A normal route or normal way is the most used route for ascending and descending a mountain peak. It is the simplest route. In the Alps, routes are classed in the following ways, based on their waymarking and upkeep: Footpaths Hiking trails Mountain trails Alpine routes Climbing routes and High Alpine routes in combined rock and ice terrain, graded by difficultySometimes the normal route is not the easiest ascent to the summit, but just the one, most used. There may be technically easier variations; this is the case on the Watzmannfrau, the Hochkalter and Mount Everest. There may be many reasons these easier options are less well-used: the simplest route is less well known than the normal route; the technically easiest route is more arduous than another and is therefore used on the descent. The technically easiest route carries a much higher risk of e.g. rockfalls or avalanche and is therefore avoided in favour of a more difficult route. The technically easier route requires a complicated or long approach march, or all access may be banned via one country.
The term tourist route may sometimes be applied by those wishing to suggest that other routes up a mountain are somehow more "worthy". This belittling of the "normal route" therefore maintains a distinction between those perceiving themselves as serious mountaineers who disparage the incursion of tourist climbers into their domain
In mountaineering, a first ascent is the first successful, documented attainment of the top of a mountain, or the first to follow a particular climbing route. First mountain ascents are notable because they entail genuine exploration, with greater risks and recognition than climbing a route pioneered by others; the person who performs the first ascent is called the first ascensionist. In free climbing, a first ascent of a climbing route is the first successful, documented climb of a route without using equipment such as anchors or ropes for aiding progression or resting; the details of the first ascents of many prominent mountains are scanty or unknown. Today, first ascents are carefully recorded and mentioned in guidebooks. Overwhelmingly, the idea of a "first ascent" is a modern one in places such as Africa and the Americas with a history of colonialism. There may be little or no physical evidence or documentation about the climbing activities of indigenous peoples living near the mountain.
For example, the volcano Llullaillaco on the border of Argentina and Chile is known to have been climbed in the prehistoric period due to the presence of Incan artifacts at the summit, yet credit for the first recorded ascent is given to Chilean climbers Bión González and Juan Harseim, who summited in 1952. The term is used when referring to ascents made using a specific technique or taking a specific route, such as via the North Face, without ropes or without oxygen. In rock climbing, some of the earlier first ascents for difficult routes, involved a mix of free and aid climbing; as a result, purist free climbers have developed the designation first free ascent to acknowledge ascents intentionally made more challenging by using equipment for protection only. Second ascents are noteworthy in climbing circles involving improving on a pioneering route through lessons learned from it, experience which may span from technical improvements to having a better understanding of how much gear and provisions to take.
Some other "first ascents" could be recorded for particular routes. One is the First Winter Ascent, which is, as the name suggests, the first ascent made during winter season; this is most important where the climate of winter is a factor in increasing the difficulty grade of the route. In the Northern Hemisphere conventional winter ascents are made between December 21 and March 21 and are not related to the conditions. In the Himalayan area, although Nepal and China's winter season permits start on December 1, the conventional winter ascents begin on December 21. Another is the First Solo Ascent, the first ascent made by a single climber; this is most important on high-level rock climbing, when the climber has to provide his own security or when climbing without any protection at all. Another type of ascent known as FFA is the first female ascent. While not considered as important, this designation remains significant on some difficult, limit-pushing climbs, where the first female ascent may not happen until well after the FA, due to possible difficulties encountered by female physicality.
The term last ascent has been used to refer to an ascent of a mountain or face that has subsequently changed to such an extent – because of rockfall – that the route no longer exists. It can be used facetiously to refer to a climb, so unpleasant or unaesthetic that no one would willingly repeat the first ascent party's ordeal. List of first ascents Notable first free ascents List of first ascents in the Alps List of first ascents in the Himalaya Glossary of climbing terms Alpinist Magazine – Peter Mortimer's First Ascent, Issue 17
Mount Bishop (Fannin Range)
Mount Bishop is a mountain located on the northern border of Mount Seymour Provincial Park in the District of North Vancouver, British Columbia. It is a part of the North Shore Mountains, rising from the shores of Indian Arm to a summit of 1,509 metres. Mount Bishop is a rocky summit with old growth on its lower slopes; the mountain was named in honour of Joseph Charles Bishop, the first president of the British Columbia Mountaineering Club, who died in 1913 after falling into a crevasse whilst climbing on Mount Baker. The first ascent of Mount Bishop was made in 1909 by a party of climbers from the British Columbia Mountaineering Club led by Fred Mills; the mountain was approached by boat to the top of Indian Arm, opposite Crocker Island, where the group camped overnight. In the morning they broke into two groups, the others climbing Mount Elsay and headed up Bishop Creek. Among the Bishop party was a Mr Cromie, former owner of the Vancouver News-Advertiser. Upon reaching the summits of the two mountains at about 9.30am, the two parties of climbers called to each other.
