Boat building, one of the oldest branches of engineering, is concerned with constructing the hulls of boats and, for sailboats, the masts and rigging. Anchor- a heavy, pick like device, attached to a boats stem by a warp, common types are Plow or Fisherman and Danforth. Modern anchors are made of steel but in pre-industrial societies rocks were used, the chain is added to the lower anchor end to add weight and prevent chafing of the rope warp on rocks or shellfish beds. A Norsemen invention used in sailing ships from about the 10th century AD that predates blocks. They served the purpose of a block/jamb cleat in one unit and it was a flat section of wood about 150 high x 120 wide shaped like an angel/butterfly used in attaching stays to the hull. The V-shape at the part of the wings acted as a V jam cleat. Bitts - Two short strong posts often made of steel, located on the fore and aft decks of a heavily built boat or ship. Bilge - the lowest part of the interior, under the sole. Often water and or fuel tanks are placed in the bilges to lower the centre of gravity, bilge keel - a longitudinal, underwater member used to reduce a ships tendency to roll.
In Britain twin bilge keels are often used on small boats moored in estuaries with a tidal range so the boat stay upright when dried out. With their much shallower draft yachts of this type can be sailed in shallow waters, not as hydro dynamically efficient as a fin keel. Bilge pump - a pump, either manual or electric with the set at the lowest point in the bilges where water will collect when the boat is upright. The inlet is protected by a screen to stop blockages Block a fitting with a wheel inside 2 cheeks designed to hold the turn of a rope. Originally made of wood, they are now made of plastic and they are mainly used in rigging in pairs or quads to allow a single person to operate a sail that creates a lot of force. Similar to a pulley or sheave, bow - The front and generally sharp end of the hull. It is designed to reduce the resistance of the cutting through water. Bowsprit - A spar that extends forward from the foredeck, outboard of the hull proper, common in square rigged ships where they were used to attach the outer or flying jib.
In modern sailboats they are made of lightweight carbon and used for attaching the luff of lightweight down-wind sails
Woodworking is the activity or skill of making items from wood, and includes cabinet making, wood carving, joinery and woodturning. Along with stone and animal parts, wood was one of the first materials worked by early humans, microwear analysis of the Mousterian stone tools used by the Neanderthals show that many were used to work wood. The development of civilization was closely tied to the development of increasingly greater degrees of skill in working these materials, among early finds of wooden tools are the worked sticks from Kalambo Falls, Clacton-on-Sea and Lehringen. The spears from Schöningen provide some of the first examples of hunting gear. Flint tools were used for carving, since Neolithic times, carved wooden vessels are known, for example, from the Linear Pottery culture wells at Kückhofen and Eythra. Examples of Bronze Age wood-carving include tree trunks worked into coffins from northern Germany and Denmark, there is significant evidence of advanced woodworking in Ancient Egypt.
Woodworking is depicted in extant ancient Egyptian drawings, and a considerable amount of ancient Egyptian furniture has been preserved. Tombs represent a collection of these artefacts and the inner coffins found in the tombs were made of wood. The metal used by the Egyptians for woodworking tools was originally copper and eventually, commonly used woodworking tools included axes, chisels, pull saws, and bow drills. Mortise and tenon joints are attested from the earliest Predynastic period and these joints were strengthened using pegs and leather or cord lashings. Animal glue came to be used only in the New Kingdom period, Ancient Egyptians invented the art of veneering and used varnishes for finishing, though the composition of these varnishes is unknown. Woodworking was essential to the Romans and it provided, sometimes the only, material for buildings, transportation and household items. Vitruvius dedicates a chapter of his De architectura to timber. Pliny, while not a botanist, dedicated six books of his Natural History to trees and woody plants which provides a wealth of information on trees, the progenitors of Chinese woodworking are considered to be Lu Ban and his wife Lady Yun, from the Spring and Autumn period.
