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Crown land

Crown land known as royal domain or demesne, is a territorial area belonging to the monarch, who personifies the Crown. It passes with the monarchy, being inseparable from it. Today, in Commonwealth realms such as Canada and Australia, crown land is considered public land and is apart from the monarch's private estate. In Britain, the hereditary revenues of Crown lands provided income for the monarch until the start of the reign of George III, when the profits from the Crown Estate were surrendered to the Parliament of Great Britain in return for a fixed civil list payment; the monarch retains the income from the Duchy of Lancaster. In Australia, public lands without a specific tenure are referred to as Crown land or State Land, described as being held in the'right of the Crown' of either an individual State or the Commonwealth of Australia. Most Crown lands in Australia are held by the Crown in the right of a State; the only land held by the Commonwealth consists of land in the Northern Territory, the Australian Capital Territory, Jervis Bay Territory, small areas acquired for airports and other government purposes.

Each jurisdiction has its own policies towards the use of Crown lands within the State. For example, New South Wales, where over half of all land is Crown land, passed a controversial reform in 2005 requiring Crown lands to be rated at market value. Crown lands include land set aside for various government or public purposes, town planning, as well as vacant land. Crown lands comprise around 23% of Australian land, of which the largest single category is vacant land, comprising 12.5% of the land. Crown land is used for such things as airports, military grounds public utilities or is sometimes unallocated and reserved for future development. In Tasmania, Crown land is managed under the Crown Lands Act 1976. In Queensland, Unallocated State Land is managed under The Land Act 1994. In South Australia, the relevant Act is the Crown Land Management Act 2009. In Victoria, it is the Crown Land Act 1978 and the Land Act 1958. From the late 18th century onwards, the territories acquired by the Austrian Habsburg Monarchy were called crown lands.

Ruled in personal union by the House of Habsburg-Lorraine, they played a vital role as constituent lands of the Habsburg nation-building and were reorganised as administrative divisions of the centralised Austrian Empire established in 1804. During the restoration period after the Revolutions of 1848, the Austrian crown lands were ruled by Statthalter governors directly subordinate to the Emperor according to the 1849 March Constitution. By the 1861 February Patent, proclaimed by Emperor Franz Joseph I, the Austrian crown lands received a certain autonomy; the traditional Landstände assemblies were elevated to Landtage legislatures elected according to the principle of census suffrage. After the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867, the Kingdom of Hungary, the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia and Fiume became constituent parts of the Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen; the medieval European state of the Crown of Bohemia, an electorate of the Holy Roman Empire, consisted of crown lands: Kingdom of Bohemia, Margraviate of Moravia, Duchies of Silesia and Lower Lusatia.

In Barbados, the term crown land, extends to all land, under the control or ownership of The Crown. This can pertain to land seized toward lands with backed taxes; the term Crown lands has been used in relation to government owned farms and other land areas maintained by the National Housing Corporation. The Government does not allow private ownership of Barbados' 97 km of coastal beaches in the country, all areas below the high-tide watermark in the country are considered as "Crown land". Within Canada, Crown land is a designated territorial area belonging to the Canadian Crown. Though the monarch owns all Crown land in the country, it is divided in parallel with the "division" of the Crown among the federal and provincial jurisdictions, so that some lands within the provinces are administered by the relevant provincial Crown, whereas others are under the federal Crown. About 89% of Canada's land area is Crown land: 41% is federal crown land and 48% is provincial crown land; the remaining 11% is owned.

Most federal Crown land is in the territories and is administered by Indigenous and Northern Affairs Canada. Only 4% of land in the provinces is federally controlled in the form of National Parks, Indian reserves, or Canadian Forces bases. In contrast, provinces hold much of their territory as provincial Crown land, which may be held as Provincial Parks or wilderness. Crown land is the equivalent of an entailed estate that passes with the monarchy and cannot be alienated from it. Crown land provides the country and the provinces with the majority of their profits from natural resources