Although Mount Bishop is close to Vancouver, it is climbed. Hikers now approach this mountain from either the BCMC trail on the west shoulder of Mount Elsay, or the North Shore Rescue trail which runs up from the East side of the Seymour Dam. Both these trails bring one to Vicar Lake a steep climb brings the hiker up the west ridge of the mountain to the peak; the Peak is flanked by Mount Dickens on the North, with Elsay Lake and Mount Elsay to the South. This should be approached only with caution and experience. West Trail West Trail description on Club Tread website South Trail South Trail on Club Tread Archives Website of the North Vancouver Archives BCMC Website of the British Columbia Mountaineering Club Mount Bishop hiking route description Website of the Outdoor Vancouver
The Bendor Range is a small but once-famous subrange of the Pacific Ranges of the Coast Mountains, about It is 7,000 square kilometres in area and about 40 km long and about 18 km at its widest. It lies between Anderson Lake on the southeast and the Carpenter Lake Reservoir or the Bridge River Power Project on the north, with the gold-rich valley of Cadwallader Creek on its southwest; the range's western flank is the site of a series of now-semi-abandoned mining towns. One of these, Bralorne, is among the deepest mines in Canada and in its heyday was the third-richest gold mine in the world, its shafts plunge a mile beneath sea level under the range. The name "Bendor" is believed by some locally to be a Gaelic-French hybrid - ben d'or - mountain of gold - and while it does mean that, more or less, the name was conferred in honour of Bend Or, a famous racehorse of the 1890s; the range has only a few small icefields, but a number of high and difficult peaks. The highest is Whitecap Mountain 2918 m, visible from the Lillooet end of Seton Lake but, as it is located near the heart of the range, invisible from the towns and lakes around its perimeter.
At the northwest of the range, but invisible from the towns below because of the terrain of its flanks, is Mount Truax 2870 m. East of it are Mount Williams 2775 m and Mount Bobb 2821 m. Note: some classification systems assign the Bendor to the Chilcotin Ranges subgrouping of the Pacific Ranges, but this is incorrect as it is on the south side of the Bridge River, the limit of the Chilcotin Ranges. "Bendor Range". BC Geographical Names. Bridge River-Lillooet Country Archive Bendor Range entry in the Canadian Mountain Encyclopedia
North Vancouver (district municipality)
The District of North Vancouver is a district municipality in British Columbia, is part of Metro Vancouver. It surrounds the City of North Vancouver on three sides; as of 2016, the District stands as the second wealthiest city in Canada, with neighbouring West Vancouver the richest. The municipality is characterized as being a quiet, affluent suburban hub home to many middle and upper-middle-class families. Homes in the District range from mid-sized family bungalows to large luxury houses; some developments have popped up across the district in recent years, however the District remains a suburban municipality. The District is served by the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, British Columbia Ambulance Service, the District of North Vancouver Fire Department. For thousands of years, the Indigenous Squamish and their kin Tsleil-Waututh, of the Coast Salish, resided in the land known as North Vancouver. Over 200 years ago, the people of the Squamish and Tsleil-Waututh living on the North Shore had their first glimpse of Europeans.
First the Spanish arrived, giving their name to Vancouver's Spanish Banks and, in 1792, Captain George Vancouver explored the local shores. But it was not until 1862 that the first attempt was made to harvest the North Shore's rich stands of timber, leading to fuller settlement of the area that would become North Vancouver; the first industry on the North Shore was Pioneer Mills, founded in 1862 to log the huge trees of the coastal rainforest. After twice changing hands, the operation was bought by Sewell Prescott Moody in 1865. Near where the Saskatchewan Wheat Pool grain elevators now stand, the town of Moodyville grew up and stood as the main centre of activity on the North Shore until the mill closed in 1901; the first school was established in Moodyville. The second, Central School, opened in 1902 in a building that still stands as part of what is now Presentation House at 3rd Street and Chesterfield Avenue, the current home of the North Vancouver Museum and Archives. In 1891, the first municipality on the North Shore was formed as the District of North Vancouver.
