Market Street, Sydney
Market Street is a street in the city centre of Sydney in New South Wales, Australia. It runs from Sussex Street near Darling Harbour in the west, to Elizabeth Street at St. James railway station in the east. Market Street is located in the heart of the Sydney central business district shopping precinct; the street gets its name due to the street being located at the CBD’s shopping precinct. The two flagship David Jones department stores in Sydney are located in Market Street, diagonally across the Castlereagh Street intersection. Market Street provides the southern border of Pitt Street Mall and features such shopping centres as Centrepoint,the Queen Victoria Building and Sydney Central Plaza; the State Theatre is located between George Street intersections. A footbridge at the end of Market street provides a direct link to Pyrmont Bridge and Darling Harbour. All traffic travels one way along Market Street, from east to west. A flyover is located at the end Market Street which links traffic to the Western Distributor and Ultimo, the Anzac Bridge and beyond.
Market Street is. It was at this store in a series of meetings between Trumper, J J Giltinan and others, that the creation of the New South Wales Rugby Football League was conceived. Australian Roads portal
Crown Street Women's Hospital
Crown Street Women's Hospital was once the largest maternity hospital in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. It was located at Surry Hills; the hospital was one of several stand-alone maternity hospitals in Sydney. It opened in 1893, was closed in 1983. During its 90-year life, it trained hundreds of midwives and doctors, was a teaching hospital of the University of Sydney. Many thousands of Sydney's residents were born there; when Westmead Hospital opened in Sydney's west, Crown St Hospital's maternity facilities were moved there, along with the general medical and surgical departments of Sydney Hospital on Macquarie Street, the hospital was closed. The site has now been redeveloped. Founded by Dr James Graham in 1893, the Women's Hospital in Crown Street aimed to lift the medical standards for maternity care. In addition to providing wards for surgical cases and complicated births the Hospital provided treatment in homes. Initial funding of the Women's Hospital came from public subscription, obstetric nurse training and student fees, with assistance from the Government in obtaining furniture and surgical instruments.
The Board of the Women's Hospital met for the first time on 13 August 1895. One of the Hospital's early achievements was providing instruction to women who had acted as midwives without any medical certification. On 30 October 1919 the Permanent Auxiliary Organisation was founded to centralise offers of assistance. Permanent Auxiliary Centres were opened at Abbotsford in 1933 and Bondi-Waverley in 1937. By its Golden Jubilee in 1943 Crown Street Women's Hospital had become the largest maternity hospital in New South Wales; the Hospital's Nurseries were divided into five categories - D, Adoption, Founders Isolation and Main. The Crown Street Women's Hospital was closed on 31 March 1983 and its facilities were transferred to Westmead Hospital. Got the first president Indoor Department Teaching Hospital Status with the University of Sydney Hugh Dixson Isolation Block Parent Education The Permanent Auxiliary Organisation was founded to centralise all offers of assistance received by the Hospital Founders Block building was opened providing administrative offices, Resident Medical Officers quarters, labour wards, operating theatre, recovery room, nurses quarters X-Ray Department The Sterility Clinic was established 1938 Mobile Transfusion Service or "Flying Squad" Crown Street Women's Hospital had become the largest maternity hospital in New South Wales Diet Department Canonbury at Darling Point was opened as annexe to the Women's Hospital During the 1940s and 1950s Founders Block building was remodelled as the gynaecology block of the hospital Lady Wakehurst Annexe at Waverley was opened as post-operative care centre Unit for the Research into the Newborn Department of Anaesthesia Intensive Care Unit Ultra Sound Department Sam Stening Intensive Care Annexe Therapeutic Abortion Clinic opened.
