Crows Nest, Queensland
Crows Nest is a town in the Darling Downs region of Queensland, Australia. The town is located on the New England Highway, 158 kilometres from the state capital, Brisbane and 43 kilometres from the nearby city of Toowoomba, it is within the Toowoomba Region local government area. At the 2016 Census, Crows Nest had a population of 2,160. Crows Nest, established on Dalla tribal lands, was declared a town in 1876. Crows Nest Post Office opened on 1 July 1878. A branch railway line from Toowoomba, which serviced a number of sawmills and a dairying district, was finished in 1886, it is claimed by some that the town was named after an Aborigine, Jimmy Crow, who gave directions to early European settlers. He lived in a big hollow tree near the police station, it became a popular overnight camp for the bullock teams hauling timber, which in turn attracted farmers and settlers. A 6-foot 6-inch high statue of Jimmy Crow was unveiled in the Centenary Park at Crows Nest on 12 July 1969 by Minister for Labour and Tourism, John Herbert.
The statue was sculpted by Fred Gardiner of the Tia Art Gallery. The statue weighs over one ton. An 18-foot high hollow tree stump was moved to Centenary Park and a fig tree was planted on top so the roots could be trained around it to form a living hollow tree, it is believed to be the only memorial in Australia to an Aboriginal person after whom a town was named. However, it is claimed that the name derives from the indigenous name for the area Tookoogandanna, meaning "the home of crows"; some researchers acknowledge. In 1913, the Shire of Crows Nest was formed with the town becoming the administrative centre for the new local government area; the shire expanded in 1949 and was merged into the Toowoomba Region local government area in 2008. In the 1950s and 60s the town's population declined, together with the local industries. Crows Nest has a number of heritage-listed sites, including: 19 Curnow Street: Crows Nest Post Office Town facilities include a large pavilion for sports activities and other functions, showgrounds and a 25 m heated swimming pool.
6 kilometres east of the town is the Crows Nest National Park. The John French V. C. Memorial Library is open Monday to Saturday; the library is located on the corner of William Street and the New England Highway and is operated by the Toowoomba Regional Council. The current library facility opened in 1996 with a major refurbishment in 2014. Crows Nest Regional Art Gallery is located in the same building as the Crows Nest Library, is used to showcase local talent; the Crows Nest branch of the Queensland Country Women's Association meets at 7 Thallon Street. Jack French, recipient of the Victoria Cross Crow's Nest & District Tourist & Progress Association, From tall timbers: a folk history of Crow's Nest Shire, 1988, Crow's Nest & District Tourist & Progress Association Inc, ISBN 978-0-7316-3402-6 Media related to Crows Nest, Queensland at Wikimedia Commons Crows Nest: Queensland Places Crows Nest Pioneer wall The Crow Call community newsgroup
International Union for Conservation of Nature
The International Union for Conservation of Nature is an international organization working in the field of nature conservation and sustainable use of natural resources. It is involved in data gathering and analysis, field projects and education. IUCN's mission is to "influence and assist societies throughout the world to conserve nature and to ensure that any use of natural resources is equitable and ecologically sustainable". Over the past decades, IUCN has widened its focus beyond conservation ecology and now incorporates issues related to sustainable development in its projects. Unlike many other international environmental organisations, IUCN does not itself aim to mobilize the public in support of nature conservation, it tries to influence the actions of governments and other stakeholders by providing information and advice, through building partnerships. The organization is best known to the wider public for compiling and publishing the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, which assesses the conservation status of species worldwide.
IUCN has a membership of over 1400 non-governmental organizations. Some 16,000 scientists and experts participate in the work of IUCN commissions on a voluntary basis, it employs 1000 full-time staff in more than 50 countries. Its headquarters are in Switzerland. IUCN has observer and consultative status at the United Nations, plays a role in the implementation of several international conventions on nature conservation and biodiversity, it was involved in establishing the World Wide Fund for Nature and the World Conservation Monitoring Centre. In the past, IUCN has been criticized for placing the interests of nature over those of indigenous peoples. In recent years, its closer relations with the business sector have caused controversy. IUCN was established in 1948, it was called the International Union for the Protection of Nature and the World Conservation Union. Establishment IUCN was established on 5 October 1948, in Fontainebleau, when representatives of governments and conservation organizations signed a formal act constituting the International Union for the Protection of Nature.
The initiative to set up the new organisation came from UNESCO and from its first Director General, the British biologist Julian Huxley. The objectives of the new Union were to encourage international cooperation in the protection of nature, to promote national and international action and to compile and distribute information. At the time of its founding IUPN was the only international organisation focusing on the entire spectrum of nature conservation Early years: 1948–1956 IUPN started out with 65 members, its secretariat was located in Brussels. Its first work program focused on saving species and habitats and applying knowledge, advancing education, promoting international agreements and promoting conservation. Providing a solid scientific base for conservation action was the heart of all activities. IUPN and UNESCO were associated, they jointly organized the 1949 Conference on Protection of Nature. In preparation for this conference a list of gravely endangered species was drawn up for the first time, a precursor of the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.
