A post is a main vertical or leaning support in a structure similar to a column or pillar but the term post refers to a timber but may be metal or stone. A stud in wooden or metal building construction is similar but lighter duty than a post and a strut may be similar to a stud or act as a brace. In the U. K. a strut may be similar to a post but not carry a beam. In wood construction posts land on a sill, but in rare types of buildings the post may continue through to the foundation called an interrupted sill or into the ground called earthfast, post in ground, or posthole construction. A post is a fundamental element in a fence; the terms "jack" and "cripple" are used with shortened studs and rafters but not posts, except in the specialized vocabulary of shoring. Timber framing beams; the term post is the namesake of other general names for timber framing such as post-and-beam, post-and-girt construction and more specific types of timber framing such as Post and lintel, post-frame, post in ground, ridge-post construction.
In roof construction such as king post, queen post, crown post framing. A round post is called a pole or mast depending on its diameter thus pole building framing, or a mast church. Wall~: A general term for a post in a wall. Principal~ A primary support. Principal is a general term meaning a "major" member distinguished from "common" or "minor" members. Angle~ A historical name for a corner post. Intermediate~ A post in an exterior wall not at a corner. Chimney~ An intermediate post receiving its name from being near a chimney. Interior~ A general term for posts not in an exterior wall. Arcade ~ A post located between an nave. Aisle~ same as arcade post. Corner~ Any post at the corner of a building. Story~ A post only one story tall as in "storeyed construction" known as platform framing. Prick~ 1) Same as story post, a one-story post for extra support at a particular location. Ridge ~ A post extending from the foundation to the ridge beam. Samson ~ similar to puncheon. Puncheon: 1) A short, stout post may be identical to a prick post.
Dragon~ A corner post supporting a dragon beam in jetty framing. Gunstock~, jowled~, flared~, teasel~. A flared post, larger at the top than the bottom, most found in the side walls but could be any location. A post may have an "integral bracket", a mid-post flair to carry a lower timber; the portion of a flared post extending upward at the top is called the upstand and one of the top tenons is called a teazle tenon. Jetty~ A post supporting a jetty Door~: A post framing a doorway. Blade: A specific name for the post-like timber in cruck framing. Cruck stud: The upright stud or post forming a wall, mounted on a cruck blade and held by a cruck spur. Pile, piling: A post driven or set into the ground such as in earthfast, post in ground, or "posthole construction". Stave: 1) Small, narrow pieces of wood used in a variety of ways. King~ 1) A single, central post in a roof truss in tension between the rafters and a tie beam, or 2) A short of the tie beam only supporting the rafters via struts. 3) A king post carries a ridge beam otherwise is called a king strut.
"King post" was used to describe a crown post in the U. K. but no longer. King pendant: A central, upright timber in a truss projecting below the lowest beam, "normally used with scissor beams". Queen~ 1) A pair of vertical posts in a roof system that are part of a truss, with a straining beam between and in tension holding up a tie beam or. Called a queen strut. Queen strut: 1) A queen post which does not carry a plate.. Lateral Queen ~ a pair of braced posts between a tie collar beam. Prince~, A strut associated with a king post truss. Princess~ A strut associated with a queen strut but shorter. Crown~: A post on a tie beam or collar beam carrying a crown plate. Crown strut: A piece similar to a crown post but not carrying a plate. Ashlar~ or ashlar piece: Short post from a tie beam to a rafter near a masonry wall. Purlin ~ A post supporting a purlin plate, may be leaning. Hammer~: An upright in a hammer beam truss supported on the hammer beam in a hammerbeam roof. Ridge~: A historic type of post and lintel framing, the ridge post carrying a supporting ridge beam.