Marvin Farber

Marvin Farber was an American philosopher and educator. He was born in New York to Jewish parents Simon and Matilda Farber, he was the second oldest of their 14 children. One of his brothers was cancer researcher Sidney Farber. A music student at the University of Buffalo, but he transferred in 1920 to Harvard University, graduating summa cum laude with his bachelor's degree in philosophy in 1922, he earned his Ph. D. in 1925 at Harvard. He attended German universities of Berlin and Freiburg, studying under Edmund Husserl, Martin Heidegger, Heinrich Rickert, Ernst Zermelo, among others. Farber taught for a year at Ohio State University between his studies in Germany, he taught at his initial alma mater, the University at Buffalo, from 1927-1961 and 1964-1974. After his first year at University of Buffalo, he was appointed Assistant Professor, he founded the journal Philosophy and Phenomenological Research in 1940 and was its editor until 1980. He was Chairman of the Department of Philosophy from 1937 to 1961.

He was designated Professor Emeritus in 1974 and retired in 1977. He died in Minnesota after months of serious illness, he was survived by his loving wife Lorraine and three children, Lawrence and Carol. Guggenheim Fellowship, 1944–45 Docteur de l'Universitė de Lille, 1955 President, American Philosophical Association, 1963 Naturalism and Subjectivism, 1959 ISBN 0-87395-036-4 Phenomenology and Existence: Toward a Philosophy within Nature, 1967. ISBN 0-06-131295-9 The Search for an Alternative: Philosophical Perspectives of Subjectivism and Marxism, 1984. ISBN 0-8122-7921-2 The Foundation of Phenomenology: Edmund Husserl and the Quest for a Rigorous Science of Philosophy, 2006. ISBN 0-202-30853-7 American philosophy List of American philosophers Journal of Philosophy and Phenomenological Research at Brown University Catalog of Marvin Farber papers at the University at Buffalo


A cottage is a small house. It may carry the connotation of being an old-fashioned building. In modern usage, a cottage is a modest cosy dwelling in a rural or semi-rural location; the word comes from the architecture of England, where it referred to a house with ground floor living space and an upper floor of one or more bedrooms fitting under the eaves. In British English the term now denotes a small dwelling of traditional build, although it can be applied to modern construction designed to resemble traditional houses. Cottages may be detached houses, or terraced, such as those built to house workers in mining villages; the tied accommodation provided to farm workers was a cottage, see cottage garden. Peasant farmers were once known as cotters; the holiday cottage exists in many cultures under different names. In American English, "cottage" is one term for such holiday homes, although they may be called a "cabin", "chalet", or "camp". In certain countries the term "cottage" has local synonyms: In Finnish mökki, in Estonian suvila, in Swedish stuga, in Norwegian hytte, in Czech chalupa, in Russian дача.

There are cottage-style dwellings in American cities that were built for the purpose of housing slaves. In places such as Canada, "cottage" carries no connotations of size. In the Middle Ages, cottages housed agricultural workers and their families; the term cottage denoted the dwelling of a cotter. Thus, cottages were smaller peasant units. In that early period, a documentary reference to a cottage would most mean, not a small stand-alone dwelling as today, but a complete farmhouse and yard. Thus, in the Middle Ages, the word cottage denoted not just a dwelling, but included at least a dwelling and a barn, as well as a fenced yard or piece of land enclosed by a gate; the word is a blend of Old English cot, cote "hut" and Old French cot "hut, cottage", from Old Norse kot "hut" and related to Middle Low German kotten. Examples of this may be found in 15th century manor court rolls; the house of the cottage bore the Latin name: "domus", while the barn of the cottage was termed "grangia". On, "cottage" might have denoted a smallholding comprising houses and supporting farmland or woods.

A cottage, in this sense, would include just a few acres of tilled land. Examples of this type included the Welsh Tŷ unnos or "house in a night", built by squatters on a plot of land defined by the throw of an axe from each corner of the property. Much from around the 18th century onwards, the development of industry led to the development of weavers' cottages and miners' cottages. Friedrich Engels cites'Cottages' as a poor quality dwelling in his 1845 work The Condition of the Working Class in England In England and Wales the legal definition of a cottage is a small house or habitation without land; however under an Elizabethan statute, the cottage had to be built with at least 4 acres of land. Traditionally the owner of the cottage and small holding would be known as a cottager. In the Domesday Book they were referred to as Coterelli. In Welsh a cottage is known as its inhabitant preswlydd. In Scotland and parts of Northern England the equivalent to cottager would be the crofter and the term for the building and its land would be croft.