In the early years of its existence IUCN depended entirely on UNESCO funding and was forced to temporarily scale down activities when this ended unexpectedly in 1954. IUPN was successful in engaging prominent scientists and identifying important issues such as the harmful effects of pesticides on wildlife but not many of the ideas it developed were turned into action; this was caused by unwillingness to act on the part of governments, uncertainty about the IUPN mandate and lack of resources. In 1956, IUPN changed its name to International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. Increased profile and recognition: 1956–1965 In the 1950s and 1960s Europe entered a period of economic growth and formal colonies became independent. Both developments had impact on the work of IUCN. Through the voluntary involvement of experts in its Commissions IUCN was able to get a lot of work done while still operating on a low budget, it established links with the Council of Europe. In 1961, at the request of United Nations Economic and Social Council, the United Nations Economic and Social Council, IUCN published the first global list of national parks and protected areas which it has updated since.
IUCN's best known publication, the Red Data Book on the conservation status of species, was first published in 1964. IUCN began to play a part in the development of international treaties and conventions, starting with the African Convention on the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. Environmental law and policy making became a new area of expertise. Africa was the focus of many of the early IUCN conservation field projects. IUCN supported the ‘Yellowstone model’ of protected area management, which restricted human presence and activity in order to protect nature. IUCN and other conservation organisations were criticized for protecting nature against people rather than with people; this model was also applied in Africa and played a role in the decision to remove the Maasai people from Serengeti National Park and the Ngorongoro Conservation Area. To establish a stable financial basis for its work, IUCN participated in setting up the World Wildlife Fund
Araucaria cunninghamii is a species of Araucaria known as hoop pine. Other less used names include colonial pine, Queensland pine, Dorrigo pine, Moreton Bay pine and Richmond River pine; the scientific name honours the botanist and explorer Allan Cunningham, who collected the first specimens in the 1820s. The species is found in New Guinea; the trees can grow to a height of 60 metres. The bark is rough and peels easily; the leaves on young trees are awl-shaped, 1–2 cm long, about 2 mm thick at the base, scale-like, incurved, 1–2 cm long and 4 mm broad on mature trees. The cones are ovoid, 8–10 cm long and 6–8 cm diameter, take about 18 months to mature, they disintegrate at maturity to release the nut-like edible seeds. There are two varieties: Araucaria cunninghamii var. cunninghamii - Australia, from northeast New South Wales to east-central Queensland, at 0-1,000 m altitude. Araucaria cunninghamii var. papuana - New Guinea, on the mountains of Papua New Guinea, in Irian Jaya, Indonesia, at 100-2,700 m altitude.
The wood is a high quality timber, important to the plywood industry and used for furniture, joinery, particle board and boats. Most natural stands in Australia and Papua New Guinea have been depleted by logging, it is now found on timber plantations. The plantations in Queensland have been subject to damage by a native rat species, Rattus tunneyi, which digs to the roots of a semi-mature tree and kills it, the animal was declared a pest for this reason. Australian Aborigines used the resin as cement. Australian National Botanic Garden: Araucaria cunninghamii Gymnosperm Database: Araucaria cunninghamii Brisbane Rainforest Action & Information Network: Araucaria cunninghamii Tree Conservation Information Service
A picnic is a meal taken outdoors as part of an excursion – ideally in scenic surroundings, such as a park, lakeside, or other place affording an interesting view, or else in conjunction with a public event such as preceding an open-air theatre performance, in summer. Picnics are meant for the late mornings or midday breakfasts, but could be held as a luncheonette or a dinner event. Descriptions of picnics show that the idea of a meal, jointly contributed and was enjoyed out-of-doors was essential to a picnic from the early 19th century. Picnics are family oriented but can be an intimate occasion between two people or a large get together such as company picnics and church picnics, it is sometimes combined with a cookout a form of barbecue: either grilling, baking, or a combination of all of the above. On romantic and family picnics, a picnic basket and a blanket are brought along. Outdoor games or some other form of entertainment are common at large picnics. In established public parks, a picnic area includes picnic tables and other items related to eating outdoors, such as built-in grills, water faucets, garbage containers, restrooms.
Some picnics are a potluck, an entertainment at which each person contributed some dish to a common table for all to share. When the picnic is not a cookout, the food eaten is hot, instead taking the form of deli sandwiches, finger food, fresh fruit, cold meats and accompanied by chilled wine or champagne or soft drinks; the first usage of the word is traced to the 1692 edition of Tony Willis, Origines de la Langue Française, which mentions pique-nique as being of recent origin. The term was used to describe a group of people dining in a restaurant; the concept of a picnic long retained the connotation of a meal to which everyone contributed something. Whether picnic is based on the verb piquer which means'pick' or'peck' with the rhyming nique meaning "thing of little importance" is doubted. Picnicking was common in France after the French Revolution, when it became possible for ordinary people to visit and mingle in the country’s royal parks. In 18th and 19th centuries, picnics were elaborate social events with complex meals and fancy drinks that sometimes took days to prepare.
