A landmark is a recognizable natural or artificial feature used for navigation, a feature that stands out from its near environment and is often visible from long distances. In modern use, the term can be applied to structures or features. In old English the word landmearc was used to describe a set up to mark the boundaries of a kingdom, estate. 1560, this understanding of landmark was replaced by a general one. A landmark became an object in a landscape. A landmark literally meant a geographic feature used by explorers and others to find their way back or through an area. For example, the Table Mountain near Cape Town, South Africa is used as the landmark to sailors to navigate around southern tip of Africa during the Age of Exploration. Artificial structures are sometimes built to assist sailors in naval navigation. The Lighthouse of Alexandria and Colossus of Rhodes are ancient structures built to lead ships to the port, in modern usage, a landmark includes anything that is easily recognizable, such as a monument, building, or other structure.
In American English it is the term used to designate places that might be of interest to tourists due to notable physical features or historical significance. Landmarks in the British English sense are often used for casual navigation and this is done in American English as well. In urban studies as well as in geography, a landmark is furthermore defined as a point of reference that helps orienting in a familiar or unfamiliar environment. Landmarks are often used in verbal route instructions and as such an object of study by linguists as well as in fields of study. Landmarks are usually classified as either natural landmarks or man-made landmarks, a variant is a seamark or daymark, a structure usually built intentionally to aid sailors navigating featureless coasts. Natural landmarks can be characteristic features, such as mountains or plateaus, examples of natural landmarks are Table Mountain in South Africa, Mount Ararat in Turkey, Uluru in Australia, Mount Fuji in Japan and Grand Canyon in the United States.
Trees might serve as landmarks, such as jubilee oaks or conifers. Some landmark trees may be nicknamed, examples being Queens Oak, church spires and mosques minarets are often very tall and visible from many miles around, thus often serve as built landmarks. Also town hall towers and belfries often have a landmark character, cultural heritage management National landmark National symbol Media related to Landmarks at Wikimedia Commons
Barack Hussein Obama II is an American politician who served as the 44th President of the United States from 2009 to 2017. He is the first African American to have served as president and he previously served in the U. S. Senate representing Illinois from 2005 to 2008, and in the Illinois State Senate from 1997 to 2004. Obama was born in Honolulu, two years after the territory was admitted to the Union as the 50th state and he grew up mostly in Hawaii, but spent one year of his childhood in Washington State and four years in Indonesia. After graduating from Columbia University in 1983, he worked as a community organizer in Chicago, in 1988 Obama enrolled in Harvard Law School, where he was the first black president of the Harvard Law Review. After graduation, he became a civil rights attorney and professor, Obama represented the 13th District for three terms in the Illinois Senate from 1997 to 2004, when he ran for the U. S. Senate. In 2008, Obama was nominated for president, a year after his campaign began and he was elected over Republican John McCain, and was inaugurated on January 20,2009.
Nine months later, Obama was named the 2009 Nobel Peace Prize laureate, during his first two years in office, Obama signed more landmark legislation than any Democratic president since LBJs Great Society. Main reforms were the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, the Dodd–Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act, after a lengthy debate over the national debt limit, Obama signed the Budget Control and the American Taxpayer Relief Acts. In foreign policy, Obama increased U. S. troop levels in Afghanistan, reduced nuclear weapons with the U. S. -Russian New START treaty, and ended military involvement in the Iraq War. He ordered military involvement in Libya in opposition to Muammar Gaddafi, after winning re-election over Mitt Romney, Obama was sworn in for a second term in 2013. Obama advocated gun control in response to the Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting, and issued wide-ranging executive actions concerning climate change and immigration. In foreign policy, Obama ordered military intervention in Iraq in response to gains made by ISIL after the 2011 withdrawal from Iraq, Obama left office in January 2017 with a 60% approval rating.