From 1975 women requesting abortions were seen in the Consultancy Clinic Aboriginal Nurse visits to postnatal patients Birth Centre for natural childbirth The Sterility Clinic was renamed as the Alan Grant Fertility Clinic Lady Wakehurst Annexe was closed and redeveloped as a Hospital and Retraining Unit for Intellectually Retarded Young Adults. Hospital closes and services transferred to Westmead Hospital Canonbury buildings demolished and land reformed into McKell Park
Oxford Street, Sydney
Oxford Street is a major thoroughfare in Sydney, running from Whitlam Square on the south-east corner of Hyde Park in the central business district of Sydney to Bondi Junction in the Eastern Suburbs. Close to the CBD in particular, the street is lined with numerous shops and nightclubs. In recent years, Oxford Street has garnered a reputation as Sydney's primary nightclub strip, has subsequently seen a large increase in the number of crimes committed in the area; the western section, which runs through the suburb of Darlinghurst, is recognised as Sydney's main gay district and Oxford Street is closed to traffic once a year in early March for the Sydney Gay and Lesbian Mardi Gras. The section to the east of Taylor Square, running through the suburb of Paddington forms an upmarket shopping strip and represents the home of the new medical faculty of the University of Notre Dame Australia as well as the University of New South Wales' College of Fine Arts, Victoria Barracks, Paddington Bazaar and St Vincent's Hospital, Sydney amongst other locations.
In May 1909 the Sydney Council resolved to widen Oxford Street from 66 feet to 100 feet by resuming the entire north side of the street between Liverpool and Bourke Streets. The project was carried out in five stages between 1910 and 1914; the result was a new boulevard and the creation of a Federation streetscape which remains today intact. Trams to Bondi and Bronte beaches travelled down Oxford Street until the line was closed in 1960, replaced by the current bus service. Located on the corner of Oatley Road and Oxford Street is the Paddington Reservoir, a water reservoir which provided water to the Botany Swamps pumping station for the provision of water to parts of Sydney between 1866 and 1899. In 2006 work began to restore and reuse the space of the derelict Paddington Reservoir; the facility reopened in 2008 as a sunken garden known as the Paddington Reservoir Gardens or Walter Read Reserve, with a rooftop reserve located above the preserved eastern chamber. The facility integrates the remains of the original brick and iron structure with modern elements of sculptural and functional significance which provide access to the sunken garden via stairs and an elevator as well as ramped access to the rooftop reserve.
Victoria Barracks, located in Oxford Street, houses the Headquarters Forces Command, as well as the Army Museum of NSW, housed in the original District Military Prison, constructed in 1800. The barracks was constructed of Hawkesbury sandstone by way of convict labour between 1841 and 1846; the Barracks were occupied by regiments of the British Army who vacated the site in 1870. The Barracks was the premier military training site in Australia until 1901. For a brief period during the 1930s Victoria Barracks was home to the Royal Military College, Duntroon when the College was forced to close its buildings in Canberra and relocate to Sydney due to the economic downturn caused by the Great Depression; the following buildings are on the Register of the National Estate: Victoria Barracks Paddington Town Hall Paddington Public School Uniting Church and Parsonage St Matthias Church Group Former St Mattias Rectory St Matthias Church Hall Post Office On 27 June 2011, the Lord Mayor of Sydney, Clover Moore proposed new directions for lower Oxford Street, on 22 August 2011 the Council resolved to undertake a number of short and long term initiatives to activate City owned properties in the precinct.
After an Expression of Interest was put out for creative and cultural organisations to occupy a vacant city owned property, 16 organisations were announced as being successful applicants and were granted office space as part of the Sydney 2030 plan to revitalise the Oxford Street Precinct with creative and cultural organisations that could help to drive foot traffic to the area as well as promote the community. The 16 organisations that were part of this programme were: DIY rainbow crossing Media related to Oxford Street, Sydney at Wikimedia Commons
The Paddington Reservoir is a heritage-listed public park located at 255a Oxford Street in the inner eastern Sydney suburb of Paddington in the City of Sydney local government area of New South Wales, Australia. It was designed by Edward Bell and built from 1864 to 1866 and operated as a water reservoir which accepted water from the Botany Swamps pumping station for supply to parts of Sydney between 1866 and 1899. In the twentieth century the site variously functioned as a service station and storage and mechanical workshop site. In 2006 it was converted into park, it is known as Walter Read Reserve. The property is owned by City of Sydney, it was added to the New South Wales State Heritage Register on 2 April 1999. This suburb, which took its name from the London borough, lies in what were once paddocks adjacent to Victoria Barracks, it was the first of the early Sydney suburbs, not self-sufficient - its inhabitants, unlike those of Balmain or Newtown, where work was available in local industries, had to go away each day to their places of employment.