Over the years various Acts of Parliament removed the right of the cottager to hold land. According to John and Barbara Hammond in their book The Village Labourer, before the Enclosures Act the cottager was a farm labourer with land, after the Enclosures Act the cottager was a farm labourer without land. In popular modern culture the term cottage is used in a more general and romantic context and can date from any era but the term is applied to pre-modern dwellings. Older, pre-Victorian cottages tend to have restricted height, have construction timber exposed, sometimes intruding into the living space. Modern renovations of such dwellings seek to re-expose timber purlins, posts etc. which have been covered, in an attempt to establish perceived historical authenticity. Older cottages are modest semi-detached or terraced, with only four basic rooms, although subsequent modifications can create more spacious accommodation. A labourer's or fisherman's one-roomed house attached to a larger property, is a particular type of cottage and is called a penty.

The term cottage has been used for a larger house, practical rather than pretentious: see Chawton Cottage. Irish cottages were the homes of farm workers and labourers, but in recent years the term has assumed a romantic connotation when referring to cottages with thatched roofs; these thatched cottages were once to be seen all over Ireland, but most have become dilapidated due to newer and modern developments. However, there has been a recent revival of restoring these old cottages, with people wanting a more traditional home. Today, thatched cottages are now built for the tourist industry and many can be rented out as accommodation. Although the Oxford English Dictionary states that the term cottage is used in North America to represent "a summer residence at a watering-place or a health or pleasure resort," most Americans expect a cottage a summer cottage, to be a rela

P. G. Wodehouse short stories bibliography

The following is a list of short stories by P. G. Wodehouse grouped by the Wodehouse canon to which they belong, if applicable. For a list of Wodehouse's books, including novels and collections of short stories, see P. G. Wodehouse bibliography; the following 10 short stories feature Blandings Castle, its owner Lord Emsworth or members of his family. There are 11 Blandings novels including an unfinished novel. "The Custody of the Pumpkin" "Lord Emsworth Acts for the Best" "Pig-hoo-o-o-o-ey" "Company for Gertrude" "The Go-getter" "Lord Emsworth and the Girl Friend" "The Crime Wave at Blandings" "Birth of a Salesman" "Sticky Wicket at Blandings" "Life with Freddie" There are 21 short stories in the Drones Club canon, many of which star either Bingo Little or Freddie Widgeon. Most of the stories are told at the club amongst the members, who are referred to as "Eggs and Crumpets"; the stories are told by a Crumpet to an Egg or Bean, though four of the stories have no identified narrator: "The Fat of the Land", "Leave it to Algy", "Bingo Bans the Bomb", "Stylish Stouts".

"Fate" "Tried in the Furnace" "Trouble Down at Tudsleigh" "The Amazing Hat Mystery" "Goodbye to All Cats" "The Luck of the Stiffhams" "Noblesse Oblige" "Uncle Fred Flits By" "The Masked Troubadour" – "All's Well with Bingo" "Bingo and the Peke Crisis" "The Editor Regrets" "Sonny Boy" "The Shadow Passes" "Bramley Is So Bracing" "The Fat of the Land" "The Word in Season" "Leave it to Algy" "Oofy and the Beef Trust" "Bingo Bans the Bomb" "Stylish Stouts" Featuring 31 short stories, most narrated by a golf club's Oldest Member from his seat on the terrace overlooking part of the golf course. "Archibald's Benefit" "A Woman is Only a Woman," Saturday Evening Post, 7 June 1919 "Ordeal by Golf," Collier's, 6 December 1919 "A Mixed Threesome," McClure's, June 1920 "Sundered Hearts," Strand, December 1920 "The Rough Stuff," Chicago Tribune, 10 October 1920 "The Salvation of George Mackintosh," Strand, June 1921 "The Long Hole," Strand, August 1921 "The Heel of Achilles," Strand, November 1921 "The Coming of Gowf," Strand, May 1921 "The Clicking of Cuthbert," The Strand Magazine, October 1921 "The Heart of a Goof" "High Stakes" "Keeping in with Vosper" "Chester Forgets Himself" "The Magic Plus Fours" "The Awakening of Rollo Podmarsh" "Rodney Fails to Qualify" "Jane Gets off the Fairway" "The Purification of Rodney Spelvin" "Those in Peril on the Tee" a Mr Mulliner story "The Letter of the Law" "Farewell to Legs" "There's Always Golf" "Up from the Depths" "Feet of Clay" "Excelsior" "Rodney Has a Relapse" "Tangled Hearts" "Scratch Man" "Sleepy Time" All of the 35 following short stories feature Drones Club member Bertie Wooster and his valet, Jeeves.