He currently resides in Washington, D. C and his presidential library will be built in Chicago. Obama was born on August 4,1961, at Kapiʻolani Maternity & Gynecological Hospital in Honolulu and he is the only President to have been born in Hawaii. He was born to a mother and a black father. His mother, Ann Dunham, was born in Wichita, Kansas, of mostly English descent, with some German, Scottish and his father, Barack Obama Sr. was a married Luo Kenyan man from Nyangoma Kogelo. Obamas parents met in 1960 in a Russian language class at the University of Hawaii at Manoa, the couple married in Wailuku, Hawaii on February 2,1961, six months before Obama was born. In late August 1961, Obamas mother moved him to the University of Washington in Seattle for a year
Deepak Chopra is an American author, public speaker, alternative medicine advocate, and a prominent figure in the New Age movement. Through his books and videos, he has one of the best-known. Chopra studied medicine in India before emigrating to the United States in 1970 where he completed residencies in internal medicine, as a licensed physician, he became chief of staff at the New England Memorial Hospital in 1980. He met Maharishi Mahesh Yogi in 1985 and became involved with the Transcendental Meditation movement and he resigned his position at NEMH shortly thereafter to establish the Maharishi Ayurveda Health Center. Chopra gained a following in 1993 after his interview on the The Oprah Winfrey Show regarding his books and he left the TM movement to become the executive director of Sharp HealthCares Center for Mind-Body Medicine and in 1996 he co-founded the Chopra Center for Wellbeing. Chopra believes that a person may attain perfect health, a condition that is free from disease, that never feels pain, and he claims that his practices can treat chronic disease.
As of 2014, Deepak Chopra lived in a condominium in Manhattan. The ideas Chopra promotes have been criticized by medical and scientific professionals as pseudoscience. This criticism has been described as ranging from dismissive damning, for example, Robert Carroll states Chopra attempts to integrate Ayurveda with quantum mechanics to justify his teachings. Chopra argues that what he calls quantum healing cures any manner of ailments, including cancer and this has led physicists to object to his use of the term quantum in reference to medical conditions and the human body. His treatments benefit from the response, and some argue that his claims for the effectiveness of alternative medicine can lure sick people away from medical treatments. He is placed by David Gorski among the quacks and purveyors of woo, Richard Dawkins publicly exposed Chopra, accusing him of using quantum jargon as plausible-sounding hocus pocus. Chopra was born in New Delhi, India, to Krishan Lal Chopra and his paternal grandfather was a sergeant in the British Indian Army.
As of 2014 Chopras younger brother, Sanjiv Chopra, is a professor of medicine at Harvard Medical School, Chopra completed his primary education at St. Columbas School in New Delhi and graduated from the All India Institute of Medical Sciences in 1969. He spent his first months as a doctor working in rural India, including, he writes and it was during his early career that he was drawn to study endocrinology, particularly neuroendocrinology, to find a biological basis for the influence of thoughts and emotions. He married in India in 1970 before emigrating with his wife that year to the United States, the Indian government had banned its doctors from sitting the American Medical Association exam needed to practice in the USA, so Chopra had to travel to Sri Lanka to take it. He earned his license to practice medicine in the state of Massachusetts in 1973, becoming certified in internal medicine. While visiting New Delhi in 1981, he met the physician Brihaspati Dev Triguna, head of the Indian Council for Ayurvedic Medicine, Chopra was drinking black coffee by the hour and smoking at least a pack of cigarettes a day
Alexander Comfort was a British scientist and physician known best for his nonfiction sex manual, The Joy of Sex. He was an author of fiction and nonfiction, as well as a gerontologist, anarchist and conscientious objector. Comfort was educated at Highgate School in London, while a student there, he attempted to develop a superior concoction of gunpowder. During his experiments he inadvertently exploded his left hand, of only the thumb remained. This story is used as evidence of his single-mindedness, all in all, he accrued six degrees. Comfort had a passion for molluscs and joined the Conchological Society of Great Britain & Ireland when he was eighteen years old, Comfort served as a House Physician for the London Hospital and became a lecturer in physiology at the London Hospital Medical College. During 1945 he obtained the Conjoint Boards Diploma in Child Health, and progressed to a PhD during 1950, a pacifist, Comfort considered himself an aggressive anti-militarist, and he believed that pacifism rested solely upon the historical theory of anarchism.