See Ständerhaus#Firstständerhaus Framing which details each of Balloon framing Platform framing Walls Newel post: A non-structural upright which supports a stairway handrail. Alcock, N. W.. Recording timber-framed buildings: an illustrated glossary. London: Council for British Archaeology, 1989. Boucher, Ward, ed. Dictionary of Building Preservation John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: 1996, NY Gwilt, Joseph. An Encyclopaedia of Architecture: Historical and Practical, 1867. Reprint. NY: Crown Publishers, Inc, 1982. Print. Harris, Richard. Discovering timber-framed buildings. 2d ed. Aylesbury: Shire Publications, 1979. Sobon, Jack A.. Historic American timber joinery: a graphic guide. Becket, Mass.: Published by the Timber Framers Guild, 2002. Sturgis, Sturgis' Illustrated Dictionary of Architecture and Building: an unabridged reprint of the 1901-2 edition. Mineola, N. Y.: Dover, 1989. Russell, Terence M.. The Encyclopaedic Dictionary in the Eighteenth Century
A king post is a central vertical post used in architectural or bridge designs, working in tension to support a beam below from a truss apex above. In aircraft design a strut called a king post acts in compression to an architectural crown post. Usage in mechanical plant and marine engineering differs again. A king post extends vertically from a crossbeam to the apex of a triangular truss; the king post, itself in tension, connects the apex of the truss with its base, holding up the tie beam at the base of the truss. The post can be replaced with an iron rod called a king rod and thus a king rod truss; the king post truss is called a "Latin truss". In traditional timber framing, a crown post looks similar to a king post, but it is different structurally: whereas the king post is in tension supporting the tie beam as a truss, the crown post is supported by the tie beam and is in compression; the crown post rises to a crown plate below and supporting collar beams, it does not rise to the apex like a king post.
A crown post was called a king post in England but this usage is obsolete. An alternative truss construction uses two queen posts; these vertical posts, positioned along the base of the truss, are supported by the sloping sides of the truss, rather than reaching its apex. A development adds a collar beam above the queen posts, which are termed queen struts. A section of the tie beam between the queen posts may be removed to create a hammerbeam roof; the king post truss is used for short-span bridges. It is the simplest form of truss; the truss consists of two diagonal members that meet at the apex of the truss, one horizontal beam that serves to tie the bottom end of the diagonals together, the king post which connects the apex to the horizontal beam below. For a roof truss, the diagonal members are called rafters, the horizontal member may serve as a ceiling joist. A bridge would require two king post trusses with the driving surface between them. A roof uses many side-by-side trusses depending on the size of the structure.
Pont-y-Cafnau, the world's first iron railway bridge, is of the king post type. King posts were used in timber-framed roof construction in Roman buildings, in medieval architecture in buildings such as parish churches and tithe barns; the oldest surviving roof truss in the world is a king post truss in Saint Catherine's Monastery, built between 548 and 565. King posts appear in Gothic Revival architecture, Queen Anne style architecture and in modern construction. King post trusses are used as a structural element in wood and metal bridges. A painting by Karl Blechen circa 1833 illustrating construction of the second Devil's Bridge in the Schöllenen Gorge shows multiple king posts suspended from the apex of the falsework upon which the masonry arch has been laid. In this example, beams in compression are supported by each king post several feet below the apex, the bottom of the king posts can be seen to be unsupported. Architectural historians in the French colonial cities St Louis and New Orleans, Louisiana use the term "Norman roof" to refer to a steeply pitched roof.
This is a through-purlin truss consisting of a tie beam and paired truss blades, with a central king post to support the roof ridge. The name derives from a belief that this system of construction was introduced to North America by settlers from Normandy in northern France, but it is a misnomer as the system was more used than that; the difference between a Norman truss and a king post truss is the tie beam in a Norman truss is technically a collar beam where the king post truss the rafters land on top of a tie beam. King posts are used in the construction of some wire-braced aircraft, where a king post supports the top cables or "ground wires" supporting the wing. Only on the ground are these wires from the kingpost in tension, while in the air under positive g flight they are unloaded; the robust hinge connecting the boom to the chassis in a backhoe, similar in function and appearance to a large automotive kingpin, is called a king post. On a cargo ship or oiler a king post is an upright with cargo-handling or fueling rig devices attached to it.
On a cargo vessel king posts are designed for handling cargo, so are located at the forward or after end of a hatch. For an oiler they are located over the fuel transfer lines. Strut Cabane strut Queen post Timber roof truss Thomas. Elementary Principles of Carpentry. E. L. Carey and A. Hart. Wood, De Volson. Treatise on the Theory of the Construction of Bridges and Roofs. J. Wiley & Sons. Bridge Basics Timber roofs Crown post roofs King and Queen post roofs on the former mansion at Parlington, near Aberford in Yorkshire, England An Illustrated Roof Glossary ]
Timber framing and "post-and-beam" construction are traditional methods of building with heavy timbers, creating structures using squared-off and fitted and joined timbers with joints secured by large wooden pegs. It is commonplace in wooden buildings from the 19th century and earlier. If the structural frame of load-bearing timber is left exposed on the exterior of the building it may be referred to as half-timbered, in many cases the infill between timbers will be used for decorative effect; the country most known for this kind of architecture is Germany. Timber framed houses are spread all over the country except in the southeast; the method comes from working directly from trees rather than pre-cut dimensional lumber. Hewing this with broadaxes and draw knives and using hand-powered braces and augers and other woodworking tools, artisans or framers could assemble a building. Since this building method has been used for thousands of years in many parts of the world, many styles of historic framing have developed.