Lu Ban is said to have introduced the plane, chalk-line and his teachings were supposedly left behind in the book Lu Ban Jing. Despite this, it is believed that the text was written some 1500 years after his death. This book is filled largely with descriptions of dimensions for use in building various items such as pots, altars, etc. It mentions almost nothing of the intricate glue-less and nail-less joinery for which Chinese furniture was so famous, with the advances in modern technology and the demands of industry, woodwork as a field has changed
Clogs are a type of footwear made in part or completely from wood. Clogs are used worldwide and although the form may vary by culture, traditional clogs remain in use as protective footwear in agriculture and in some factories and mines. Clogs are used in different styles of dance. When worn for dancing an important feature is the sound of the clog against the floor and this is one of the fundamental roots of tap, but with the tap shoes the taps are free to click against each other and produce a different sound from clogs. The Oxford English Dictionary defines a clog as a piece of wood, and as a wooden soled overshoe. Welsh traditional clog maker Trefor Owen identified three main varieties of clogs, wooden upper, wooden soled and overshoes, Wooden upper clogs, are made by hollowing out a lump of solid wood to make a combined upper and lower. Two main variants can be seen, whole foot clogs, where the upper covers the whole of the foot to near the ankle. They are known as wooden shoes, whole foot clogs can give sufficient protection to be used as safety footwear without additional reinforcements.
Half open clogs, where the wooden upper extends over the toes or slightly further, the upper is similar in outline to a court shoe. Half open clogs may have additional covering or securing straps in some sort of fabric or leather, Wooden soled clogs, use wood for the sole only. Wooden soled clogs come with a variety of uppers, complete uppers made from leather or similar material, for more protection, they may have steel toecaps and/or steel reinforcing inserts in the undersides of the soles open sandal type fitting. For example, Japanese geta toe peg styles, for example, Indian paduka Overshoes, are wooden soles with straps designed to be worn over other footwear for protection, commonly known as pattens. Patten style clogs are not used anymore, however the derivative galoshes are common world-wide. The type of upper determines how the clogs are worn, whole foot clogs need to be close fitting and can be secured by curling the toes. In contrast wooden soled clogs are fastened by laces or buckles on the welt, half open clogs may either be secured like whole foot clogs, or have an additional strap over the top of the foot.
Some sandal types, and in particular toe peg styles, are more like flip-flops. Being wood, clogs cannot flex under the ball of the foot as softer shoes do, to allow the foot to roll forward most clogs have the bottom of the toe curved up, known as the cast. Some styles of clogs have feet, such as Spanish albarca, the clog rotates around the front edge of the front feet
The term tensegrity was coined by Buckminster Fuller in the 1960s as a portmanteau of tensional integrity. The other denomination of tensegrity, floating compression, was used mainly by Kenneth Snelson and this can produce exceptionally rigid structures for their mass and for the cross section of the components. A conceptual building block of tensegrity is seen in the 1951 Skylon, six cables, three at each end, hold the tower in position. The three cables connected to the bottom define its location, the other three cables are simply keeping it vertical. A three-rod tensegrity structure builds on this structure, the ends of each rod look like the top. As long as the angle between any two cables is smaller than 180°, the position of the rod is well defined, eleanor Hartley points out visual transparency as an important aesthetic quality of these structures. Korkmaz et al. put forward that the concept of tensegrity is suitable for adaptive architecture thanks to lightweight characteristics, the roof uses an inclined surface held in check by a system of cables holding up its circumference.
In the 1980s David Geiger designed Seoul Olympic Gymnastics Arena for the 1988 Summer Olympics, the Georgia Dome, which was used for the 1996 Summer Olympics is a large tensegrity structure of similar design to the aforementioned Gymnastics Hall. Shorter columns or struts in compression are stronger than longer ones and this in turn led some, namely Fuller, to make claims that tensegrity structures could be scaled up to cover whole cities. On 4 October 2009, the Kurilpa Bridge opened across the Brisbane River in Queensland, a multiple-mast, cable-stay structure based on the principles of tensegrity, it is currently the worlds largest such structure. Biotensegrity, a term coined by Dr. Stephen Levin, is the application of tensegrity principles to biologic structures. Biological structures such as muscles, fascia and tendons, or rigid, the muscular-skeletal system is a synergy of muscle and bone. The muscles and connective tissues provide continuous pull and the present the discontinuous compression.