During World War Two, Comfort wrote a letter to the Tribune magazine denouncing the Allied bombing of civilians and it is the work of bloodthirsty fools. Night after night those Europeans who risk their liberty to listen can hear the emetic threatenings and boastings of bloody-minded and he was an active member of the Peace Pledge Union and Campaign for Nuclear Disarmament, and a conscientious objector in World War II. During 1951 Comfort was a signatory of the Authors World Peace Appeal, among the publications by Comfort concerning anarchism is Peace and Disobedience, one of many pamphlets he wrote for Peace News and PPU, and Authority and Delinquency in the Modern State. He exchanged public correspondence with George Orwell defending pacifism in the open letter/poem, Letter to an American Visitor, Comforts book The Joy of Sex earned him worldwide fame and $3 million. But he was unhappy to become known as Dr. Sex, Comfort devoted much of the 1950s and 1960s studying the biology of ageing and popularised the subject.
He could be termed an early biomedical gerontologist on the basis of his opinion that science could extend human lifespan, during 1969 he suggested that life expectancy could be extended to 120 years of age within the next 20 years. Although Comfort believed that ageing could be postponed, he did not believe that it could be eliminated, one of Comforts final letters was to The Guardian during 1989, protesting against the Thatcher governments introduction of the poll tax. The Joy of Sex made Comfort known internationally as Dr. Sex and soon thereafter he, a few months later, during 1973, Comfort married his mistress Jane Henderson, with whom he had been having an affair for more than a decade. The Center for the Study of Democratic Institutions, a research institute, offered Comfort a job, and so, during 1973, the couple relocated to Santa Barbara, California. They frequented the Sandstone Retreat, a community in California espousing open sexuality. Jane Henderson, eventually tired of the open love community
His Little Women is a novel written by Judith Rossner. Published in 1990, His Little Women was the first book that Rossner published after her critically acclaimed novel, the story is narrated by Nell Pearlstein Berman, daughter of the legendary movie producer, Sam Pearlstein. Nell is Sams second daughter, Sam left his first wife and daughter, Louisa, to marry Violet, the book opens as fifteen-year-old Nell describes her life. Her parents have been divorced for nearly four years—Sam having left Violet, Nell has not seen or spoken to Sam in all that time. Nell lives in Beverly Hills with her mother and stepfather, after initially ignoring Tony, Nell bonds with him, listening to opera records with him. When Tony dies unexpectedly, Sam re-enters Nells life, even agreeing to escort Violet to the funeral, at the funeral, Nell is approached by Louisa, her New York-born half-sister, whom she has never met before. She agrees to take a ride with the woman and the two sisters get acquainted. After the funeral, Nell moves in with her father, Louisa escorts Nell to the reading of Tonys will in which he deeds his record player and opera records to Nell.
It is there that she meets Tonys daughters and their husbands for the first time, whom Sam cant stand, becomes a frequent visitor at his house. She spends most her time talking to Nell—the only person in the family that will tolerate her, after a particularly tense visit, Sam demands that Louisa leave the house. Nell feels bad about what happened so she agrees to visit Louisa at her house, who works for a soft-core porn magazine that Sam owns, lives in the old magazine headquarters. She suggests a visit to the I-Land, an island getaway modeled after the Playboy Mansion, while Louisa is busy talking with the operator of the I-Land, Nell wanders around. While strolling around the pool, she sees a man who looks like Jack Campbell, although she isnt sure, she thinks that he is having sex with one of the many women who are partying at the mansion that night. She leaves hurriedly and mentions what she saw to Louisa, Nell graduates from high school and goes to Barnard College. She meets Saul Berman, a Columbia student from Atlanta who is active in the Students for a Democratic Society, the two fall in love, attend law school together, and get married.
