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Crown and Parliament Recognition Act 1689

The Crown and Parliament Recognition Act 1689 was an Act of the Parliament of England, passed in 1689. It was designed to confirm the succession to the throne of King William III and Queen Mary II of England and to confirm the validity of the laws passed by the Convention Parliament, irregularly convened following the Glorious Revolution and the end of James II's reign; this Act is still wholly in force in Great Britain. The Act was passed because in 1688 King James II of England was deposed and replaced as king by William and Mary, who ruled jointly; however this could not be achieved without an Act of Parliament to approve it. Since no parliament was in existence at the time, it was necessary to convene one, but under the constitution only the King could summon a parliament. In the absence of a king to do so, the members of the previous parliament convened a new one themselves, without a royal summons, instead asking William to issue the summons, which he did on 22 January 1689; this irregular.

They declared James to have abdicated, chose Mary and William to succeed him, passed an Act to make it legal. This Act was the Bill of Rights 1689. However, doubts arose as to the validity of the Bill of Rights and the other Acts passed by the Convention Parliament. Since the Parliament had not been summoned in the regular way, it was arguable that it was no parliament at all and its legislation was of no legal effect; therefore after the Convention Parliament was dissolved and the next parliament was summoned by the King and Queen in the normal manner, the Crown and Parliament Recognition Act was passed to confirm the validity of the royal succession and the previous parliament's legislative competence. The difficulty with the Act is that if the Convention Parliament had no authority the succession of William and Mary was of no legal effect, which meant that they were not capable of giving Royal Assent to any bill in the next parliament, with the result that the Crown and Parliament Recognition Act was of no effect either.

This point was argued before the Hereford County Court in 1944 by a litigant who represented himself in a probate case called Hall v. Hall, he argued that the Court of Probate Act 1857 was of no legal effect whatsoever, since it had never received Royal Assent. It had received Royal Assent from Queen Victoria, but according to his argument Victoria had never inherited the throne, because the Bill of Rights and the Act of Settlement 1701 were of no effect, since both had been assented to by William III, not the real king; therefore Victoria had never been the real queen and so the Probate Act was not the law. Predictably, the judge ruled against him, the point has never been argued in court since. Although the judge did not give detailed reasons for his decision, a counterpoint to the above argument has been advanced by academics: "One possible answer, deducible from rationalizations of medieval practice when usurpations of the throne were not uncommon, is that... S a matter of State necessity... a de facto King had been regarded as competent to summon a lawful Parliament."

An Act for Recognizing King William and Queene Mary and for avoiding all Questions touching the Acts made in the Parliament assembled at Westminster the thirteenth day of February one thousand six hundred eighty eight. Wee your Majestyes most humble and loyall subjects the lords spirituall and temporall and commons in this present Parlyament assembled doe beseech your most excellent Majestyes that it may be published and declared in this High Court of Parlyament and enacted by authoritie of the same that we doe recognize and acknowledge your Majestyes were are and of right ought to be the laws of this realme our soveraigne liege lord and lady King and Queene of England France and Ireland and the dominions thereunto belonging in and to whose princely persons the royall state crowne and dignity of the said realms with all honours stiles regalities prerogatives powers jurisdictions and authorities to the same belonging and appertaining are most rightfully and intirely invested and incorporated united and annexed.

And for the avoiding of all disputes and questions concerning the being and authority of the late Parliament assembled at Westminster the thirteenth day of February one thousand six hundred eighty eight wee doe most humbly beseech your Majestyes that it may be enacted and bee it enacted by the King and Queenes most excellent Majestyes by and with the advice and consent of the lords spirituall and temporall and commons in this present Parlyament assembled and by authoritie of the same that all and singular the Acts made and enacted in the said Parlyament were and are laws and statutes of this kingdome and as such ought to be reputed taken and obeyed by all the people of this kingdome. In the Kingdom of Ireland another Act, entitled An Act of Recognition, of their Majesties undoubted Right to the Crown of Ireland was passed in 1692 by the Parliament of Ireland, which made similar provision. In the Republic of Ireland this was repealed by section 1 of, the Schedule to, the Statute Law Revision Act 1962.

Treason Act 1702 Parliament Act 1660 Official text of the Crown and Parliament Recognition Act 1689 as amended and in force today within the United Kingdom, from the UK Statute

The Walking Dead (comic book)

The Walking Dead is an American post-apocalyptic comic book series created by writer Robert Kirkman and artist Tony Moore. It focuses on Rick Grimes, a Kentucky deputy, shot in the line of duty and awakens from a coma in a zombie apocalypse that has resulted in a state-wide quarantine. After joining with some other survivors, he takes on the role of leader of a community as it struggles to survive the zombie apocalypse. First issued in 2003 by publisher Image Comics, the comic is written by Kirkman with art by Moore and Charlie Adlard. Moore continued to provide the covers through issue No. 24. The series ran for 193 issues, with Kirkman unexpectedly ending the series in July 2019; the Walking Dead received the 2007 and 2010 Eisner Award for Best Continuing Series at San Diego Comic-Con International. The series was adapted into the AMC television series The Walking Dead, which premiered in 2010; the television program loosely follows the storyline of the comic book. The franchise has spawned multiple additional media properties, including video games, a companion television series, webisode series, various additional publications, including novels.