It stretched across the North Shore from Horseshoe Bay to Deep omitted Moodyville. In the early years of the 20th century, a real estate boom took place, with speculators – including the British poet Rudyard Kipling – eager to turn a quick dollar. A new community began to take shape. In 1902, the Hotel North Vancouver was built. A newspaper, the Express, commenced publication in 1905 and in 1906 the British Columbia Electric Railway began streetcar service. Industry shipbuilding, became central, with the magnificent stands of trees a rich resource for a society in which ships and most other manmade things were constructed of wood; the Wallace Shipyards moved in 1906 to the area just east of Lonsdale Avenue, drawn by the arrival of electricity. Over the years, this company known as Burrard Dry Dock and Versatile Pacific Shipyards, became a major force in the local economy. Many of the shipyard's buildings still stand. Economic prosperity and rapid growth in the Lower Lonsdale area of North Vancouver led to the establishment in 1907 of the separate City of North Vancouver, with a population of 1,500.
West Vancouver separated from the District in 1912. Apart from the addition of Moodyville in 1915, the boundaries of the City have not changed though far more people now call the District home. Communications with Vancouver have always been an important factor in the development of the North Shore; the first ferry service was supplied by "Navvy Jack’s" rowboat in 1866. In 1867, the Sea Foam established regular ferry service that continued until 1958; the SeaBus re-established water transportation in 1977. Rail service was slower in developing. While the Pacific Great Eastern Railway inaugurated a 12.7-mile run from North Vancouver to Whytecliff Park in 1914, it was not until the completion of the first Second Narrows Bridge in 1925 that rail and road links with the Lower Mainland supplemented the local ferry service. Early plans for North Vancouver were ambitious; the City as a communications hub and industrial centre was surrounded by the more rural District, both municipalities in a magnificent geographical setting that appeared to open endless possibilities.
But early grandiose plans met with a number of setbacks. The real estate boom was overtaken by a worldwide depression in 1913 and World War I delayed many projects; the depression that began in 1929, coupled with disruptions to communications over the Second Narrows caused by ships colliding with the bridge, led to economic difficulties and severe tax shortfalls. Both the City and the District were placed in receivership in 1933, but the opening of the second road crossing, the Lions' Gate Bridge in 1938 was a significant factor in making the North Shore more accessible. And the war years led to an economic revival of North Vancouver because of the many ships built in the Burrard Dry Dock at the foot of Lonsdale for the Canadian war effort. In the postwar years, the City and the District of North Vancouver boomed, with most of the growth taking place in the District because of its greater land resources; the District of North Vancouver is separated from Vancouver by the Burrard Inlet. It can be accessed by the Lions' Gate Bridge, the Ironworkers Memorial Second Narrows Crossing, the SeaBus passenger ferry.
The District is bounded by the Capilano River to the west, Indian Arm to the east, Burrard Inlet to the south, the Coast Mountains to the north
Mount Alfred is a mountain located at the Queen Reach arm and head of the Jervis Inlet within the Pacific Ranges of the Coast Mountains in British Columbia, Canada. The mountain is the highest in the portion of the mainland between Jervis and Toba Inlets, with its 1,318 metres prominence defined by the pass at the head of the Skwawka River, which feeds the head of Jervis Inlet; the unofficially-named Alfred Creek Falls, on Alfred Creek which drains off the mountain's glaciers southeast into the Skwawka, is one of Canada's highest waterfalls at 700 metres. The mountain was named during the 1860 survey by HMS Plumper who charted all of the area and was named after Alfred Edward "Affie", the third child and second son of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert of England, and, Duke of Edinburgh from his birth in 1844 until his death in 1900; the first ascent of Mount Alfred was made in 1929 by Arthur Tinniswood Dalton and Percy Williams Easthope. Mount Alfred Gallery CM_C2308 Fraser River to N. E. Pt. of Texada Island including Howe Sound and Jervis Inlet'Annotated' 1863.02.16 1865.08 Detail Map of Mt. Alfred from the 1860 Survey Map of the Jervis Inlet and Mt. Alfred
British Columbia is the westernmost province of Canada, located between the Pacific Ocean and the Rocky Mountains. With an estimated population of 5.016 million as of 2018, it is Canada's third-most populous province. The first British settlement in the area was Fort Victoria, established in 1843, which gave rise to the City of Victoria, at first the capital of the separate Colony of Vancouver Island. Subsequently, on the mainland, the Colony of British Columbia was founded by Richard Clement Moody and the Royal Engineers, Columbia Detachment, in response to the Fraser Canyon Gold Rush. Moody was Chief Commissioner of Lands and Works for the Colony and the first Lieutenant Governor of British Columbia: he was hand-picked by the Colonial Office in London to transform British Columbia into the British Empire's "bulwark in the farthest west", "to found a second England on the shores of the Pacific". Moody selected the site for and founded the original capital of British Columbia, New Westminster, established the Cariboo Road and Stanley Park, designed the first version of the Coat of arms of British Columbia.