The couple moves to Atlanta to be closer to his family, the marriage falls apart in a few years. Nell, who was never an observant Jew, has a difficult time fitting in with Sauls family and she is unable to find work as a lawyer and is not interested in having children. The couple divorces and Nell returns to New York, not too long after landing in New York, Nell learns that Louisa, who has abandoned a five-year-old son at the beginning of the novel, has had another baby, a girl she named Penelope
George W. Bush
George Walker Bush is an American politician who served as the 43rd President of the United States from 2001 to 2009. He was the 46th Governor of Texas from 1995 to 2000 and he is the eldest son of Barbara and George H. W. Bush. After graduating from Yale University in 1968 and Harvard Business School in 1975, Bush married Laura Welch in 1977 and ran unsuccessfully for the House of Representatives shortly thereafter. He co-owned the Texas Rangers baseball team before defeating Ann Richards in the 1994 Texas gubernatorial election and he is the second president to assume the nations highest office after his father, following the lead of John Quincy Adams. He is a brother of Jeb Bush, a former Governor of Florida who was a candidate for the Republican presidential nomination in the 2016 presidential election, the September 11 terrorist attacks occurred eight months into Bushs first term as president. Bush responded with what became known as the Bush Doctrine, launching a War on Terror, a military campaign that included the war in Afghanistan in 2001.
He promoted policies on the economy, health care, Social Security reform and his tenure included national debates on immigration, Social Security, electronic surveillance, and torture. In the 2004 Presidential race, Bush defeated Democratic Senator John Kerry in another close election. After his re-election, Bush received increasingly heated criticism from across the spectrum for his handling of the Iraq War, Hurricane Katrina. Amid this criticism, the Democratic Party regained control of Congress in the 2006 elections, Bush left office in 2009, returning to Texas where he purchased a home in Crawford. He wrote a memoir, Decision Points and his presidential library was opened in 2013. His presidency has been ranked among the worst in historians polls published in the late 2000s and 2010s. George Walker Bush was born on July 6,1946, at Grace-New Haven Hospital in New Haven, Connecticut, as the first child of George Herbert Walker Bush and his wife, the former Barbara Pierce. He was raised in Midland and Houston, with four siblings, Neil, another younger sister, died from leukemia at the age of three in 1953.
His grandfather, Prescott Bush, was a U. S and his father, George H. W. Bush, was Ronald Reagans Vice President from 1981 to 1989 and the 41st U. S. President from 1989 to 1993. Bush has English and some German ancestry, along with more distant Dutch, Irish, Bush attended public schools in Midland, until the family moved to Houston after he had completed seventh grade. He spent two years at The Kinkaid School, a school in Houston. Bush attended high school at Phillips Academy, a school in Andover, Massachusetts
Giada De Laurentiis
Giada Pamela De Laurentiis is an Italian-born American chef, television personality, and the host of the current Food Network television program Giada at Home. She appears regularly as a contributor and guest co-host on NBCs Today, De Laurentiis is the founder of the catering business GDL Foods. She is a winner of the Daytime Emmy Award for Outstanding Lifestyle Host, Giada Pamela De Laurentiis was born in Rome, the eldest child of actress Veronica De Laurentiis and her first husband, actor-producer Alex De Benedetti. De Benedetti was an associate of Giadas maternal grandfather, film producer Dino De Laurentiis. As a child, Giada often found herself in the kitchen and spent a great deal of time at her grandfathers restaurant. Her parents were married in February 1970 but were divorced, after her parents divorce and her siblings moved to Southern California where they took their mothers surname. After graduating from Marymount High School in Los Angeles, De Laurentiis attended the University of California, Los Angeles and her maternal great-grandmother was English and her grandmother was British-Italian film star Silvana Mangano.