A theory of tensegrity in molecular biology to explain cellular structure has been developed by Harvard physician and this view is supported by how the tension-compression interactions of tensegrity minimize material needed, add structural resiliency, and constitute the most efficient possible use of space. Therefore, natural selection pressures would strongly favor biological systems organized in a tensegrity manner, for this reason, tensegrity structures offer a maximum amount of strength. The origins of tensegrity are controversial, in 1948, artist Kenneth Snelson produced his innovative X-Piece after artistic explorations at Black Mountain College and elsewhere. Some years later, the term tensegrity was coined by Fuller, throughout his career, Fuller had experimented incorporating tensile components in his work, such as in the framing of his dymaxion houses. Snelsons 1948 innovation spurred Fuller to immediately commission a mast from Snelson, in 1949, Fuller developed an icosahedron based on the technology, and he and his students quickly developed further structures and applied the technology to building domes
Wood is a porous and fibrous structural tissue found in the stems and roots of trees, and other woody plants. It is a material, a natural composite of cellulose fibers which are strong in tension embedded in a matrix of lignin which resists compression. Wood is sometimes defined as only the secondary xylem in the stems of trees, in a living tree it performs a support function, enabling woody plants to grow large or to stand up by themselves. It conveys water and nutrients between the leaves, other growing tissues, and the roots, Wood may refer to other plant materials with comparable properties, and to material engineered from wood, or wood chips or fiber. In 2005, the stock of forests worldwide was about 434 billion cubic meters. As an abundant, carbon-neutral renewable resource, woody materials have been of intense interest as a source of renewable energy, in 1991 approximately 3.5 billion cubic meters of wood were harvested. Dominant uses were for furniture and building construction, a 2011 discovery in the Canadian province of New Brunswick discovered the earliest known plants to have grown wood, approximately 395 to 400 million years ago.
Wood can be dated by carbon dating and in species by dendrochronology to make inferences about when a wooden object was created. People have used wood for millennia for many purposes, primarily as a fuel or as a material for making houses, weapons, packaging, artworks. Constructions using wood date back ten thousand years, buildings like the European Neolithic long house were made primarily of wood. Recent use of wood has changed by the addition of steel. The year-to-year variation in tree-ring widths and isotopic abundances gives clues to the climate at that time. This process is known as growth, it is the result of cell division in the vascular cambium, a lateral meristem. These cells go on to form thickened secondary cell walls, composed mainly of cellulose, hemicellulose, if the distinctiveness between seasons is annual, these growth rings are referred to as annual rings. Where there is little seasonal difference growth rings are likely to be indistinct or absent, if the bark of the tree has been removed in a particular area, the rings will likely be deformed as the plant overgrows the scar.
It is usually lighter in color than that near the portion of the ring. The outer portion formed in the season is known as the latewood or summerwood. However, there are differences, depending on the kind of wood
Lumber, or timber is wood that has been processed into beams and planks, a stage in the process of wood production. Lumber may refer to currently un-needed furniture, as in Lumber room, or an awkward gait, ultimately derived from the look of unfashionable, Lumber may be supplied either rough-sawn, or surfaced on one or more of its faces. Besides pulpwood, rough lumber is the raw material for furniture-making and it is available in many species, usually hardwoods, but it is readily available in softwoods, such as white pine and red pine, because of their low cost. Lumber is mainly used for structural purposes but has other uses as well. It is classified more commonly as a softwood than as a hardwood, in Australia, New Zealand and Britain, the term timber describes sawn wood products, such as floor boards. In the United States and Canada, generally timber describes standing or felled trees, before they are milled into boards, Timber there describes sawn lumber not less than 5 inches in its smallest dimension.