The original pitch by Kirkman and Moore was for a followup to George A. Romero's Night of the Living Dead, with the series taking place in the 1960s. Image Comics co-founder Jim Valentino suggested using an original concept instead so the creators would own the property outright; the revised pitch became The Walking Dead. The Walking Dead debuted in 2003, published by Image Comics, with art by Tony Moore for the first six issues and Cliff Rathburn shading the art after issue #5. Charlie Adlard took over as artist on issue # 7. Moore created the cover art for the first 24 issues and the first four trade paperbacks; the remainder were done by Adlard. When the television series premiered in October 2010, Image Comics announced The Walking Dead Weekly; the first 52 issues of the series began to be reprinted on January 5, 2011, with one issue per week for a year. The series is periodically re-published in trade paperbacks which contain six issues each, hardcover books with twelve issues and occasional bonus material, omnibus editions of twenty-four issues, compendium editions of forty-eight issues.

In May 2018, Image Comics and its imprint Skybound Entertainment, the company that has driven development of The Walking Dead comic series since 2010, jointly announced The Walking Dead Day. The fan-oriented event has a scheduled date of October 13, 2018 and will coincide with the release of a Walking Dead #1 15th Anniversary Variant Edition, with cover art by Charlie Adlard. A select number of The Walking Dead Day participating local comic shops become part of the comic's story line, with their own special edition of Adlard's anniversary cover, featuring the store's logo incorporated into the cover art; the company noted that additional limited edition collectibles and festivities would be announced at a future date, prior to the October 2018 event. On July 3, 2019, Kirkman confirmed through the "Letters Hacks" section of issue #193 that the issue would conclude the series, with no previous announcements or warnings beforehand. Kirkman opted to end the comic on his own terms, he had envisioned the series to end around the time that Rick Grimes and his allies reach the Commonwealth, a large human community protected from the walkers, as this would allow him to give a complete arc.

However, he found he got there too soon in terms of issues, with the Commonwealth first appearing around issue #150, Kirkman feared there was no way he could get to an issue #300 with what ideas he had left. This ending came following the death of Rick Grimes, in issue #192. Kirkman kept the series' end a secret as he worked with Adlard to create cover art and solicitation information for Diamond Comic Distributors for non-existent issues through #196 that would have been released through October 2019, creating a storyline that hinted at the death of Carl Grimes, Rick's son, in the wake of Rick's death. Kirkman said that The Walking Dead comic was always built on surprise, felt that it was necessary to surprise readers with the end of the series after covering enough of the aftermath of Rick's death in issues #192 and #193. Volume 1: Days Gone Bye Rick Grimes, a sheriff's deputy from Kentucky, is wounded in the line of duty and emerges from a coma to find the world overrun by the undead, he is led in to a small camp of survivors.

Following a fatal zombie attack, Shane tries to murder Rick, having had a one-night stand and become obsessed with Lori. Carl shoots Shane to protect his father. Volume 2: Miles Behind Us Rick becomes the group's leader; the survivors travel across hostile territory in search of a safer refuge. After a few failed attempts, the group finds new friends, an abandoned prison. Volume 3: Safety Behind Bars Inside the prison, the survivors meet a few inmates alive. Two of the group members commit suicide and one of the inmates is executed after going on a killing spree. Volume 4: The Heart's Desire The group manages to quell the inmates' attempted rebellion. A woman named. Rick's leadership is questioned, and

Michael A. Peel

Michael A. Peel is a fellow of The National Academy of Human Resources, he served as the vice-president of human resources and administration for Yale University until his retirement in 2017. Prior to his position a Yale, he served 17 years at General Mills. Michael A. Peel received his M. B. A. in finance from Columbia Business School. Peel spent 15 years at PepsiCo, where he held numerous senior level positions, including chief human resources officer for two of its subsidiaries, he joined General Mills in 1991 as their chief human resources officer and was named executive vice-president of human resources and global business services in 2007. In July 2008 Peel appeared in the cover story of Human Resources Executive magazine. Upon leaving General Mills, he was hired by Yale University. In 2002, Peel was elected as a fellow of The National Academy of Human Resources. Peel has been a board member of the Walker Art Center board of directors, is a former vice chair of the Human Resources Policy Association.

