastward to Greenland Inuit relied on the kayak for hunting a variety of prey—primarily seals, though whales and caribou were important in some areas. Skin-on-frame kayaks are still being used for hunting by Inuit people in Greenland, because the smooth and flexible skin glides silently through the waves. In other parts of the world home builders are continuing the tradition of skin on frame kayaks with modern skins of canvas or synthetic fabric, such as sc. ballistic nylon. Contemporary traditional-style kayaks trace their origins to the native boats of Alaska, northern Canada, Southwest Greenland. Wooden kayaks and fabric kayaks on wooden frames dominated the market up until the 1950s, when fiberglass boats were first introduced in the US, inflatable rubberized fabric boats were first introduced in Europe. Rotomolded plastic kayaks first appeared in 1973, most kayaks today are made from roto-molded polyethylene resins; the development of plastic and rubberized inflatable kayaks arguably initiated the development of freestyle kayaking as we see it today, since these boats could be made smaller and more resilient than fiberglass boats.
Kayak design is a matter of trade-offs: directional stability vs maneuverability. Multihull kayaks face a different set of trade-offs; the paddler's body shap