The latter includes the often partly finished lumber used in timber-frame construction, remanufactured lumber is the result of secondary or tertiary processing/cutting of previously milled lumber. Specifically, it is cut for industrial or wood-packaging use. Lumber is cut by ripsaw or resaw to create dimensions that are not usually processed by a primary sawmill, resawing is the splitting of 1-inch through 12-inch hardwood or softwood lumber into two or more thinner pieces of full-length boards. For example, splitting a ten-foot 2×4 into two ten-foot 1×4s is considered resawing, structural lumber may be produced from recycled plastic and new plastic stock. Its introduction has been opposed by the forestry industry. Blending fiberglass in plastic lumber enhances its strength, logs are converted into timber by being sawn, hewn, or split. Sawing with a rip saw is the most common method, because sawing allows logs of lower quality, with grain and large knots. There are various types of sawing, Plain sawn —A log sawn through without adjusting the position of the log, quarter sawn and rift sawn—These terms have been confused in history but generally mean lumber sawn so the annual rings are reasonably perpendicular to the sides of the lumber.
Boxed heart—The pith remains within the piece with some allowance for exposure, heart center—the center core of a log. Free of heart center —A side-cut timber without any pith, free of knots —No knots are present. Dimensional lumber is lumber that is cut to standardized width and depth, carpenters extensively use dimensional lumber in framing wooden buildings. Common sizes include 2×4, 2×6, and 4×4, the length of a board is usually specified separately from the width and depth
Taxus is a genus of small coniferous trees or shrubs in the yew family Taxaceae. They are relatively slow-growing and can be very long-lived, and reach heights of 2. 5–20 metres, the male cones are globose, 3–6 mm across, and shed their pollen in early spring. Yews are mostly dioecious, but occasional individuals can be variably monoecious, other sources, recognize 9 species, for example the Plant List. The most distinct is the Sumatran yew, distinguished by its sparse, the Mexican yew is relatively distinct with foliage intermediate between Sumatran yew and the other species. The Florida yew, Mexican yew and Pacific yew are all species listed as threatened or endangered. All species of yew contain highly poisonous alkaloids known as taxanes, all parts of the tree except the arils contain the alkaloid. The arils are edible and sweet, but the seed is poisonous, unlike birds. This can have fatal results if yew berries are eaten without removing the seeds first. Grazing animals, particularly cattle and horses, are sometimes found dead near yew trees after eating the leaves, though deer are able to break down the poisons.
In the wild, deer browsing of yews is often so extensive that wild yew trees are restricted to cliffs. The foliage is eaten by the larvae of some Lepidopteran insects including the moth willow beauty. These pollen granules are extremely small, and can pass through window screens. Male yews bloom and release abundant amounts of pollen in the spring, yews in this genus are primarily separate-sexed, and males are extremely allergenic, with an OPALS allergy scale rating of 10 out of 10. Completely female yews have an OPALS rating of 1, and are considered allergy-fighting, Yew wood is reddish brown, and is very springy. It was traditionally used to make bows, especially the longbow, Ötzi, the Chalcolithic mummy found in 1991 in the Italian alps, carried an unfinished bow made of yew wood. Consequently, it is not surprising that in Norse mythology, the abode of the god of the bow, most longbow wood used in northern Europe was imported from Iberia, where climatic conditions are better for growing the knot-free yew wood required.
