The Netherlands, informally known as Holland is the main constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. It is a densely populated country located in Western Europe with three territories in the Caribbean. The European part of the Netherlands borders Germany to the east, Belgium to the south, and the North Sea to the northwest, sharing borders with Belgium, the United Kingdom. The three largest cities in the Netherlands are Amsterdam and The Hague, Amsterdam is the countrys capital, while The Hague holds the Dutch seat of parliament and government. The port of Rotterdam is the worlds largest port outside East-Asia, the name Holland is used informally to refer to the whole of the country of the Netherlands. Netherlands literally means lower countries, influenced by its low land and flat geography, most of the areas below sea level are artificial. Since the late 16th century, large areas have been reclaimed from the sea and lakes, with a population density of 412 people per km2 –507 if water is excluded – the Netherlands is classified as a very densely populated country.
Only Bangladesh, South Korea, and Taiwan have both a population and higher population density. Nevertheless, the Netherlands is the worlds second-largest exporter of food and agricultural products and this is partly due to the fertility of the soil and the mild climate. In 2001, it became the worlds first country to legalise same-sex marriage, the Netherlands is a founding member of the EU, Eurozone, G-10, NATO, OECD and WTO, as well as being a part of the Schengen Area and the trilateral Benelux Union. The first four are situated in The Hague, as is the EUs criminal intelligence agency Europol and this has led to the city being dubbed the worlds legal capital. The country ranks second highest in the worlds 2016 Press Freedom Index, the Netherlands has a market-based mixed economy, ranking 17th of 177 countries according to the Index of Economic Freedom. It had the thirteenth-highest per capita income in the world in 2013 according to the International Monetary Fund, in 2013, the United Nations World Happiness Report ranked the Netherlands as the seventh-happiest country in the world, reflecting its high quality of life.
The Netherlands ranks joint second highest in the Inequality-adjusted Human Development Index, the region called Low Countries and the country of the Netherlands have the same toponymy. Place names with Neder, Nieder and Nedre and Bas or Inferior are in use in all over Europe. They are sometimes used in a relation to a higher ground that consecutively is indicated as Upper, Oben. In the case of the Low Countries / the Netherlands the geographical location of the region has been more or less downstream. The geographical location of the region, changed over time tremendously
St Edward's Crown
St Edwards Crown is one of the oldest Crown Jewels of the United Kingdom and the centrepiece of the coronation regalia. Named after Edward the Confessor, it has traditionally used to crown English and British monarchs at their coronation ceremonies. The current version was made for the coronation of Charles II in 1661, Edward the Confessor wore the first crown of this name at Easter and Christmas. It may have incorporated elements of a crown that belonged to Alfred the Great, in 1066, St Edwards Crown was reputedly used at the coronation of William the Conqueror. It was subsequently used for the coronations of William II, Henry I, Henry II, Richard I, at the first coronation of Henry III in 1216, a chaplet was used instead of the crown. From this it was inferred by the German historian, Reinhold Pauli, Arthur Penrhyn Stanley maintained that the original crown and regalia were kept in the Treasury until the time of Henry VIII, and survived until 1642. It was supposedly used in 1533 to crown the wife of Henry VIII.
During the English Civil War in 1642, Parliament sold the medieval St Edwards Crown, the British monarchy was eventually restored in 1661, and in preparation for the coronation of Charles II, a new St Edwards Crown was made by Sir Robert Vyner. It is 30 cm tall and weighs 2.23 kg and its purple velvet cap is trimmed with ermine. In 1671, Colonel Thomas Blood briefly stole the crown from the Tower of London, a new monde was created for the coronation of James II, and for William III the base was changed from a circle to an oval. St Edwards Crown was placed on the coffin of Edward VII for his lying in state, imitation pearls on the arches and base were replaced with golden beads. It was smaller to fit George V, the first monarch to be crowned with St Edwards Crown in over 200 years. When not used to crown the monarch, St Edwards Crown was placed on the altar during the coronation, however, it did not feature at all at the coronation of Queen Victoria. Before 1649, it was usual for a monarch to be crowned with the original St Edwards Crown, images based on the crown are used in coats of arms, badges and various other insignia throughout the Commonwealth realms to symbolise the monarchs royal authority.
