Archducal hat of Tyrol
The archducal hat of Tyrol is an insignia of the County of Tyrol. It is located in the treasury of Mariastein and its design resembles the original archducal hat and depictions on coins of the archdukes Ferdinand I and Ferdinand II of Tyrol. It consists of a copper circlet which rests ten triangular gables with precious stones. It is closed with two arches surmounted by a globe and cross at the center, the copper circlet is hidden by the crimson cap which was originally turned up with ermine. The ermine has been lost over time and was replaced with silk in ermine pattern, both the hat and the sceptre were probably made in 1602. Although the Tyrol was a county, the hat is called archducal hat since its ruler Maximilian III was an imperial Habsburg archduke and he appears to have considered it unsuitable for his personal use after personal examination of the hat at Innsbruck in 1613. It was given as an offering to the church in Mariastein
The British Isles are a group of islands off the north-western coast of continental Europe that consist of the islands of Great Britain and over six thousand smaller isles. Situated in the North Atlantic, the islands have an area of approximately 315,159 km2. Two sovereign states are located on the islands and the United Kingdom of Great Britain, the oldest rocks in the group are in the north west of Scotland and North Wales and are 2,700 million years old. During the Silurian period the north-western regions collided with the south-east, the topography of the islands is modest in scale by global standards. Ben Nevis rises to an elevation of only 1,344 metres, and Lough Neagh, the climate is temperate marine, with mild winters and warm summers. The North Atlantic Drift brings significant moisture and raises temperatures 11 °C above the average for the latitude. This led to a landscape which was dominated by temperate rainforest. The region was re-inhabited after the last glacial period of Quaternary glaciation, which became an island by 12,000 BC, was not inhabited until after 8000 BC.
Great Britain became an island by 5600 BC, Hiberni and Britons tribes, all speaking Insular Celtic, inhabited the islands at the beginning of the 1st millennium AD. Much of Brittonic-controlled Britain was conquered by the Roman Empire from AD43, the first Anglo-Saxons arrived as Roman power waned in the 5th century and eventually dominated the bulk of what is now England. Viking invasions began in the 9th century, followed by permanent settlements. Most of Ireland seceded from the United Kingdom after the Irish War of Independence, the term British Isles is controversial in Ireland, where there are objections to its usage due to the association of the word British with Ireland. The Government of Ireland does not recognise or use the term, as a result and Ireland is used as an alternative description, and Atlantic Archipelago has had limited use among a minority in academia, while British Isles is still commonly employed. Within them, they are sometimes referred to as these islands. The earliest known references to the islands as a group appeared in the writings of sea-farers from the ancient Greek colony of Massalia.
The original records have been lost, writings, e. g. Avienuss Ora maritima, in the 1st century BC, Diodorus Siculus has Prettanikē nēsos, the British Island, and Prettanoi, the Britons. Strabo used Βρεττανική, and Marcian of Heraclea, in his Periplus maris exteri, historians today, though not in absolute agreement, largely agree that these Greek and Latin names were probably drawn from native Celtic-language names for the archipelago. Along these lines, the inhabitants of the islands were called the Πρεττανοί, the shift from the P of Pretannia to the B of Britannia by the Romans occurred during the time of Julius Caesar
Portuguese Crown Jewels
The Portuguese Crown Jewels were the pieces of jewelry and vestments worn by the Monarchs of Portugal during the time of the Portuguese Monarchy. Over the nine centuries of Portuguese history, the Portuguese Crown Jewels have lost, most of the current set of the Portuguese Crown Jewels are from the reigns of King João VI and King Luís I. By the reign of King Manuel I, Portugal had already a set of jewels. In early 1581 King António I fled to France after King Philip I was made the King of Portugal, António I took with him the Portuguese Crown Jewels, including many valuable diamonds. After several failed attempts to reclaim the Portuguese Crown, António I fell into poverty and his poverty led him to sell many of the remaining diamonds. From Maximilien, the diamond would finally go to join the French Crown Jewels, during the Portuguese Restoration War, João II of Braganza sold many of the Portuguese Crown Jewels to finance the war with Spain. Since then, Portuguese monarchs did not have a coronation but instead an acclamation, before the assumption of the Portuguese throne by the Philippine Dynasty, the Kings of Portugal used to be anointed and crowned in the Jeronimos Monastery in Lisbon.
