Crown of Bolesław I the Brave

The Crown of Bolesław I the Brave was the coronation crown of the Polish monarchs. The exact origins of the Polish crown are unknown. According to legend, the story dates back to the Congress of Gniezno in the year 1000 AD, when Bolesław I the Brave, Duke of Poland, received from Otto III, Holy Roman Emperor a replica of the Holy Lance and a crown, both symbolising royal power; the destination the crown was lost over the course of time, Possibly taken to Germany in 1036 by Queen Richeza. It was only in 1320 that a new set of regalia was prepared for the coronation of King Ladislaus the Short and survived until the 18th century; the crown along with the crown jewels was kept in the cathedral treasury at Wawel Castle. During the reign of the Jagiellon dynasty it was moved to the Crown Treasury of the castle; the crown was removed from the Wawel, for example in 1370, when Louis I of Hungary took it away, returning in 1412. In the 17th century the crown was moved to Warsaw for the coronations of the queens.

During the Deluge in the years 1655-1661, the crown was hidden away in Stará Ľubovňa Castle in today's Slovakia. In the 18th century it moved around again to Silesia and Moravia. Although returned to Wawel Castle in 1730, only three years it was taken again to Warsaw. In 1734 the crown was left at the Pauline Jasna Góra Monastery, where it remained until 1736. On the occasion of the coronation of Stanisław August Poniatowski on November 25, 1764 in St. John's Cathedral, the crown was transported from Kraków to Warsaw for the last time, it returned to Wawel Castle. The seizure of Kraków by the Prussian army in 1794 had dramatic consequences; the crown treasury was plundered and the royal insignia robbed and melted down on the order of the Prussian king. Out of the gold, a number of coins were minted. Of all the Polish crown regalia, only the sword Szczerbiec would survive. Based on historical drawings, paintings and using a number of Prussian coins believed to have been minted from the gold of the crown in 1811, a team led by Adam Orzechowski of Nowy Sącz produced a recreation in 2001-2003.

The crown was 10 inches high, with 7.8 in. External diameter and 7.3 in. Internal diameter, weighing around 2.82 pounds. The replica crown is made out of 21 oz. gold, 21 oz. silver, 11 synthetic rubies, 88 emeralds and garnets 0.5 to 1 in. in diameter, 184 gems 0.15 to 0.2 in. in diameter, 80 pearls, 5 square feet of royal purple silk velvet, very similar to the dimensions of the original crown. Jürgen Abeler. Kronen. Herrschaftszeichen der Welt. Düsseldorf, 1980 Karol Estreicher. Zniszczenie polskich insygniów koronnych. Kraków, Przegląd Współczesny. 1935 Karol Estreicher. The Mystery of the Polish Crown Jewels. London, Alliance Press Limited. 1945? Jerzy Lileyko. Regalia Polskie. Warsaw 1987. ISBN 83-03-02021-8 Janusz Miniewicz. Tajemnica polskich koron. Czy jest szansa ich odnalezienia? Nowy Sącz 2006. ISBN 83-924034-2-8 Michał Rożek. Tajemnice insygniów królewskich. Kraków, 1985. Michał Rożek. Polskie koronacje i korony. Kraków 1987. ISBN 83-03-01914-7 Alfred Znamierowski. Insygnia, symbole i herby polskie. Warsaw, 2003.

Marek Żukow-Karczewski, Klejnoty i insygnia koronacyjne w dawnej Polsce. Prawdy i legendy, "Życie Literackie", no. 32, 1987, p. 5 Media related to Crown of Bolesław I the Brave at Wikimedia Commons The history of the replica of the Polish Coronation Regalia

X Vietnam (album)

X Vietnam or Por Vietnam is an album by Quilapayún released in 1968. This was among the first albums to be released under the DICAP label and was a success upon its release in Chile; the music and subject matter of the recording is internationalist and was the first recording success of the Nueva Canción Chilena. The album opens with a song denouncing the war in Vietnam, has songs from the Spanish Revolution, Afro-Cuban rhythms, an Italian folk song, a Soviet youth anthem and a song by Juan Capra that mourns the death of Che Guevara. Songs by Violeta Parra and Sergio Ortega inter alia with the local folkloric rhythms and social themes complete the album; the song "Los Pueblos Americanos" by Violeta Parra denounces disputes over national boundaries and calls on Latin America to unite. Sergio Ortega’s "Cueca de Joaquín Murieta" is based on the mythological character of Joaquín Murieta. One version of his legend states; the Chilean outlaw, Murieta,is apprehended and is decapitated by what could be the KKK.