In these contexts, it replaced the Tudor Crown in 1953 by order of Queen Elizabeth II, use of the crowns image in this way is by permission of the monarch. Coronation crown Canadian royal symbols St Edwards Crown at the Royal Collection, the Crown Jewels at the Royal Family website
States General of the Netherlands
The States General is the bicameral legislature of the Netherlands, consisting of the Senate and the House of Representatives. The parliament meets at the Binnenhof in The Hague, the States General originated in the 15th century as an assembly of all the provincial states of the Burgundian Netherlands. The States General were replaced by the National Assembly after the Batavian Revolution of 1795, only to be restored in 1814, the States General was divided into a Senate and a House of Representatives in 1815, with the establishment of the United Kingdom of the Netherlands. On exceptional occasions, the two form a joint session known as the United Assembly. The President of the Senate serves as President of the States General during a United Assembly, ankie Broekers-Knol has been President of the Senate since 2013. The archaic Dutch word staten originally related to the classes in which medieval European societies were stratified, the clergy, the nobility. The word eventually came to mean the political body in which the estates were represented.
Each province in the Habsburg Netherlands had its own staten and these representative bodies in turn were represented in the assembly that came to be known as Staten-Generaal, or Algemene Staten. The English word states may have a meaning as the Dutch word staten. The English phrases States General is probably a translation of the Dutch word. Historically, the term was used for the name of other national legislatures as, for example, the Catalan and Valencian Generalitat. Several geographic place names are derived from the States General, in 1609, Henry Hudson established Dutch trade in Staten Island, New York City and named the island Staaten Eylandt after the States General. Isla de los Estados, now an Argentine island, was named after this institution. Abel Tasman originally gave the name Staten Landt to what would become New Zealand, Staaten River is a river in the Cape York Peninsula, Australia. Later, regular sessions were held at Coudenberg in Brussels, the next important event was the convocation of the States General by the ducal Council for 3 February 1477 after the death of Charles the Bold.
In this session the States General forced the grant of the Great Privilege by Mary of Burgundy in which the right of the States General to convene on their own initiative was recognised, in 1576 the States General as a whole, openly rebelled against the Spanish crown. In 1579 the States General split as a number of provinces, united in the Union of Arras returned to obedience, while other provinces. After the Act of Abjuration in 1581 the northern States General replaced Philip II as the authority of the northern Netherlands
Danish Crown Regalia
Danish Crown Regalia are the symbols of the Danish monarchy. They consist of three crowns, a Sceptre, Globus cruciger, the Sword of state and an Ampulla, the Danish Royal Regalia are kept in the Schatzkammer at Rosenborg Castle. The oldest of these is Christian IIIs sword of state from 1551, during the time of the elective monarchs, the clergy and nobility placed the crown on the kings head at the coronation ceremony. For the anointing of Christian V, a new crown was made along with the Throne Chair of Denmark of narwhal teeth and three silver lions, the latter created by Ferdinand Küblich. This was inspired by the description of King Solomons throne. The lions were formerly displayed in Parliament during the annual opening session. They were displayed before the throne in the room of Christiansborg Palace when the Danish kings granted audiences on particularly formal occasions. Rosenborg houses four sets of Crown Jewels still worn by the Queen of Denmark, and it includes the crown of King Christian IV, which is a fine example of Renaissance guildwork, the better known crown of King Christian V and a smaller crown for the kings consort.
The Royal Collection has other important items and jewels, as well as precious prayer-books, and items belonging to the Order of the Elephant, the term old regalia is used to describe the crown regalia used prior to the introduction of absolute monarchy in 1660. The crown was fashioned by Dirich Fyring at Odense assisted by the Nuremberg goldsmith Corvinianus Saur during the years 1595-1596 for the coronation of Christian IV and it is made of gold, table cut gemstones and pearls and weighs 2895 g. The circlet is ornamented with six sets of table cut diamonds between two large round pearls with enameled putti on either side, between each of these sets are star-like ornaments of triangular and square table cut diamonds. On the upper rim of the circlet are six large and six small arabesque-like points, at the center of each of the larger points is an enameled allegorical figure of one of the kings ruling functions and virtues. The three points above the forehead and behind each of his ears bears a pelican in her piety.