Development of the eastern suburbs of Edgecliff, Double Bay, Point Piper and Woollahra surrounded this area with wealthy people's homes so this small hilly suburb lost all hope of harbour views. The area developed after a road was constructed to link up with a pilot station, to be built at Watson's Bay. John Palmer, the settlement's commissary, refused to allow people to cross his land grant, so the road had to follow a roundabout way through Paddington to bypass his 40 hectares. Only a handful of workers lived in the area, it was not until 1838, when it was decided to build a new military barracks in Paddington, that life came to the area. From 1848 when Victoria Barracks had been opened and homes for the soldiers and their families had been erected, Paddington began to assume a real identity; the land was sandy - in fact a huge sandhill was located on the western side of the Greens Road area, the foundation trenches had to be dug deep, to locate firm stone for the foundations. Stone was quarried in the area: the stone masons were free settlers who had worked on erection of the Customs House at what was Semi-Circular Quay.
Once the soldiers and their families moved here, shopkeepers followed. Builders moved into the area and put up 3,800 houses between 1860 and 1890; these terraces give today's Paddington its air of individuality. The first school in the area was opened in the Presbyterian manse in Oxford Street, built in 1845, it is hard to imagine that in 1822 the mansion Juniper Hall stood alone, without the many neighbours it has today. Set in a flagged garden, it had attic windows that gave panoramic views to Rushcutters Bay and Botany Bay. Juniper Hall was built for Robert Cooper and emancipist merchant, who with partners James Underwood and Francis Ewen Forbes, had received 40 hectares from Governor Brisbane in c. 1818, covering the whole of north Paddington, they agreed to erect 3 mansions and a distillery there. A distillery was built at the foot of Cascade Street near Taylor Square and Cooper bought out his partners, only Juniper Hall was erected; the Coopers entertained many notables of that time. After they left the house it was renamed Ormond House to dissociate itself from the gin image and passed through many hands becoming smothered by the building of small shops in front of the house.
Latterly it has had a variety of uses. Today few of the area's original working class residents remain, as the suburb's proximity to the city has made it popular with business and professional people who prefer inner-city living in this historic area; the shopping centre, concentrated on the north side of Oxford Street, has changed from one serving local needs to one of cafes, speciality shops and boutiques. Much of this is related to the Village Bazaar, or Paddington Markets; the bazaar, which has operated since the mid 1970s, draws visitors from all over the city and has contributed to Paddington's development as one of Sydney's favourite tourist spots, along with Bondi Beach and The Rocks. The plan for Paddington Reservoir began with the creation of the Botany Swamps water scheme in 1859; this water scheme, developed by Edward Bell and Will Wadsworth proposed a number of reservoirs at critical points around the city. Construction of the Paddington Reservoir was completed by 1866 and connected to the Botany Swamps pumping station.
This offered a new source of water to elevated suburbs of Sydney which had up until had only been serviced by wells and a water-cart service. The original reservoir was built in two stages: the western chamber in 1866 and the eastern chamber in 1878; each measured 33 by 31 metres. However, due to its limited elevation, only the top two metres of water from the reservoir could be provided to buildings in excess of one storey. In order to reduce the load on the Botany Swamps pumping station, a further pumping station at the Crown Street Reservoir was commenced in 1875 which assisted in the delivery of water to the Paddington Reservoir. In 1877 a second chamber was added to the Paddington Reservoir, dubbed the eastern chamber this increased the storage of the facility to meet the demands of the expanding city. In 1899 the facility was decommissioned following the completion of the larger and further elevated Centennial Park Reservoir; the reservoir was decommissio
Australia the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands. It is the world's sixth-largest country by total area; the neighbouring countries are Papua New Guinea and East Timor to the north. The population of 25 million is urbanised and concentrated on the eastern seaboard. Australia's capital is Canberra, its largest city is Sydney; the country's other major metropolitan areas are Melbourne, Brisbane and Adelaide. Australia was inhabited by indigenous Australians for about 60,000 years before the first British settlement in the late 18th century, it is documented. After the European exploration of the continent by Dutch explorers in 1606, who named it New Holland, Australia's eastern half was claimed by Great Britain in 1770 and settled through penal transportation to the colony of New South Wales from 26 January 1788, a date which became Australia's national day; the population grew in subsequent decades, by the 1850s most of the continent had been explored and an additional five self-governing crown colonies established.