The song "Canto a la pampa" depicts the poverty and bleak existence of mining communities of the north of Chile. "Por Vietnam"/Along Vietnam "Que la tortilla se vuelva"/May the tables turn "Canción fúnebre para el Che Guevara"/Mournful song for Che Guevara "Mamma mia dame cento lire"/Mother dear give me 100 liras "La zamba del riego"/Zamba song for the watering "Himno de las juventudes mundiales"/Hymn of World Youth "El turururururú" "Qué dirá el Santo Padre"/What does the Holy Father have to say "Canto a la pampa"/Song for the Pampas "La bola"/The ball" "Los pueblos americanos"/The common people of America "Cueca de Joaquín Murieta"/Cueca dance for Joaquín Murieta Eduardo Carrasco Julio Carrasco Carlos Quezada Willy Oddó Patricio Castillo X Vietnam Album Lyrics X Vietnam at Allmusic


Year 1491 was a common year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar. May 3 – The ruler of the Kingdom of Kongo, Nkuwu Nzinga, is baptised by Portuguese missionaries, adopting the baptismal name of João I. September – Battle of Vrpile Gulch in southern Croatia: Forces of the Ottoman Empire are defeated by those of the Kingdom of Croatia. November – The pretender Perkin Warbeck begins a campaign to take the English throne, with a landing in Ireland. November 7 – Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor and King Vladislaus II of Bohemia and Hungary sign the Peace of Pressburg, formally ending the Austrian–Hungarian War. November 16 – An auto-da-fé held in Brasero de la Dehesa concludes the case of the Holy Child of La Guardia, with the execution of several Jewish and converso suspects. November 25 – Reconquista: The Granada War is brought to an end with the signing of the Treaty of Granada between the Catholic Monarchs of Spain and the Moorish Emirate of Granada. December 6 – King Charles VIII of France marries Anne of Brittany, forcing her to break her marriage with Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor, thus incorporating Brittany into the kingdom of France.

December 21 – The Truce of Coldstream secures a five-year peace, between Scotland and England. The Bread and Cheese Revolt breaks out in North Holland. A major fire breaks out in Dresden. In the Russian territory of Komi, annexed by Russia in 1478, copper and silver ores are discovered, the territory gains importance as a mining and metallurgical center. Nicolaus Copernicus enters the University of Kraków. January 30 – Francesco Sforza, Italian noble March 25 – Marie d'Albret, Countess of Rethel, French nobility May 10 – Suzanne, Duchess of Bourbon June 28 – Henry VIII of England August 3 – Maria of Jülich-Berg, spouse of John III, Duke of Cleves August 10 – Queen Janggyeong, Korean royal consort August 25 – Innocenzo Cybo, Catholic cardinal October 6 – Francis de Bourbon, Count of St. Pol, French noble c. October 23 – Ignatius of Loyola, Spanish founder of the Society of Jesus, a Roman Catholic religious order October 26 – Zhengde Emperor of China November 8 – Teofilo Folengo, Italian poet November 11 – Martin Bucer, German Protestant reformer December 13 – Martín de Azpilcueta, Spanish theologian and economist December 31 – Jacques Cartier, French explorer date unknown Lapu-Lapu, Filipino king Azai Sukemasa, Japanese samurai and warlord Isabella Losa, Spanish scholar probable George Blaurock, Swiss founder of Anabaptism Antonio Pigafetta, Italian explorer January 19 – Dorothea of Brandenburg, Duchess of Mecklenburg February 15 – Ashikaga Yoshimi, brother of Shōgun Ashikaga Yoshimasa February 19 – Enno I, Count of East Frisia March 6 – Richard Woodville, 3rd Earl Rivers March 31 – Bonaventura Tornielli, Italian Roman Catholic priest May 14 – Filippo Strozzi the Elder, Italian banker July 13 – Afonso, Prince of Portugal July 16 – William Herbert, 2nd Earl of Pembroke, English earl October 5 – Jean Balue, French cardinal and statesman October 12 – Fritz Herlen, German artist November 16 – Holy Child of La Guardia, Spanish folk saint December 28 – Bertoldo di Giovanni, Italian sculptor date unknown – Anne of Orléans, Abbess of Fontevraud