The point on the right of the kings forehead bears a representation of Fortitude riding a lion, while that on the bears the image of Justice as a woman holding a sword. The point above the back of the kings neck bears the image of Charity as a mother suckling her child. On the inside these points are decorated with the coats of arms of various regions of the realm, the six smaller points each bears a star-like design in triangular and square table diamonds with a large pear shaped pearl at its top. Originally an open crown, in 1648 it was closed with arches and an orb and cross and it was used for the last time at the 1648 coronation of Frederick III. The sword of state of Christian III was made in 1551 by Johann Siebe and it is made of gilded silver and decorated with enamel and table cut gemstones
German State Crown
In 1871 a design and model for a new state crown was created to reflect the new German Empire. The model was based upon the Crown of the Holy Roman Empire and was kept in the Hohenzollern museum at Schloss Monbijou in Berlin, no final crown was ever made. However, the design was used as a device for the German Kaisers from 1871 until Kaiser Wilhelms abdication in 1918. The crown was most used as a symbol, in the German coat of arms. A drawing of the crown is used as an emblem by a German monarchist group called Tradition und Leben, Crowns for the Empress and Crown Prince were designed and wooden models made, see Imperial Crowns - Prussian-German Imperial Crowns. Media related to German State Crown at Wikimedia Commons
Arms of Skanderbeg
Gjergj Kastrioti Skanderbeg was a prominent figure in the history of Albania. His weapons have been subjects of mythical adoration, according to legends his sword was so heavy that only his arm could wield it. Also it was said to be so sharp that it could slice a man vertically from head to waist with little effort, of all of Skanderbegs belongings, but four objects remain, two swords, a helmet, and a prayer book. The prayer book is archived at the Shelley Publishing House in Chelsea, according to Dhimitër Frëngu, Skanderbegs scribe and one of his biographers, the first sword was curved, with a sharp edge and elegantly made of Damascened steel. There are accounts which report that at one point he kept two swords sheathed in the same scabbard, Frengu adds, rather colourfully, that Skanderbeg brought a master sword-maker over from Italy, who produced three better swords for him. One of them, that could cut through steel, he sent it as a present to the Ottoman Sultan and it is known that in Skanderbegs last visit to the Holy See, Pope Paul II presented the Albanian hero with a sword and a cap.
The straight sword, which lies at the Museum of Ambras along with the helmet, is double-edged, the blade is dressed in gold. It is 85.5 centimeters long,5.7 cm wide and its scabbard is made of leather. According to Faik Konica, who viewed the sword at the beginning of the 20th century, on the other hand, the curved sword, including the hilt, measures 121 cm in length and weighs 3.2 kg. This sword is fashioned after Ottoman styles of the time, and just as Dhimiter Frengu reported five centuries earlier, is a damascene steel, there is an inscription in Turkish, which according to Faik Konica is not correct. Still, according to Faik Konica, only the blade belongs to the sword held by Skanderbeg. The hilt, dressed in silver, and the velvet scabbard belong to a subsequent time, both swords were reproduced in Vienna, for exclusive display in Tirana. Of these two swords, the one which Skanderbeg used in times of war could have been the curved one, the straight sword was rather short for his tall frame, whereas the other one afforded the flexibility required for cavalry charges and the fighting style of the day.