In 1755 the Great Lisbon earthquake destroyed Lisbon and the Paço da Ribeira, with the destruction of the palace, innumerable pieces of the Portuguese Crown Jewels of the time were destroyed, lost, or stolen. While his court was in Rio de Janeiro, João VI had a new set of Portuguese Crown Jewels made. Constructed by the royal jewelers at the workshop of António Gomes da Silva, the pieces from this era are the majority of the current set of jewels. When Maria Pia of Savoy became Queen Consort of Portugal, King Luís I ordered many pieces of jewelry to be made, alongside this, he had a new royal mantle produced. When the Portuguese Royal Family was exiled, many of the jewels were taken with Queen Amélie of Orléans, in 2002 a large part of the Portuguese Crown Jewels were stolen from the Museon in The Hague, where they were on loan for an exhibition on European Crown Jewels. Following an investigation by the museum and Dutch authorities, the Dutch government paid a sum of six million euros to the Portuguese government for reparation, the Portuguese Crown Jewels are currently kept in a secured vault at the Ajuda National Palace, in Lisbon.
While the palace is a popular and important museum, the jewels are not open to the public. The crown jewels are now seen at special events concerning them or the palace specifically. Though the Portuguese Crown Jewels have had a history, theft. The current set of crown jewels includes numerous pieces of jewelry, gems and other regalia, but most notably, The Crown of João VI is an imperial format crown. A unique feature of the crown is that it is composed only of gold and red velvet
Gold is a chemical element with symbol Au and atomic number 79. In its purest form, it is a bright, slightly yellow, soft, malleable. Chemically, gold is a metal and a group 11 element. It is one of the least reactive chemical elements and is solid under standard conditions, Gold often occurs in free elemental form, as nuggets or grains, in rocks, in veins, and in alluvial deposits. It occurs in a solid solution series with the element silver and naturally alloyed with copper. Less commonly, it occurs in minerals as gold compounds, often with tellurium, golds atomic number of 79 makes it one of the higher numbered, naturally occurring elements. It is thought to have produced in supernova nucleosynthesis, from the collision of neutron stars. Because the Earth was molten when it was formed, almost all of the present in the early Earth probably sank into the planetary core. Gold is resistant to most acids, though it does dissolve in aqua regia, a mixture of acid and hydrochloric acid. Gold dissolves in solutions of cyanide, which are used in mining and electroplating.
Gold dissolves in mercury, forming amalgam alloys, but this is not a chemical reaction, as a precious metal, gold has been used for coinage and other arts throughout recorded history. A total of 186,700 tonnes of gold is in existence above ground, the world consumption of new gold produced is about 50% in jewelry, 40% in investments, and 10% in industry. Gold is used in infrared shielding, colored-glass production, gold leafing, certain gold salts are still used as anti-inflammatories in medicine. As of 2014, the worlds largest gold producer by far was China with 450 tonnes, Gold is cognate with similar words in many Germanic languages, deriving via Proto-Germanic *gulþą from Proto-Indo-European *ǵʰelh₃-. The symbol Au is from the Latin, the Latin word for gold, the Proto-Indo-European ancestor of aurum was *h₂é-h₂us-o-, meaning glow. This word is derived from the root as *h₂éu̯sōs, the ancestor of the Latin word Aurora. This etymological relationship is presumably behind the frequent claim in scientific publications that aurum meant shining dawn, Gold is the most malleable of all metals, a single gram can be beaten into a sheet of 1 square meter, and an avoirdupois ounce into 300 square feet.