Her siblings include sister Eloisa, a makeup artist, and brothers Igor and Dino Alexander II and her stepfather is producer Ivan Kavalsky. De Laurentiis studied at Le Cordon Bleu in Paris, with aspirations of becoming a pastry chef, after returning to the United States, she became a professional chef working in several Los Angeles restaurants, notably the Wolfgang Puck-owned Spago. She worked as a food stylist and was contacted by the Food Network after styling a piece in Food & Wine Magazine in 2002 and her Food Network daytime cooking show, Everyday Italian, premiered April 5,2003. When the program first aired, the Food Network received mail accusing the network of hiring a model or actress pretending to cook instead of a real chef and she has since become well known for her trademark over-enunciation of Italian words within English sentences. De Laurentiis began hosting Behind the Bash in October 2006, the program examines the catering process behind big event extravaganzas such as the Grammy Awards.
In January 2007, a third De Laurentiis-hosted show, Giadas Weekend Getaways, on this show, De Laurentiis travels to a featured locale and visits her favorite local culinary destinations. On a November 2006 episode of Iron Chef America, De Laurentiis and Bobby Flay competed against, in 2007, De Laurentiis appeared as a presenter at the inaugural Food Network Awards. In June 2007, she hosted a two-part Food Network special entitled Giada in Paradise, De Laurentiis made several appearances as a guest judge on the third season of The Next Food Network Star, which aired in 2007. That year she was dubbed a petite powerhouse by Town & Country magazine, in 2008, she won a Daytime Emmy Award for Outstanding Lifestyle Host. In 2008, De Laurentiis and the Barilla Group, launched an Italian gourmet line under the Academia Barilla name—Barillas first-ever gourmet celebrity product line and that same year, Giada at Home premiered, showing De Laurentiis in a kitchen preparing meals and parties for family and friends.
The show is shot on a set that is similar to her own home
Gillian Schieber Flynn is an American author, comic book writer and former television critic for Entertainment Weekly. Flynns three published novels are the thrillers Sharp Objects, Dark Places, and Gone Girl, the last of which she adapted for the screen in the 2014 film of the same name directed by David Fincher. Flynn was born in Kansas City and raised in midtown Kansas Citys Coleman Highlands neighborhood and she has an older brother, who is a railroad machinist. Her uncle is Jackson County Circuit Court Judge Robert Schieber, Flynn was painfully shy and found escape in reading and writing. Growing up, Flynns father would take her to horror movies. Flynn attended Bishop Miege High School and graduated in 1989, as a teenager, she worked odd jobs which required her to do things such as dress up as a giant yogurt cone who wore a tuxedo. She attended the University of Kansas, where she received her undergraduate degrees in English, Flynn initially wanted to work as a police reporter, but she chose to focus on her own writing, as she discovered she had no aptitude for police reporting.
After graduating from Northwestern, Flynn worked freelance briefly at U. S. News & World Report before being hired as a writer in 1998 at Entertainment Weekly. She was promoted to television critic and wrote about films but was laid off in December 2008 and she attributes her craft to her 15-some years in journalism. She said, I could not have written a novel if I hadnt been a journalist first, because it taught me that theres no muse thats going to come down, some critics have accused Flynn of misogyny due to the often unflattering depiction of female characters in her books. She feels that feminism allows for women to be bad characters in literature and she states, The one thing that really frustrates me is this idea that women are innately good, innately nurturing. Flynn said people will dismiss trampy, bitchy types – but theres still a big pushback against the idea that women can be just pragmatically evil and selfish. In 2015, Flynn explained her decision to write female characters, Ive grown quite weary of the spunky heroines, brave rape victims.