The yew longbow was the weapon used by the English in the defeat of the French cavalry at the Battle of Agincourt,1415. It is suggested that English parishes were required to grow yews and, because of the toxic properties
Dacrydium cupressinum, commonly known as rimu, is a large evergreen coniferous tree endemic to the forests of New Zealand. It is a member of the conifer group, the podocarps. The former name red pine has fallen out of common use, rimu grows throughout New Zealand, in the North Island, South Island and Stewart Island/Rakiura. Although the largest concentration of trees is now found on the West Coast of the South Island, a typical North Island habitat is in the Hamilton Ecological District, where Fuscospora truncata and rimu form the overstory. Associate ferns on the forest floor are Blechnum discolor, Blechnum filiforme, rimu is a slow-growing tree, eventually attaining a height of up to 50 m, although most surviving large trees are 20 to 35 m tall. It typically appears as an emergent from mixed broadleaf temperate rainforest, there are historical accounts of exceptionally tall trees,61 m, from dense forest near National Park in the central North Island, now destroyed. Its lifespan is approximately 800 to 900 years, the straight trunk of the rimu is generally 1.5 m in diameter, but may be larger in old or very tall specimens.
The leaves are arranged, awl-shaped, up to 7 mm long on juvenile plants, and 1 mm wide. It is dioecious, with male and female cones on separate trees, the mature cones comprise a swollen red fleshy scale six to ten mm long bearing one apical seeds 4 mm long. Historically and other trees such as kauri and totara were the main sources of wood for New Zealand, including furniture. Pinus radiata has now replaced rimu in most industries, although rimu remains popular for the production of high quality wooden furniture, there is limited recovery of stump and root wood, from trees felled many years before, for use in making bowls and other wood turned objects. The inner bark can be used to treat burns and cuts, although slow to establish, with a long juvenile period and fairly high moisture requirements, rimu is widely grown as an ornamental tree in New Zealand. It is attractive at all stages, usually quite narrow when young. While rimu does exhibit some variation in the wild, garden cultivars are largely unknown except for one recent introduction, Charisma, IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.
International Union for Conservation of Nature
Malus is a genus of about 30–55 species of small deciduous apple trees or shrubs in the family Rosaceae, including the domesticated orchard apple. The other species are known as crabapples, crab apples, crabs. The genus is native to the zone of the Northern Hemisphere. Apple trees are typically 4–12 m tall at maturity, with a dense, the leaves are 3–10 cm long, simple, with a serrated margin. Apples require cross-pollination between individuals by insects, all are self-sterile, and self-pollination is impossible, making pollinating insects essential, several Malus species, including domestic apples, hybridize freely. They are used as food plants by the larvae of a number of Lepidoptera species. The centre of the fruit contains five carpels arranged star-like, each containing one or two seeds, for the Malus pumila cultivars, the cultivated apples, see Apple. Crabapples are popular as ornamental trees, providing blossom in Spring. The fruits often persist throughout Winter, numerous hybrid cultivars have been selected, of which Evereste and Red Sentinel have gained The Royal Horticultural Societys Award of Garden Merit.
Other varieties are dealt with under their species names, some crabapples are used as rootstocks for domestic apples to add beneficial characteristics. For example, varieties of Baccata, called Siberian crab and they are used as pollinizers in apple orchards. In emergencies, a bucket or drum bouquet of crabapple flowering branches are placed near the beehives as orchard pollenizers. Crabapple fruit is not an important crop in most areas, being extremely sour due to acid, and in some species woody. In some southeast Asian cultures they are valued as a condiment, sometimes eaten with salt and chili pepper. Some crabapple varieties are an exception to the reputation of being sour, crabapples are an excellent source of pectin, and their juice can be made into a ruby-coloured preserve with a full, spicy flavour. A small percentage of crabapples in cider makes a more interesting flavour, as Old English Wergulu, the crab apple is one of the nine plants invoked in the pagan Anglo-Saxon Nine Herbs Charm, recorded in the 10th century.