Port Moody is named after him. In 1866, Vancouver Island became part of the colony of British Columbia, Victoria became the united colony's capital. In 1871, British Columbia became the sixth province of Canada, its Latin motto is Splendor sine occasu. The capital of British Columbia remains Victoria, the fifteenth-largest metropolitan region in Canada, named for Queen Victoria, who ruled during the creation of the original colonies; the largest city is Vancouver, the third-largest metropolitan area in Canada, the largest in Western Canada, the second-largest in the Pacific Northwest. In October 2013, British Columbia had an estimated population of 4,606,371; the province is governed by the British Columbia New Democratic Party, led by John Horgan, in a minority government with the confidence and supply of the Green Party of British Columbia. Horgan became premier as a result of a no-confidence motion on June 29, 2017. British Columbia evolved from British possessions that were established in what is now British Columbia by 1871.
First Nations, the original inhabitants of the land, have a history of at least 10,000 years in the area. Today there are few treaties, the question of Aboriginal Title, long ignored, has become a legal and political question of frequent debate as a result of recent court actions. Notably, the Tsilhqot'in Nation has established Aboriginal title to a portion of their territory, as a result of the 2014 Supreme Court of Canada decision in Tsilhqot'in Nation v British Columbia; the province's name was chosen by Queen Victoria, when the Colony of British Columbia, i.e. "the Mainland", became a British colony in 1858. It refers to the Columbia District, the British name for the territory drained by the Columbia River, in southeastern British Columbia, the namesake of the pre-Oregon Treaty Columbia Department of the Hudson's Bay Company. Queen Victoria chose British Columbia to distinguish what was the British sector of the Columbia District from the United States, which became the Oregon Territory on August 8, 1848, as a result of the treaty.
The Columbia in the name British Columbia is derived from the name of the Columbia Rediviva, an American ship which lent its name to the Columbia River and the wider region. British Columbia is bordered to the west by the Pacific Ocean and the American state of Alaska, to the north by Yukon Territory and the Northwest Territories, to the east by the province of Alberta, to the south by the American states of Washington and Montana; the southern border of British Columbia was established by the 1846 Oregon Treaty, although its history is tied with lands as far south as California. British Columbia's land area is 944,735 square kilometres. British Columbia's rugged coastline stretches for more than 27,000 kilometres, includes deep, mountainous fjords and about 6,000 islands, most of which are uninhabited, it is the only province in Canada. British Columbia's capital is Victoria, located at the southeastern tip of Vancouver Island. Only a narrow strip of Vancouver Island, from Campbell River to Victoria, is populated.
Much of the western part of Vancouver Island and the rest of the coast is covered by temperate rainforest. The province's most populous city is Vancouver, at the confluence of the Fraser River and Georgia Strait, in the mainland's southwest corner. By land area, Abbotsford is the largest city. Vanderhoof is near the geographic centre of the province; the Coast Mountains and the Inside Passage's many inlets provide some of British Columbia's renowned and spectacular scenery, which forms the backdrop and context for a growing outdoor adventure and ecotourism industry. 75% of the province is mountainous. The province's mainland away from the coastal regions is somewhat moderated by the Pacific Ocean. Terrain ranges from dry inland forests and semi-arid valleys, to the range and canyon districts of the Central and Southern Interior, to boreal forest and subarctic prairie in the Northern Interior. High mountain regions both north and south subalpine climate; the Okanagan area, extending from Vernon to Osoyoos at the United States border, is one of several wine and cider-produci