Gold leaf can be thin enough to become semi-transparent
The cross represents Christs dominion over the orb of the world, literally held in the hand of an earthly ruler. In the iconography of Western art, when Christ himself holds the globe, he is called Salvator Mundi, holding the world in ones hand, or more ominously, under ones foot, has been used as a symbol since antiquity. To citizens of the Roman Empire, the round globe held by Jupiter represented the world, or the universe. The orbis terrarum was central to the iconography of the Tetrarchy, constantine I claimed to have had a vision of a cross above the sun, with the words In this sign, you shall conquer, at the Battle of Milvian Bridge in 312. His soldiers painted crosses upon their shields, and defeated their foe, with the growth of Christianity in the 5th century, the orb was topped with a cross, symbolising the Christian Gods dominion over the world. The emperor held the world in his hand, to show that he ruled it on Gods behalf, to non-Christians already familiar with the pagan globe, the surmounting of a cross sent a message about the triumph of Christianity.
Although the globe symbolized the entire Earth, its use spread among many Christian rulers who reigned over parts of the earth. The globus cruciger was associated with rulers and celestial beings alike. It first appeared on coins in the early 5th century and remained throughout the Middle Ages in coins, iconography. It may still be seen in the arms of the surviving European monarchies. Even in the era in England, the Sovereigns Orb symbolises both the state and Church of England under the protection and domain of the royal crown. The Ball and the Cross Holy Hand Grenade of Antioch Monde Earth symbol Leslie Brubaker, Dictionary of the Middle Ages, vol 5,564, ISBN 0-684-18161-4 Picture of the 10th century Orb and Crown insignia of the Holy Roman Empire
Necklace of the Stars
The Necklace of the Stars is a diamond necklace originally made for Queen Consort Maria Pia of Savoy. It is a piece of the Portuguese Crown Jewels, the Necklace of the Stars was made in 1865 for the wife of King Luís I of Portugal, Queen Cosort Maria Pia of Savoy, who had a love for jewelry and fashion. The necklace was fashioned in the workshop of the Portuguese Royal Jeweler in Lisbon, the necklace is just a piece of a whole set of jewelry that was commissioned by Maria Pia, which includes the famed Diadem of the Stars, the counterpart of the necklace. It is fashioned out of gold and colourless and pink diamonds, Diadem of the Stars Portuguese Crown Jewels Jóias da Coroa Portuguesa
St Edward's Crown
St Edwards Crown is one of the oldest Crown Jewels of the United Kingdom and the centrepiece of the coronation regalia. Named after Edward the Confessor, it has traditionally used to crown English and British monarchs at their coronation ceremonies. The current version was made for the coronation of Charles II in 1661, Edward the Confessor wore the first crown of this name at Easter and Christmas. It may have incorporated elements of a crown that belonged to Alfred the Great, in 1066, St Edwards Crown was reputedly used at the coronation of William the Conqueror. It was subsequently used for the coronations of William II, Henry I, Henry II, Richard I, at the first coronation of Henry III in 1216, a chaplet was used instead of the crown. From this it was inferred by the German historian, Reinhold Pauli, Arthur Penrhyn Stanley maintained that the original crown and regalia were kept in the Treasury until the time of Henry VIII, and survived until 1642. It was supposedly used in 1533 to crown the wife of Henry VIII.
During the English Civil War in 1642, Parliament sold the medieval St Edwards Crown, the British monarchy was eventually restored in 1661, and in preparation for the coronation of Charles II, a new St Edwards Crown was made by Sir Robert Vyner. It is 30 cm tall and weighs 2.23 kg and its purple velvet cap is trimmed with ermine. In 1671, Colonel Thomas Blood briefly stole the crown from the Tower of London, a new monde was created for the coronation of James II, and for William III the base was changed from a circle to an oval. St Edwards Crown was placed on the coffin of Edward VII for his lying in state, imitation pearls on the arches and base were replaced with golden beads. It was smaller to fit George V, the first monarch to be crowned with St Edwards Crown in over 200 years. When not used to crown the monarch, St Edwards Crown was placed on the altar during the coronation, however, it did not feature at all at the coronation of Queen Victoria. Before 1649, it was usual for a monarch to be crowned with the original St Edwards Crown, images based on the crown are used in coats of arms, badges and various other insignia throughout the Commonwealth realms to symbolise the monarchs royal authority.