Apple wood gives off a pleasant scent when burned, and smoke from a wood fire gives an excellent flavour to smoked foods. It is easier to cut when green, dry wood is exceedingly difficult to carve by hand
The art of chainsaw carving is a fast-growing form of art that combines the modern technology of the chainsaw with the ancient art of woodcarving. The oldest chainsaw artist records go back to the 1950s, which include artists Ray Murphy, in 1952 Ray Murphy used his fathers chainsaw to carve his name into a piece of wood. In 1961 Ken Kaiser created 50 carvings for the Trees of Mystery, many new artists began to experiment with chainsaw carving, including Brenda Hubbard, Judy McVay, Don Colp, Cherie Currie, Susan Miller, Mike McVay, and Lois Hollingsworth. At this time chainsaw carvers started loading up their carvings in the back of their trucks, in the 1980s the art form really began to grow with Art Moe getting much exposure for the craft at the Lumberjack World Championships held in Hayward, Wisconsin. The addition of carving contests from the west coast to the east coast brought carvers together to test their skills, the first Chainsaw Carving World Championships was held in 1987 and won by 24-year-old Barre Pinske.
The 80s brought the first book on chainsaw carving and Profitable Chainsaw Carving by William Westenhaver and Ron Hovde, other books soon followed, including a book by Hal MacIntosh published in 1988 titled Chainsaw Art and in 2001 Chainsaw Carving, The Art and Craft. He published material on chainsaw carving that predated the popularity of the Internet, the first booking agency dedicated to promoting and preserving the integrity of performance chainsaw art was founded by Brian Ruth in 1992. It was appropriately named Masters of the Chainsaw, the company has represented some of the most respected artists in the U. S. such as Brian Ruth, Ben Risney, Josh Landry, Mark Tyoe and Marty Long, as well as select artists from other countries. In 2007, Masters of the Chainsaw, under the direction of Jen Ruth, featured in this all-female team are greats like Stephanie Huber, Angela Polglaze, Lisa Foster, Alicia Charlton, Uschi Elias, and Sara Winter. Brian Ruth introduced the art as an art to Japan in 1995.
Since then, he has established a division of Masters of the Chainsaw, although the general impression of the public is that it is largely performance art, there are a few chainsaw carvers now producing stunning works of art. These works can be produced in a fraction of the time that would normally be expected if only conventional tools such as mallet, although many carvers continue to use other tools alongside the chainsaw, the chainsaw remains the primary tool. With the growth of the Internet, chainsaw carving has become a phenomenon with chainsaw carvers all over the world. In the United Kingdom, the English Open Chainsaw Competition draws thousands of visitors annually, in 1989 Duncan Kitson was the first British carver, with notable success, to represent Wales and The UK in international competition. His work is recognized for its individual and tactile qualities, English chainsaw artist Matthew Crabb has carved the largest wooden statue of the Virgin Mary in the world, at 9 meters high, in Schochwitz, Germany.
Welsh veteran, Harry Thomas of Thomas Carving is highly respected in the industry and specialises in bears, Harry has appeared on ITVs Daybreak, where he carved Queen Elizabeth IIs head, in celebration of her Diamond Jubilee. In Canada, many wooden statues produced by the chainsaw artist Pete Ryan decorate the town of Hope. In Japan, the Toei Chainsaw Art Club established the World Chainsaw Art Competition, the 2011 World Chainsaw Art Competition at the Toei Dome was to be dedicated to raising money for disaster relief due to the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster that has affected the country
Alder is the common name of a genus of flowering plants belonging to the birch family Betulaceae. The common name alder evolved from Old English alor, which in turn is derived from Proto-Germanic root aliso, the generic name Alnus is the equivalent Latin name. With a few exceptions, alders are deciduous, and the leaves are alternate and these trees differ from the birches in that the female catkins are woody and do not disintegrate at maturity, opening to release the seeds in a similar manner to many conifer cones. The largest species are red alder on the west coast of North America, by contrast, the widespread Alnus viridis is rarely more than a 5-m-tall shrub. Alders are commonly found near streams and wetlands, Alder leaves and sometimes catkins are used as food by numerous butterflies and moths. A. glutinosa and A. viridis are classed as environmental weeds in New Zealand, Alder leaves and especially the roots are important to the ecosystem because they enrich the soil with nitrogen and other nutrients.