These styles are categorized by the type of foundation, walls and where the beams intersect, the use of curved timbers, the roof framing details. A simple timber frame made of straight vertical and horizontal pieces with a common rafter roof without purlins; the term box frame has been used for any kind of framing. The distinction presented here is. Purlins are found in plain timber frames. A cruck is a pair of curved timbers which form a bent or crossframe. More than 4,000 cruck frame buildings have been recorded in the UK. Several types of cruck frames are used. True cruck or full cruck: blades, straight or curved, extend from ground or foundation to the ridge acting as the principal rafters. A full cruck does not need a tie beam. Base cruck: tops of the blades are truncated by the first transverse member such as by a tie beam. Raised cruck: blades land on masonry wall, extend to the ridge. Middle cruck: blades land on masonry wall, are truncated by a collar. Upper cruck: blades land on a tie beam similar to knee rafters.
Jointed cruck: blades are made from pieces joined near eaves in a number of ways. See also: hammerbeam roof End cruck is not a style, but on the gable end of a building. Aisled frames have one or more rows of interior posts; these interior posts carry more structural load than the posts in the exterior walls. This is the same concept of the aisle in church buildings, sometimes called a hall church, where the center aisle is technically called a nave. However, a nave is called an aisle, three-aisled barns are common in the U. S. the Netherlands, Germany. Aisled buildings are wider than the simpler box-framed or cruck-framed buildings, have purlins supporting the rafters. In northern Germany, this construction is known as variations of a Ständerhaus. Half-timbering refers to a structure with a frame of load-bearing timber, creating spaces between the timbers called panels, which are filled-in with some kind of nonstructural material known as infill; the frame is left exposed on the exterior of the building.
The earliest known type of infill, called opus craticum by the Romans, was a wattle and daub type construction. Opus craticum is now confusingly applied to a Roman stone/mortar infill as well. Similar methods to wattle and daub were used and known by various names, such as clam staff and daub, cat-and-clay, or torchis, to name only three. Wattle and daub was the most common infill in ancient times; the sticks were not always technically wattlework, but individual sticks installed vertically, horizontally, or at an angle into holes or grooves in the framing. The coating of daub has many recipes, but was a mixture of clay and chalk with a binder such as grass or straw and water or urine; when the manufacturing of bricks increased, brick infill replaced the less durable infills and became more common. Stone laid in mortar as an infill was used in areas where mortar were available. Other infills include bousillage, fired brick, unfired brick such as adobe or mudbrick, stones sometimes called pierrotage, planks as in the German ständerbohlenbau, timbers as in ständerblockbau, or cob without any wooden support.
The wall surfaces on the interior were “ceiled” with wainscoting and plastered for warmth and appearance. Brick infill sometimes called nogging became the standard infill after the manufacturing of bricks made them more available and less expensive. Half-timbered walls may be covered by siding materials including plaster, tiles, or slate shingles; the infill may be covered by other materials, including weatherboarding or tiles. or left exposed. When left exposed, both the framing and infill were sometimes done in a decorative manner. Germany is famous for its decorative half-timbering and the figures sometimes have names and meanings; the decorative manner of half-timbering is promoted in Germany by the German Timber-Frame Road, several planned routes people can drive to see notable examples of Fachwerk buildings. Gallery of infill types: Gallery of some named figures and decorations: The collection of elements in half timbering are sometimes given specific names: The term half-timbering is not as old as the German name Fachwerk or the French name colombage, but it is the standard English name for this style.
One of the first people to publish the term "half-timbered" was Mary Martha Sherwood, who employed it in her book, T
Old Soar Manor
Old Soar Manor is an English Heritage property and maintained by the National Trust. Located near Plaxtol, England, it is a small 13th century stone manor house, it is Grade. Built in 1290, the manor belonged to the Culpepper family; the centre of the house was the great hall but this no longer exists, as it was demolished in 1780 and replaced with the red-brick farmhouse on the site. Visitors today can see the solar and chapel which remain. Description by English Heritage photos of Old Soar Manor and surrounding area on geograph.org.uk Map sources for Old Soar Manor
A tie, tie rod, guy-wire, suspension cables, or wire ropes, are examples of linear structural components designed to resist tension. It is the opposite of a strut or column, designed to resist compression. Ties may be made of any tension resisting material. In wood frame construction they are made of galvanized steel. Wood framing ties have holes allowing them to be fastened to the wood structure by nails or screws; the number and type of nails are specific to its use. The manufacturer specifies information as to the connection method for each of their products. Among the most common wood framing ties used is the hurricane tie or seismic tie used in the framing of wooden structures where wind uplift or seismic overturning is a concern. A hurricane tie is used to help make a structure more resistant to high winds, resisting uplift, racking and sliding; each of the crucial connections in a structure, that would otherwise fail under the pressures of high winds, have a corresponding type of tie made of galvanized or stainless steel, intended to resist hurricane-force and other strong winds.