In these contexts, it replaced the Tudor Crown in 1953 by order of Queen Elizabeth II, use of the crowns image in this way is by permission of the monarch. Coronation crown Canadian royal symbols St Edwards Crown at the Royal Collection, the Crown Jewels at the Royal Family website
Ducal hat of Styria
The ducal hat of the Duchy of Styria is a jagged crown made out of silver-gilt. Believed to be produced in the 15th century, it was refashioned with pearls and it was kept in Vienna until 1790, when the Styrian Estates asked it to be returned. In the 19th century, it was refitted again, the ducal hat is about 20.5 cm high, and has a diameter of 20 cm. It is kept today at the Landesmuseum Joanneum in Graz, Austria, the ducal hat is featured on top of the coat of arms of the federal state of Styria. Austrian Crown Jewels Austrian Imperial Crown Archducal hat KULT. DOKU | Styrian Ducal Hat
Manuel II of Portugal
Before ascending the throne he was Duke of Beja. His reign ended with the dissolution of the monarchy in the 5 October 1910 revolution, a member of the House of Braganza, he was baptized a few days later, with his maternal grandfather as godfather. The former Emperor Pedro II of Brazil, Manuel IIs paternal great-granduncle and he received the traditional education of a member of the royal family, without the political preoccupations that befell his older brother, who was destined to become King. Although Manuel was raised as member of the class, he took a more populist tone after ascending to the throne. He studied history and languages, and by the age of six spoke and he demonstrated a love of literature and reading, unlike his older brother, who was more interested in physical activities. Manuels upbringing included horse riding, rowing, tennis and he was a great lover of music, especially Beethoven and Wagner, and played the piano. As a child, Manuel played with the children of Count of Figueiró, in 1902, he was taught by Franz Kerausch, by Father João Damasceno Fiadeiro, Marquês Leitão, M.
Boeyé, Alfredo King, Father Domingos Fructuoso and Alexandre Rey Colaço. In 1903 he traveled with his mother and his brother to Egypt, on board the royal yacht Amélia, in 1907, he prepared to enter the Portuguese Naval Academy, to follow a naval career. His future in the Navy was abruptly shelved on 1 February 1908, on that day, the royal family returned from the palace of Vila Viçosa to Lisbon. On their way to the palace, the carriage carrying King Carlos. It is unclear whether the assassins were attempting to kill the King, the murderers were shot on the spot by the royal bodyguard and were recognized as members of the Portuguese Republican Party. The King was killed, Prince Luís Filipe was mortally wounded, Manuel was hit in the arm and it was Amélies quick thinking that saved her youngest son. About twenty minutes later, Prince Luis Filipe died, and Manuel became King of Portugal, the young King, who had not been groomed to rule, sought to save the fragile position of the Braganza dynasty by dismissing João Franco and his entire cabinet in 1908.
The ambitions of various political parties made Manuels short reign a turbulent one, in free elections held on 28 August 1910, the republicans won only 14 seats in the legislature. His first act was to meet with his Council of State and request the resignation of João Franco and he appointed a government of national unity, presided over by Admiral Francisco Joaquim Ferreira do Amaral. This quieted the republicans, but in retrospect was seen as weakness and he opened the Royal Court Assembly on 6 May 1908 in the presence of national representatives, and affirmed his support of the constitution. The King received general public sympathy, due to the deaths of his father and older brother and he was protected by his mother, Amélia, and sought out the support of the experienced politician José Luciano de Castro. Judging that the intervention of King Carlos was a reason for the events of 1908, he declared that he would reign, for his part, the new King tried to increase the monarchys connection with its subjects