In addition, having trained in Turkey, and having learned there his skills in martial arts. Skanderbeg’s helmet is made of metal, adorned with a strip dressed in gold. On its top lies the head of a goat made of bronze. Contemporary sources show that 14th century Albanians were invariably identified as a tribal peoples, at the request of the pre-WWII Albanian government, an identical copy of the helmet of Skanderbeg lies now in the National Museum of Tirana, Albania. The copy was manufactured by an Austrian master in 1937, the helmet is depicted on the reverse of the Albanian 5000 lekë banknote, issued since 1996
Imperial Crown of Austria
The Imperial Crown of Austria was made in 1602 in Prague by Jan Vermeyen as the personal crown of Holy Roman Emperor Rudolf II, and therefore is known as the Crown of Emperor Rudolf II. The crown was used as a crown of the Holy Roman Emperors and Kings of Hungary. In 1804 it became the crown of the newly constituted Austrian Empire. After 1867 it remained the crown of the Cisleithanian part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire until 1918. The Imperial Crown consists of three principal elements possessing great symbolic significance, the circlet, the arch, and the mitre. The circlet is dominated by eight large squares of diamonds, forming a crown in itself, between the stones are two large pearls arranged vertically and set within white enamel rosettes surrounded by scrollwork. From the circlet emerge eight lilies, which were inspired by the Bohemian Crown of St. Wenceslas. The lilies are associated with the fleurs-de-lis of the House of Valois, the use of eight elements was taken from the Imperial Crown of the Holy Roman Empire, which includes a circlet made out of eight plates.
In the circlet are precious stones such as spinels, the zircons are cut in such a way that they are flat at the front. Preparing precious stones for mounting in this way was a new technique at the time the crown was made. The mitre symbolises the right to rule, and the spiritual position of the emperor. The mitre fills the left and right sides of the crown, the mitre is made of gold, with a band of enamel work depicting birds and plants. The mitre is divided into four sections representing the high honours of Holy Roman Emperor Rudolf II, the first section shows him kneeling, receiving the Imperial Crown of the Holy Roman Empire in Regensburg as Holy Roman Emperor. The second section shows him riding onto the hill in Pressburg during his coronation as King of Hungary. The third section shows his coronation procession through Prague as King of Bohemia, the fourth section depicts an allegory of his victory over the invading Turks. The Latin inscription inside the arch reads, RVDOLPHVS II ROM IMP AVGVSTUS HVNG ET BOH REX CONSTRVXIT MDCII, the high arch was inspired by the arch of the Imperial Crown of the Holy Roman Empire.
It rises from the front and back of the circlet and is studded with eight diamonds, the emperor was regarded as governor on earth in the name of Christ. At the top of the arch is an emerald, which symbolises heaven
Crown of Saint Wenceslas
The Crown of Saint Wenceslas is a crown forming part of the Bohemian Crown Jewels, and made in 1347. On the orders of Charles IV the new crown was permanently deposited in Karlštejn Castle near Prague). It was used for the last time for the coronation of Ferdinand V in 1836, the St. Wenceslas Crown is made of 21 to 22 carat gold and decorated with precious stones and pearls. It contains a total of 19 sapphires,44 spinels,1 ruby,30 emeralds and 20 pearls, unlike many other European royal treasures, the St. Wenceslas Crown is not displayed publicly, and only a replica is shown. Along with the other Bohemian crown jewels, it is kept in a chamber within St. Vitus Cathedral accessible by a door in the St. Wenceslas Chapel, the exact location of the chamber is not known to the general public. The jewels are taken from the chamber and displayed for periods of several days on notable occasions approximately once every five years. The crown was exhibited in May 2016 to mark the 700th anniversary of the birth of Charles IV, although there is no evidence proving that Heydrich did so, the legend is widely believed.
Środa Treasure Official info of Prague Castle
Imperial State Crown
The Imperial State Crown is one of the Crown Jewels of the United Kingdom and symbolises the sovereignty of the monarch. It has existed in various forms since the 15th century, the current version was made in 1937 and is worn by the monarch after a coronation ceremony and during his or her speech at the annual State Opening of Parliament. It contains 2,901 precious stones, including Cullinan II – the second-largest clear cut diamond in the world. St Edwards Crown, used to crown English monarchs, was considered to be a relic, kept in the saints shrine at Westminster Abbey. The Tudor Crown had more pearls and jewels than its predecessor, and the centre petals of each of the fleurs-de-lis had images of Christ. The crown weighed 3.3 kg and was set with 168 pearls,58 rubies,28 diamonds,19 sapphires and 2 emeralds. Following the abolition of the monarchy and the execution of Charles I in 1649, upon the restoration of the monarchy in 1660, a new state crown was made for Charles II by Sir Robert Vyner.