On 1 January 1901, the six colonies federated. Australia has since maintained a stable liberal democratic political system that functions as a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy, comprising six states and ten territories. Being the oldest and driest inhabited continent, with the least fertile soils, Australia has a landmass of 7,617,930 square kilometres. A megadiverse country, its size gives it a wide variety of landscapes, with deserts in the centre, tropical rainforests in the north-east and mountain ranges in the south-east. A gold rush began in Australia in the early 1850s, its population density, 2.8 inhabitants per square kilometre, remains among the lowest in the world. Australia generates its income from various sources including mining-related exports, telecommunications and manufacturing. Indigenous Australian rock art is the oldest and richest in the world, dating as far back as 60,000 years and spread across hundreds of thousands of sites. Australia is a developed country, with the world's 14th-largest economy.
It has a high-income economy, with the world's tenth-highest per capita income. It is a regional power, has the world's 13th-highest military expenditure. Australia has the world's ninth-largest immigrant population, with immigrants accounting for 26% of the population. Having the third-highest human development index and the eighth-highest ranked democracy globally, the country ranks in quality of life, education, economic freedom, civil liberties and political rights, with all its major cities faring well in global comparative livability surveys. Australia is a member of the United Nations, G20, Commonwealth of Nations, ANZUS, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, World Trade Organization, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, Pacific Islands Forum and the ASEAN Plus Six mechanism; the name Australia is derived from the Latin Terra Australis, a name used for a hypothetical continent in the Southern Hemisphere since ancient times. When Europeans first began visiting and mapping Australia in the 17th century, the name Terra Australis was applied to the new territories.
Until the early 19th century, Australia was best known as "New Holland", a name first applied by the Dutch explorer Abel Tasman in 1644 and subsequently anglicised. Terra Australis still saw occasional usage, such as in scientific texts; the name Australia was popularised by the explorer Matthew Flinders, who said it was "more agreeable to the ear, an assimilation to the names of the other great portions of the earth". The first time that Australia appears to have been used was in April 1817, when Governor Lachlan Macquarie acknowledged the receipt of Flinders' charts of Australia from Lord Bathurst. In December 1817, Macquarie recommended to the Colonial Office. In 1824, the Admiralty agreed that the continent should be known by that name; the first official published use of the new name came with the publication in 1830 of The Australia Directory by the Hydrographic Office. Colloquial names for Australia include "Oz" and "the Land Down Under". Other epithets include "the Great Southern Land", "the Lucky Country", "the Sunburnt Country", "the Wide Brown Land".
The latter two both derive from Dorothea Mackellar's 1908 poem "My Country". Human habitation of the Australian continent is estimated to have begun around 65,000 to 70,000 years ago, with the migration of people by land bridges and short sea-crossings from what is now Southeast Asia; these first inhabitants were the ancestors of modern Indigenous Australians. Aboriginal Australian culture is one of the oldest continual civilisations on earth. At the time of first European contact, most Indigenous Australians were hunter-gatherers with complex economies and societies. Recent archaeological finds suggest. Indigenous Australians have an oral culture with spiritual values based on reverence for the land and a belief in the Dreamtime; the Torres Strait Islanders, ethnically Melanesian, obtained their livelihood from seasonal horticulture and the resources of their reefs and seas. The northern coasts and waters of Australia were visited s
New South Wales
New South Wales is a state on the east coast of Australia. It borders Queensland to the north, Victoria to the south, South Australia to the west, its coast borders the Tasman Sea to the east. The Australian Capital Territory is an enclave within the state. New South Wales' state capital is Sydney, Australia's most populous city. In September 2018, the population of New South Wales was over 8 million, making it Australia's most populous state. Just under two-thirds of the state's population, 5.1 million, live in the Greater Sydney area. Inhabitants of New South Wales are referred to as New South Welshmen; the Colony of New South Wales was founded as a penal colony in 1788. It comprised more than half of the Australian mainland with its western boundary set at 129th meridian east in 1825; the colony included the island territories of New Zealand, Van Diemen's Land, Lord Howe Island, Norfolk Island. During the 19th century, most of the colony's area was detached to form separate British colonies that became New Zealand and the various states and territories of Australia.