Alder is particularly noted for its important symbiotic relationship with Frankia alni and this bacterium is found in root nodules, which may be as large as a human fist, with many small lobes, and light brown in colour. The bacterium absorbs nitrogen from the air and makes it available to the tree, Alder, in turn, provides the bacterium with sugars, which it produces through photosynthesis. Because of its abundance, red alder delivers large amounts of nitrogen to enrich forest soils, red alder stands have been found to supply between 120 and 290 pounds of nitrogen per acre annually to the soil. From Alaska to Oregon, Sitka alder characteristically pioneer fresh, gravelly sites at the foot of retreating glaciers, alders are common among the first species to colonize disturbed areas from floods, fires, etc. Alder groves themselves often serve as natural firebreaks since these trees are much less flammable than conifers. Their foliage and leaf litter does not carry a fire well, in addition, the light weight of alder seeds allows for easy dispersal by the wind.
Although it outgrows coastal Douglas-fir for the first 25 years, it is shade intolerant. Red alder is the Pacific Northwests largest alder and the most plentiful, alders largely help create conditions favorable for giant conifers that replace them. Alder root nodules Alder roots are parasitized by northern groundcone, the catkins of some alder species have a degree of edibility, and may be rich in protein. Reported to have a bitter and unpleasant taste, they are useful for survival purposes. The wood of certain species is often used to smoke various food items such as coffee, salmon. Most of the pilings that form the foundation of Venice were made from alder trees, Alder bark contains the anti-inflammatory salicin, which is metabolized into salicylic acid in the body
History of wood carving
Wood carving is one of the oldest arts of humankind. Wooden spears from the Middle Paleolithic, such as the Clacton Spear, the North American Indian carves his wooden fish-hook or his pipe stem just as the Polynesian works patterns on his paddle. Figure-work seems to have been universal, the texture of the material, often proves challenging to the expression of features, especially in the classic type of youthful face. On the other hand, magnificent examples exist of the rugged features of age, the beetling brows. In ancient work the surface may not have been of such consequence, for figures as a rule being painted for protection and especially color. It is not always realized at the present day to what extent color has even from the most ancient times used to enhance the effect of wood-carving. The modern Colour prejudice against gold and other tints is perhaps because painted work has been vulgarized, the arrangement of a proper and harmonious scheme of colour is not the work of the house painter, but of the specially trained artist.
In the early 20th century, the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, on much of this entry is based, commented. The work is slow and requires substantial skill, making the works expensive. Other and cheaper methods of decoration have driven carving from its former place, machine work has much to answer for, and the endeavor to popularize the craft by means of the village class has not always achieved its own end. The gradual disappearance of the individual artist, elbowed out as he has been, the extreme dryness of the climate of Egypt accounts for the existence of a number of woodcarvings from this remote period. Some wood panels from the tomb of Hosul Egypt, at Sakkarah are of the III, the carving consists of Egyptian hieroglyphs and figures in low relief, and the style is extremely delicate and fine. A stool shown on one of the panels has the legs shaped like the fore and hind limbs of an animal, in the Cairo museum may be seen the statue of a man from the period of the Great Pyramid of Giza, possibly 4000 B. C.
The expression of the face and the realism of the carriage have never been surpassed by any Egyptian sculptor of this or any other period, the figure is carved out of a solid block of sycamore, and in accordance with the Egyptian custom the arms are joined on. The IV. V. and VI. dynasties cover the finest period of Egyptian sculpture, the statues found in the tombs show a freedom of treatment which was never reached in times. They are all portraits, which the artist strove his utmost to render exactly like his model, for these are not, like mere modern statues, simply works of art, but had primarily a religious signification. As the spirits of the deceased might inhabit, these Ka statues, sometimes the animal would be carved in the round and its hollowed body used as the case itself. Of furniture, folding seats like the camp stool, and chairs with legs terminating in the heads of beasts or the feet of animals