About 10 versions of the crown have existed since the restoration, the one made for Queen Victoria in 1838 is the basis for todays crown. At the State Opening of Parliament in 1845, the Duke of Argyll was carrying the crown before Queen Victoria when it fell off the cushion, Victoria wrote in her diary, it was all crushed and squashed like a pudding that had sat down. The gems in the crown were remounted for the coronation of George VI in 1937 by Garrard & Co, the crown was adjusted for Queen Elizabeth IIs coronation in 1953, with the head size reduced and the arches lowered by 25 mm to give it a more feminine appearance. The Imperial State Crown is 31.5 cm tall and weighs 1.06 kg and its purple velvet cap is trimmed with ermine. The frame is made of gold and platinum, and decorated with 2,868 diamonds,273 pearls,17 sapphires,11 emeralds, and 5 rubies. In 1909, the 104-carat Stuart Sapphire, set in the front of the crown, was moved to the back, three of the pearls belonged to Elizabeth I. The crown is worn by the monarch on leaving Westminster Abbey at the end of his or her coronation ceremony and it is worn at the annual State Opening of Parliament.
When not in use, it is on display with the rest of the Crown Jewels in the Jewel House at the Tower of London. Kenneth J. Mears, Simon Thurley, Claire Murphy, the Imperial State Crown at the Royal Collection. The Crown Jewels at the Royal Family website
Coat of arms of the Netherlands
The coat of arms of the Kingdom of the Netherlands was originally adopted in 1815 and modified in 1907. The current components of the coats of arms were regulated by Queen Wilhelmina in a decree of 10 July 1907. The shield is crowned with the crown and supported by two lions Or armed and langued gules. They stand on a scroll Azure with the text Je Maintiendrai The monarch places this coat of arms on a mantle gules lined with ermine, above the mantle is a pavilion gules again topped with the royal crown. In the royal decree it is stated that male successors may replace the crown on the shield with a helm with the crest of Nassau and this version of the coat of arms has been in use since 1907 but differs only slightly from the version that was adopted in 1815. From 1815 until 1907 all the lions wore the royal crown, the royal arms were adopted by the first king of The Kingdom of the Netherlands, William I, when he became king after the Congress of Vienna in 1815. As king, he adopted a coat of arms that combined elements of his family’s coat of arms, from his family arms he used the azure, billetty or with a lion rampant or of Nassau.
The Je Maintiendrai motto represents the Orange family since it came into the family with the princedom of Orange as Je Maintiendrai Châlons and these elements are found in the arms of king William III, who was king of England, Scotland & Ireland. From the arms of the former States General of the Republic of the United Provinces he took the lion with a coronet, the arrows symbolize the seven provinces that made up the Republic, the sword the determination to defend their liberty, and the coronet their sovereignty. William replaced the coronet with a royal crown, in 1907, Queen Wilhelmina returned to an open coronet. The arms of Nassau has existed since about 1250, there are two versions of the Nassau arms, representing the two main branches. This is a result of two brothers, count Walram II and count Otto I, agreeing to divide their fathers lands between them in 1255. The line of Walram added a crown to the lion in the Nassau arms to make it different from the used by the line of Otto. The kings and queens of the Netherlands are descendants of count Otto, the Grand Dukes of Luxemburg are descendants of count Walram.
They still use Nassau in their arms, both lines are now extinct in the male line. This crest is used by the descendants of Otto and differs from the crest used by the descendants of Walram, but in the royal decree of 1815 the crest issuing from a crown on the Dutch Royal Arms was the one used by the Walram line. Why this was done is not sure, maybe due to the mistake this crest was hardly used. The crest of the Walram-line is, Between two trunks Azure billetty Or a sitting lion Or, the trunks are probably a misinterpretation of two cow horns, a crest that is frequently used in German heraldry