A connecting tie that provides a continuous structural load transfer path from the top of a building to its foundation, helping to protect buildings from damage resulting from high wind. These devices are used in areas affected by high winds including hurricanes and are suitable for any area that may be impacted by windstorm damage, they are known as hurricane clip or strips. Among the most common style used along the gulf coast area are plywood fasteners or oriented strand boards over the windows and openings of brick homes. Hurricane clips meet the minimum requirements for code approval and are only as strong as their weakest install point. A hurricane clip has two meanings in building construction: A connecting tie that provides a continuous structural load transfer path from the top of a building to its foundation, helping to protect buildings from damage resulting from high wind; these devices are used in areas affected by high winds including hurricanes and are suitable for any area that may be impacted by windstorm damage.
They are known as hurricane ties or strips. These devices are known as wind clips and hurricane side clips Seismic tie provides facility to securely fix cabinets, desks, machinery & equipment to walls and/or floors to constrain their movement during earthquakes. Top mount, face mount, sloped/skewed, variable pitch hangers for dimensional lumber, engineered wood I-joists, structural composite lumber and masonry wall. To give added strength in increase various load requirements over wood only; when building subfloor the joists must always bear on the ledge for all it support. The use of steel stap tie to connect opposite joist when the top of beam are flush. Twist straps provide a tension connection between two wood members, they resist uplift at the heel of a truss economically. When the strengthening is being done from the inside, the ideal connector to use is one that connects rafters or trusses directly to wall studs; this can only be done where the rafter or trusses are above or to the side of studs below.
In that case a twist strap connector can be used. A connector for connecting wall studs of two adjacent floors in a light frame building structure, the connector having a first attachment tab, a seat member, a diagonally slanted support leg, a second attachment tab, all planar; the connector is intended to be paired and the paired connectors joined by an elongated tie member that pierces the sill plates of the intervening floor structure. Sometimes referred to as an angle brace; the Angle tie is used to prevent displacement of building elements due to thrust. A brace/tie across an interior angle of a wooden frame, forming the hypotenuse and securing the two side pieces together. Similar to a French cleat, a Z-Clip allows for the installation of wall panels without screwing into the front of the panels; the clips provide a secure mount for wall panels, frames and more. Once installed, clips wedge together to lock panels in place. To disengage panels lift and remove. See Rafter ties are designed to tie together the bottoms of opposing rafters on a roof, to resist the outward thrust where the roof meets the house ceiling and walls.
This helps keep walls from spreading due to the weight of the roof and anything on it, notably wet snow. In many or most homes, the ceiling joists serve as the rafter ties; when the walls spread, the roof ridge will sag. A sagging ridge is one clue. Rafter ties form the bottom chord of a simple triangular roof truss, they resist the out-thrust of a triangle that's trying to flatten under the roof's own weight or snow load. They are placed in the bottom one-third of the roof height. Rafter ties are always required unless the roof has a structural ridge, or is built using engineered trusses. A lack of rafter ties is a serious structural issue in a conventionally framed roof. A wooden beam serving this purpose is known as a tie-beam and a roof incorporating tie-beams is known as a tie-beam roof. Framing Timber framing List of structural elements Tie rod
A collar beam or collar is a horizontal member between two rafters and is common in domestic roof construction. A collar is structural but they may be used to frame a ceiling. A collar beam is called a collar tie but this is correct. A tie in building construction is an element in tension rather than compression and most collar beams are designed to work in compression to keep the rafters from sagging. A collar near the bottom of the rafters may replace a tie beam and be designed to keep the rafters from spreading, thus are in tension: these are called a collar tie. Collar in general comes from Latin collare meaning neck; the simplest form of roof framing is a common rafter roof. This roof framing has nothing but a tie beam at the bottoms of the rafters; the next step in the development of roof framing was to add a collar, called a collar beam roof. Collar beam roofs are suitable for spans up to around. A crown post is a compression member, a post, in roof framing which carries a longitudinal beam called a crown plate.