However, the Swan River Colony has never been administered as part of New South Wales. Lord Howe Island remains part of New South Wales, while Norfolk Island has become a federal territory, as have the areas now known as the Australian Capital Territory and the Jervis Bay Territory; the prior inhabitants of New South Wales were the Aboriginal tribes who arrived in Australia about 40,000 to 60,000 years ago. Before European settlement there were an estimated 250,000 Aboriginal people in the region; the Wodi Wodi people are the original custodians of the Illawarra region of South Sydney. Speaking a variant of the Dharawal language, the Wodi Wodi people lived across a large stretch of land, surrounded by what is now known as Campbelltown, Shoalhaven River and Moss Vale; the Bundjalung people are the original custodians of parts of the northern coastal areas. The European discovery of New South Wales was made by Captain James Cook during his 1770 survey along the unmapped eastern coast of the Dutch-named continent of New Holland, now Australia.
In his original journal covering the survey, in triplicate to satisfy Admiralty Orders, Cook first named the land "New Wales", named after Wales. However, in the copy held by the Admiralty, he "revised the wording" to "New South Wales"; the first British settlement was made by. After years of chaos and anarchy after the overthrow of Governor William Bligh, a new governor, Lieutenant-Colonel Lachlan Macquarie, was sent from Britain to reform the settlement in 1809. During his time as governor, Macquarie commissioned the construction of roads, wharves and public buildings, sent explorers out from Sydney and employed a planner to design the street layout of Sydney. Macquarie's legacy is still evident today. During the 19th century, large areas were successively separated to form the British colonies of Tasmania, South Australia and Queensland. Responsible government was granted to the New South Wales colony in 1855. Following the Treaty of Waitangi, William Hobson declared British sovereignty over New Zealand in 1840.
In 1841 it was separated from the Colony of New South Wales to form the new Colony of New Zealand. Charles Darwin visited Australia in January 1836 and in The Voyage of the Beagle records his hesitations about and fascination with New South Wales, including his speculations about the geological origin and formation of the great valleys, the aboriginal population, the situation of the convicts, the future prospects of the country. At the end of the 19th century, the movement toward federation between the Australian colonies gathered momentum. Conventions and forums involving colony leaders were held on a regular basis. Proponents of New South Wales as a free trade state were in dispute with the other leading colony Victoria, which had a protectionist economy. At this time customs posts were common on borders on the Murray River. Travelling from New South Wales to Victoria in those days was difficult. Supporters of federation included the New South Wales premier Sir Henry Parkes whose 1889 Tenterfield Speech was pivotal in gathering support for New South Wales involvement.
Edmund Barton to become Australia's first Prime Minister, was another strong advocate for federation and a meeting held in Corowa in 1893 drafted an initial constitution. In 1898 popular referenda on the proposed federation were held in New South Wales, South Australia and Tasmania. All votes resulted in a majority in favour, but the New South Wales government under Premier George Reid had set a requirement for a higher "yes" vote than just a simple majority, not met. In 1899 further referenda were held in the same states as well as Queensland. All resulted in yes votes with majorities increased from the previous year. New South Wales met the conditions; as a compromise to the question on where the capital was to be located, an agreement was made that the site was to be within New South Wales but not closer than 100 miles from Sydney, while the provisional capital would be Melbourne. The area that now forms the Australian Capital Territory was ceded by New South Wales when Canberra was selected.