He became a member of the board of Sleep Number Corporation in 2003, he has been a member of the board of directors for Pier 1 Imports, Inc since 2013. In 2018 Peel became a senior advisor to ghSMART & Company, Inc and a board member of DeVry University. Bloomberg profile

Opdyke West, Texas

Opdyke West is a town in Hockley County, United States. The population was 174 at the 2010 census. Opdyke West is located in central Hockley County at 33°35′36″N 102°17′56″W. Texas State Highway 114 passes through the north side of the town, leading west 4 miles to Levelland, the county seat, east 26 miles to Lubbock. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 2.3 square miles, all of it land. As of the census of 2000, there were 188 people, 74 households, 46 families residing in the town; the population density was 791.9 people per square mile. There were 80 housing units at an average density of 337.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 75.53% White, 3.72% Native American, 14.89% from other races, 5.85% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 32.98% of the population. There were 74 households out of which 44.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 48.6% were married couples living together, 13.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 36.5% were non-families.

23.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 2.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.54 and the average family size was 3.11. In the town, the population was spread out with 27.7% under the age of 18, 26.1% from 18 to 24, 30.3% from 25 to 44, 13.8% from 45 to 64, 2.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 24 years. For every 100 females, there were 106.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 115.9 males. The median income for a household in the town was $31,667, the median income for a family was $30,750. Males had a median income of $23,750 versus $17,083 for females; the per capita income for the town was $15,261. About 13.2% of families and 13.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 22.4% of those under the age of eighteen and none of those sixty five or over. The Town of Opdyke West is served by the Levelland Independent School District

Negotiorum gestio

Negotiorum gestio is a form of spontaneous voluntary agency in which an intervenor or intermeddler, the gestor, acts on behalf and for the benefit of a principal, but without the latter's prior consent. The gestor is only entitled to reimbursement for expenses and not to remuneration, the underlying principle being that negotiorum gestio is intended as an act of generosity and friendship and not to allow the gestor to profit from his intermeddling; this form of intervention is classified as a quasi-contract and found in civil-law jurisdictions and in mixed systems. For example, while you are traveling abroad, a typhoon hits your home town and the roofing of your house is in danger. To avoid the catastrophic situation, your neighbour does something urgently necessary. You are the'principal' and your neighbour here is the'gestor', the act of which saved your house is the negotiorum gestio, it originated as a Roman legal institution in which an individual acted on behalf of another, without his asking and without remuneration.

It was considered a part of officium, for instance, to defend a friend's or neighbour's interests while the friend or neighbour was away. The principal, or dominus negotii, is bound to indemnify the gestor for the expenses and liabilities incurred. If the principal fails to do so, there is unjust enrichment, the gestor has a claim to bring an action for restitution. In Napoleonic civilian jurisdictions, including Louisiana, the action takes the form of the actio de in rem verso. In South Africa, on the other hand, multiple restitutionary actions lie for negotiorum gestio, namely: condictio indebiti, it is variously known as follows: Belgium: "agency of necessity" in Dutch and "management of affairs" in French under the Belgian Civil Code Czech Republic: "uncommanded agency" under the Czech Civil Code France: "management of affairs" under the French Civil Code Germany: "business management without authority" under the German Civil Code Italy: "management of another's affairs" under the Italian Civil Code Japan: "management of business" under the Japanese Civil Code Louisiana: "management of affairs" under the Louisiana Civil Code Netherlands: "agency of necessity" under the Dutch Civil Code South Africa: negotiorum gestio under South African law Switzerland: "business management without authority" in German and "management of affairs" in French under the Swiss Civil Code Poland: "management of another's business without an order" under the Polish Civil Code Russia: "action in the interest of another" under the Russian Federation Civil Code Taiwan: "management of affairs without mandate" under the Taiwanese Civil Code Thailand: "management of affairs without mandate" under the Civil and Commercial Code Roman Law Law of agency Leland H. Ayres & Robert E. Landry.

"The Distinction Between Negotiorum Gestio and Mandate". Louisiana State University. Retrieved 2014-01-06. Niall R. Whitty & Deon van Zyl. ‘Unauthorized Management of Affairs ’, in Mixed Legal Systems in Comparative Perspective: Property and Obligations in Scotland and South Africa. Eds. Reinhard Zimmermann, Kenneth Reid, & Daniel Visser. Oxford: Oxford UP, 2005

2018–19 Tercera División

The 2018–19 Tercera División was the fourth tier in Spanish football. It ended in late June 2019 with the promotion play-off finals; the top four eligible teams in each group would play the promotion playoffs. The champion of each group would qualify to 2019–20 Copa del Rey. If the champion is a reserve team, the first non-reserve team qualified would join the Copa. In each group, at least three teams would be relegated to Regional Divisions. After being relegated, Real Burgos sued the Castile and León Football Federation arguing that the postponement of their match in the previous season against Arandina forced them to play three games in seven days with few rounds left, harming their performance and finishing the league in relegation positions, they were admitted in Tercera División, in application of the precautionary measures by the Judgement, but the Royal Spanish Football Federation revoked the decision commenting in a statement that the responsibility of organising the competition is theirs and not of the Regional federation.

Royal Spanish Football Federation website