I particularly mourn the lack of female villains – good, potent female villains, when Flynn was working for Entertainment Weekly, she was writing novels during her free time. She has written four books, three novels and one short story, Sharp Objects revolves around a serial killer in a Missouri town, and the reporter who has returned to her hometown from Chicago to cover the event. Themes include dysfunctional families and self-harm, the book was partly inspired by Dennis Lehanes Mystic River. Dark Places was adapted into a 2015 feature film, Flynn made a cameo appearance in the film. Gone Girl was released in June 2012 and concerns a husband who searches for his wife, Flynn wrote the script for a film adaptation of Gone Girl after 20th Century Fox purchased the film rights for $1.5 million
Jillian Michaels is an American personal trainer, businesswoman and television personality from Los Angeles, California. Michaels is best known for her appearances on NBC, particularly The Biggest Loser and she is known for her appearance on the talk show The Doctors. In fall 2015, she hosted and co-judged a series on Spike titled Sweat, in January 2016, her reality television series Just Jillian premiered on E. Michaels was born in Los Angeles, the daughter of JoAnn and Douglas McKarus, a lawyer. She was raised in Santa Monica, Michaels has recalled a traumatic childhood that included night terrors, her parents divorce, and suffering verbal abuse by classmates as a 5-foot, 2-inch, 175-pound eighth-grader. Michaels attended California State University, supporting herself as a bartender, after working briefly as an agent with International Creative Management, in 2002, Michaels opened the sports medicine facility Sky Sport & Spa in Beverly Hills. As a personal trainer, Michaels uses a blend of strength training techniques with her clients including kickboxing, Pilates, since 1993, Jillian has held two personal training certificates from the National Exercise & Sports Trainers Association and The Aerobics and Fitness Association of America.
In addition, she is Kettlebell Concepts certified, Jillian has developed a continuing education series for trainers with AFAA and holds a nutrition and wellness consultant certificate with the American Fitness Professionals and Associates. In January 2012, Michaels released a 90-day weight loss program titled Body Revolution and she recently launched BODYSHRED, her 30-minute workout class exclusively at GoodLife gyms in Canada and in the US with clubs like Lifetime fitness, Crunch and UFC Gyms. In 2015, she launched her new infomercial BODYSHRED, a 60-day at-home workout program, Michaels business partner and manager is Giancarlo Chersich. Together, they operate Empowered Media, LLC, in addition to her DVDs, Michaels has authored several books on health and wellness topics. Several of these books, including Master Your Metabolism and Unlimited, have made the New York Times Best Seller list, Michaels hosted a Sunday talk radio show on Los Angeless KFI from 2006 through 2009. Since February 2011, Michaels has hosted a weekly podcast, The Jillian Michaels Show, in December 2011, the show was among the podcasts honored by Apple in its App Store Rewind 2011, winning in the Best New Audio Podcast category.
On October 21,2008, she launched a game for the Wii, Jillian Michaels Fitness Ultimatum 2009 A year later. In 2011, Michaels released two games, Jillian Michaels Fitness Ultimatum 2011 and Jillian Michaels Fitness Adventure for the Xbox 360. Michaels was a trainer on the reality series The Biggest Loser when the show debuted in October 2004. On the show, she assumed the role of Red Team trainer, after her departure in 2006, she was replaced by Kim Lyons. She returned to the show in 2007 as the Black Team trainer competing against Lyons Red Team, along with Harper, Michaels was a trainer in the Australian version of the show from 2006 to 2008. On December 7,2010, Michaels announced via Twitter that the season of the show would be her last
Charles Bruce Catton was an American historian and journalist, best known for his books on the American Civil War. Known as a historian, Catton specialized in popular history, featuring colorful characters and historical vignettes, in addition to the basic facts, dates. Although his books were well researched and supported by footnotes, they were not generally presented in an academic style. He won a Pulitzer Prize in 1954 for A Stillness at Appomattox, Charles Bruce Catton was born in Petoskey, Michigan, to George R. and Adela M. Catton, and raised in Benzonia, Michigan. His father was a Congregationalist minister, who accepted a position in Benzonia Academy. As a boy, Catton first heard the reminiscences of the veterans who had fought in the Civil War. In 1916, Catton began attending Oberlin College, but he left without completing a degree because of World War I. After serving briefly in the United States Navy during World War I, Catton became a reporter and editor for The Cleveland News, the Boston American, Catton tried twice to complete his studies, but found himself repeatedly pulled away by his newspaper work.