In the years after World War I, the high prices enjoyed durin
George Street, Sydney
George Street is a street in the central business district of Sydney in New South Wales, Australia. It was Sydney's original high street, remains one of the busiest streets in the city centre, it is about 3 km long, connects a number of the city's most important buildings and precincts. There are more high rise buildings here than on any other street in Australia. Amongst Australia's 100 largest listed companies, more are located here than on any other street; the street begins in the north end of Sydney in The Rocks, near the Sydney Harbour Bridge, extends to the southern end of the city, near Central station and Ultimo, where it leads into Railway Square. From here Broadway is the continuation of George Street turning westwards, leading to the western suburbs as Parramatta Road; the origins of George Street lie in the layout of the Sydney Cove colony. Captain Arthur Phillip placed the marines on the rocky western slopes of the bay. A track leading from the convicts' encampment in the area of The Rocks, past the marine barracks and alongside the banks of a stream to a brick pit, located near to the present location of Central station.
This track that became George Street is one of the two original thoroughfares, along with the track that became Bridge Street. It is possible; until 1810 George Street was referred to as High Street in the English custom, although the northern part of the thoroughfare was sometimes referred to as "Sergeant Major's Row" and, earlier, as "Spring Row". The Street was formally named for King George III of the United Kingdom by Governor Lachlan Macquarie in 1810. On 8 August 1907 at Bateman's Crystal Hotel on George Street, a meeting resolved to form the New South Wales Rugby Football League, Australia's first professional rugby football association and predecessor to the modern-day National Rugby League. In 1937, Frank Jenner committed to telling ten different people on George Street about Christianity every day thenceforward; until 2016, George Street was the route for Sydney's Anzac Day parade until made unavailable by CBD and South East Light Rail construction work. It now proceeds via Elizabeth Street.
Being a major street through central Sydney, George Street is seen in terms of a number of distinct sections or precincts. From south to north, they include: Railway Square: the southern end of George Street is a confluence of several busy streets, it is so-named because it is adjacent to the Sydney Central station, the square itself is the site of a large bus terminus. Railway Square is today ringed by hotels and small-scale retail, is the site of a campus of the Sydney Institute of TAFE. Chinatown: Sydney's traditional, main Chinatown is located in Haymarket, near to the southern end of George Street; the Chinatown precinct is situated to the west of the street but extends to the east of the street. A centre of retail shops and restaurants, features of Chinatown located close to George Street include a tree stump gilded in gold and dripping water, presented to the Chinese community of Sydney with the message that it would bring good fortune to them. Close by is the Capitol Theatre, which hosts the Sydney runs of international musicals.
The Haymarket Library of the City of Sydney, the main branch of the City library service for Chinese language materials, is located on George Street. Cinema District: Situated on the hill overlooking Chinatown, this area used to feature the three largest cinemas in Sydney, however the three cinemas merged their theatres into one complex, bought out by Greater Union in December 2005; the Cinema District houses many video arcades, Internet cafes, fast food restaurants and pubs and is busy after dark. Town Hall: Along the central section of George Street, this precinct is noted as the location of three important historic buildings: St Andrew's Cathedral, the Sydney Town Hall; these are well served by Town Hall station. The surrounding area features large scale retail operations, such as the main Sydney store of the department store Myer. Pitt Street Mall, a large retail precinct, is located close by. Wynyard: The area along George Street from King Street in the south up to Alfred Street in the north is given over to offices of large corporations and financial institutions, interspersed with retail, large hotels and large-scale bars and entertainment facilities.
An important cross street in this precinct is Martin Place, the location of the Cenotaph and the Sydney General Post Office. Wynyard railway station is located in the northern part of this precinct; the Rocks: At the northern end of George Street, north of Alfred Street, is The Rocks, the location of the first British settlement in Australia begun in 1788. There are many souvenir shops and traditional pubs, as well as art galleries and the Museum of Contemporary Art. Here George Street ends; the area is dominated by the approaches to the Sydney Harbour Bridge, faces the Sydney Opera House across Circular Quay. Circular Quay railway station and ferry terminals are located nearby. On 8 December 1899, an electric tramway was opened along George Street to Harris Street; this reduced the traditional dependence on human feet. In 1959 the trams were replaced by diesel buses; until October 2015, George Street was the busiest street in Sydney in terms of number of buses per hour.