There are 11 Jeeves novels. Fourteen of the chapters in The Inimitable Jeeves were derived by splitting seven previously-published short stories. "Extricating Young Gussie" "Leave it to Jeeves" "Jeeves and the Unbidden Guest" "Jeeves and the Hard-boiled Egg" "Jeeves Exerts the Old Cerebellum" and "No Wedding Bells for Bingo", "Aunt Agatha Speaks Her Mind" and "Pearls Mean Tears" "The Pride of the Woosters is Wounded" and "The Hero's Reward" "Introducing Claude and Eustace" and "Sir Roderick Comes To Lunch" "A Letter of Introduction" and "Startling Dressiness of a Lift Attendant" ("Jeeves and

George M. Lawton

George Morrison Lawton was an American football player and coach. He played at the fullback and punter positions for the University of Michigan football team from 1908 to 1910, he was the head coach for the University of Detroit Titans football team for the 1913 and 1914 seasons. Lawton was born in Ridgetown, Canada in 1886, he moved with his parents to Michigan as an infant. His father, Thomas M. Lawton was a prominent physician in Detroit for 25 years. Lawton was graduated from Detroit Central High School. Lawton enrolled in the law department at the University of Michigan and received his LL. B. degree in 1911. While attending Michigan, he played for Fielding H. Yost's Michigan Wolverines football team as a fullback and punter from 1908 to 1910. In August 1913, Lawton was hired as the head coach of Detroit Titans football team, he served in that capacity from 1913 to 1914. In two seasons as the team's head coach, he compiled a record of 6–6–3. After graduating from Michigan, Lawton was admitted to the Michigan bar, but he never practiced as an attorney.

He worked for several years on YMCA activities in Minneapolis, Minnesota, in the circulation department of The Detroit News, in the real estate business. In 1913, he formed an insurance partnership called Ouellette in Detroit, he worked for many years in the insurance business and officiated at college and high school football games. Lawton married Laura Bessie Newton in 1917, they had five children, Thomas Stanley, Bessie Jean, Louie Jane, Diana Howard and George Francis Eugene. Lawton's brother, J. Fred Lawton, wrote the song "Varsity" for the Michigan football team. Lawton died in 1941 after several months of illness at his home in Ann Arbor at age 55. George M. Lawton at Find a Grave

Jens Odgaard

Jens Odgaard is a Danish professional footballer who plays as a striker for SC Heerenveen, on loan from Sassuolo. Odgaard is a youth exponent from Lyngby Boldklub. Odgaard got his debut for Lyngby BK on 15 March 2016 at the age of just 16, he started on the bench, but replaced Gustav Therkildsen in the 89th minute in a 1–0 victory against Aalborg in the Danish Cup. He played his first league game on 17 April 2016, where he came on the pitch in the 65th minute, replacing Jeppe Kjær, in a 2–0 victory against Næstved BK. Odgaard extended his contract with Lyngby in the summer 2016 until the summer 2018, was moved up to the senior squad, he was the youngest player for Lyngby Boldklub, to have played a match in the Danish Superliga, at the age of 17 years and 115 days. On 5 July 2017, F. C. Internazionale Milano announced the signing of Odgaard, he plays for the youth team. On 30 June 2018, Odgaard was transferred to Serie A team Sassuolo, however Internazionale reserve the right to buy him back. On 22 June 2019, Odgaard joined to Eredivisie club SC Heerenveen on loan until 30 June 2020.

Jens Odgaard at Soccerway Jens Odgaard at Lyngbys website Jens Odgaard at DBU