Oberlin College awarded him a degree in 1956. At the start of World War II, Catton was too old for military service, in 1941, he took a position as Director of Information for the War Production Board, and he held similar posts in the Department of Commerce and the Department of the Interior. His experiences as a federal employee prepared him to write his first book, The War Lords of Washington, although the book was not a commercial success, it inspired Catton to leave the federal government to become a full-time author. In 1954, Catton accepted the position as founding editor of the new American Heritage magazine, Catton served initially as a writer and editor. In the first issue, he wrote, We intend to deal with great, unfinished. Our American heritage is greater than any one of us and it can express itself in very homely truths, in the end it can lift up our eyes beyond the glow in the sunset skies. Army of the Potomac trilogy In the early 1950s, Catton published three books known as the Army of the Potomac trilogy.
In Mr. Lincolns Army, the first volume of his history of the Army of the Potomac, Catton covered the armys formation, mcClellan, the Peninsula Campaign, the Northern Virginia Campaign, and the Battle of Antietam. In the second volume, Glory Road, Catton covered the armys history under new commanding generals, from the Battle of Fredericksburg to the Battle of Gettysburg. In his final volume of the trilogy, A Stillness at Appomattox and it was his first commercially successful work and it won both the Pulitzer Prize for History and a National Book Award for Nonfiction
Michelle LaVaughn Robinson Obama is an American lawyer and writer who was First Lady of the United States from 2009 to 2017. She is married to the 44th President of the United States, Barack Obama and she subsequently worked as the Associate Dean of Student Services at the University of Chicago and the Vice President for Community and External Affairs of the University of Chicago Medical Center. Barack and Michelle married in 1992 and have two daughters, Obama campaigned for her husbands presidential bid throughout 2007 and 2008, delivering a keynote address at the 2008 Democratic National Convention. As First Lady, Obama became an icon, a role model for women, and an advocate for poverty awareness, physical activity. Her mother was a homemaker until Michelle entered high school. The Robinson and Shields families trace their roots to pre-Civil War African Americans in the American South, on her fathers side, she is descended from the Gullah people of South Carolinas Low Country region. Her paternal great-great grandfather, Jim Robinson, was a slave on Friendfield Plantation in South Carolina and her grandfather Fraser Robinson, Jr.
built his own house in South Carolina. He and his wife LaVaughn returned to the Low Country after retirement, among her maternal ancestors was her great-great-great-grandmother, Melvinia Shields, a slave on Henry Walls Shields 200-acre farm in Clayton County, Georgia. Melvinias first son, Dolphus T. Shields, was biracial, based on DNA and other evidence, in 2012 researchers said his father was likely 20-year-old Charles Marion Shields, son of her master. Melvinia did not talk to relatives about Dolphus father, Dolphus Shields moved to Birmingham, Alabama after the Civil War, and some of his children migrated to Cleveland and Chicago. Her distant ancestry includes Irish and other European roots, in addition, a paternal first cousin once-removed is the African-American Jewish Rabbi Capers Funnye, son of her grandfathers sister. Robinson grew up in a bungalow on Euclid Avenue in Chicagos South Shore community area. Her parents rented an apartment on the second floor from her great-aunt. She was raised in what she describes as a home, with the mother at home.
Her elementary school was down the street and they enjoyed playing games such as Monopoly and frequently saw extended family on both sides. She played piano, learning from her great-aunt who was a piano teacher, the Robinsons attended services at nearby South Shore United Methodist Church. They used to vacation in a cabin in White Cloud. She and her 21-month older brother, skipped the second grade and her father suffered from multiple sclerosis which had a profound emotional effect on her as she was growing up