The crown plate in turn carries collar beams which help support and carry the rafters, thus collar beams are always found in crown post roof framing. The arch brace truss is made by adding two braces between collar; this puts the collar and the braces in tension
Eugène Emmanuel Viollet-le-Duc was a French architect and author who restored many prominent medieval landmarks in France, including those, damaged or abandoned during the French Revolution. His major restoration projects included Notre Dame Cathedral, the Basilica of Saint Denis, Mont Saint-Michel, Sainte-Chapelle, the medieval walls of the city of Carcassonne, his writings on the relationship between form and function in architecture had a notable influence on a new generation of architects, including Antonio Gaudí, Victor Horta, Louis Sullivan. Viollet-le-Duc was born in Paris in the last year of the Empire of Napoleon Bonaparte, his grandfather was an architect, his father was a high-ranking civil servant, who in 1816 became the overseer of the royal residences of Louis XVIII. His uncle Étienne-Jean Delécluze was a painter, a former student of Jacques-Louis David, an art critic and hosted a literary salon, attended by Stendhal and Sainte-Beuve, his mother hosted her own salon as well as men.
There, in 1822 or 1823, Eugène met Prosper Mérimée, a writer who would play a decisive role in his career. In 1825 he began his education in Fontenay-aux-Roses, he returned to Paris in 1829 as a student at the College de Bourbon. He passed his baccalaureate examination in 1830, his uncle urged him to enter the École des Beaux-Arts, created in 1806, but the École had an rigid system, based on copying classical models, Eugène was not interested. Instead he decided to get practical experience in the architectural offices of Jacques-Marie Huvé and Achille Leclère, while devoting much of his time to drawing medieval churches and monuments around Paris, he participated in the July 1830 revolution which overthrew Charles X, building a barricade, his first known construction project. Following the revolution, which brought Louis Philippe to power, his father became chief of the bureau of royal residences; the new government created, for the first time, the position of Inspector General of Historic Monuments.
Eugène's uncle Delescluze agreed to take Eugène on a long tour of France to see monuments. They traveled from July to October 1831 throughout the south of France, he returned with a large collection of detailed paintings and watercolors of churches and monuments. On his return to Paris, he moved with his family into the Tuileries Palace, where his father was now governor of royal residences, his family again urged him to attend the École des Beaux-Arts. He wrote, they all come out identical." He was a meticulous artist. On May 3, 1834, at age twenty, he married Élisabeth Templier, in the same year he was named an associate professor of ornamental decoration at the Royal School of Decorative Arts, which gave him a more regular income. With the money from the sale of his drawings and paintings, the couple set off on a long tour of the monuments of Italy, visiting Rome, Venice and other sites and painting, his reaction to the Leaning Tower of Pisa was characteristic: "It was disagreeable to see", he wrote, "it would have been infinitely better if it had been straight."
In 1838, he presented several of his drawings at the Paris Salon, began making a travel book and romantic images of the old France, for which, between 1838 and 1844, he made nearly three hundred engravings. In October 1838, with the recommendation of Achille Leclère, the architect with whom he had trained, he was named deputy inspector of the enlargement of the Hôtel Soubise, the new home of the French National Archives, his uncle, Delescluze recommended him to the new Commission of Historic Monuments of France, led by Prosper Mérimée, who had just published a book on medieval French monuments. Though he was just twenty-four years old and had no degree in architecture, he was asked to go to Narbonne to propose a plan for the completion of the cathedral there, he made his first plan, which included not only the completion but the restoration of the oldest parts of the structure. His first project was rejected by the local authorities too expensive, his next project was a restoration of the Vézelay Abbey, the church of a Benedictine monastery founded in the 12th century to house the reputed relics of Mary Magdalene.
The church had been sacked by the Huguenots in 1569, during the French Revolution, the facade and statuary on the facade were destroyed. The vaults of the roof were weakened, many of the stones had been carried off for other projects; when Mérimée visited to inspect the structure he heard stones falling around him. In February 1840 Mérimée gave Viollet-le-Duc the mission of restoring and reconstructing the church so it would not collapse, while "respecting in his project of restoration all the ancient dispositions of the church"; the task was all the more difficult because up until that time no scientific studies had been made of medieval building techniques, there were no schools of restoration. He had no plans for the original building to work from. Viollet-le-Duc had to discover the flaws of construction that had caused the building to start to collapse in the first place and to construct a more solid and stable structure, he lightened the roof and built new arches to stabilize the structure, changed the shape of the vaults and arches.
He was criticized for thes