The word picnic first appeared in English in a letter of the Gallicized Lord Chesterfield in 1748, who associates it with card-playing and conversation, may have entered the English language from this French word. The practice of an elegant meal eaten out-of-doors, rather than an agricultural worker's dinner in a field, was connected with respite from hunting from the Middle Ages. Though it may have appeared in a 17th-century dictionary as "pique-nique," the actual usage began as "pique un niche" meaning to "pick a place," an isolated spot where family or friends could enjoy a jolly meal together away from the distractions and public nature of a communal life; the term after years of usage entered the official French language. Despite having been debunked, a spurious etymology linking the origin of the word to lynchings of African-Americans in the American South continues to resurface from time to time. After the French Revolution in 1789, royal parks became open to the public for the first time.
Picnicking in the parks became a popular activity amongst the newly enfranchised citizens. Early in the 19th century, a fashionable group of Londoners formed the'Picnic Society'. Members met in the Pantheon on Oxford Street; each member was expected to provide a share of the entertainment and of the refreshments with no one particular host. Interest in the society waned in the 1850s. From the 1830s, Romantic American landscape painting of spectacular scenery included a group of picnickers in the foreground. An early American illustration of the picnic is Thomas Cole's The Pic-Nic of 1846. In it, a guitarist serenades the genteel social group in the Hudson River Valley with the Catskills visible in the distance. Cole's well-dressed young picnickers having finished their repast, served from splint baskets on blue-and-white china, stroll about in the woodland and boat on the lake; the image of picnics as a peaceful social activity can be utilised for political protest, too. In this context, a picnic functions as a temporary occupation of significant public territory.
A famous example of this is the Pan-European Picnic held on both sides of the Hungarian/Austrian border on the 19 August 1989 as part of the struggle towards German reunification. In 2000, a 600-mile-long picnic took place from coast to coast in France to celebrate the first Bastille Day of the new Millennium. In the United States the 4 July celebration of American independence is a popular day for a picnic. In Italy, the favorite picnic day is Easter Monday; the 1955 film Picnic, based on the Pulitzer Prize-winning play by William Inge, was a multiple Oscar winner. The film has been remade twice, in 1986 and 2000. Picnickers are used to illustrate the scale of one metre in the film Powers of Ten; the Office Picnic is a dark comedy set in an Australian Public Service office. It was written and produced by filmmaker Tom Cowan, now famous for his work on the series Survivor. In Peter Weir's myst
Keppel Bay Islands National Park
Keppel Bay Islands are part of both a national park and a scientific national park in Queensland, Australia 538 km and 518 km northwest of Brisbane. The islands are positioned in Keppel Bay, off the coast of Yeppoon and Emu Park on the Capricorn Coast; the largest island and a popular tourist attraction is Great Keppel Island. From the early 1950s to about 1994, a small resort of about twelve cabins on North Keppel Island was operated by old Mr Walls, a former train driver. Old Mr Walls was assisted by his daughter and her husband, who lived on the island, his son Tim Walls operated the boat service to the Island, firstly in a boat called the Somerset, out of Ross Creek, Yeppoon in a larger boat called the Keppel Star, out of the Roslyn Bay Boat Harbour. More the island has been run by the Queensland Parks and Wildlife Service. Camping, reef walking, fishing, wildlife watching and snorkelling are all popular activities within the park. Protected areas of Queensland
The Darling Downs is a farming region on the western slopes of the Great Dividing Range in southern Queensland, Australia. The Downs are one of the major regions of Queensland; the name was applied to an area approximating to that of the Condamine River catchment upstream of Condamine township but is now applied to a wider region comprising the Southern Downs, Western Downs and Goondiwindi local authority areas. The name Darling Downs was given in 1827 by Allan Cunningham, the first European explorer to reach the area and recognises the Governor of New South Wales, Ralph Darling; the region has developed a strong and diverse agricultural industry due to the extensive areas of vertosols black vertosols, of moderate to high fertility and available water capacity. Manufacturing and mining coal mining are important, coal seam gas extraction experienced significant growth in the decade to 2016; the landscape is dominated by rolling hills covered by pastures of many different species, legumes such as soy beans and chick peas, other crops including cotton, wheat and sorghum.
Between the farmlands there are long stretches of crisscrossing roads, bushy ridges, winding creeks and herds of cattle. There are farms with beef and dairy cattle, pigs and lamb stock. Other typical sights include irrigation systems, windmills serving as water well pumps to get water from the Great Artesian Basin, light planes crop-dusting, rusty old woolsheds and other scattered remnants from a bygone era of early exploration and settlement; the largest city and commercial centre of the Darling Downs is Toowoomba about 132 km west of Brisbane. Other towns situated on what is now called The Downs include Dalby, Stanthorpe, Goondiwindi, Miles, Allora, Cecil Plains, Millmerran and Chinchilla; the New England Highway, Gore Highway and the Warrego Highway traverse the region. The Toowoomba Second Range Crossing is being constructed so that heavy traffic can avoid passing through Toowoomba. Coolmunda Dam, Leslie Dam, Cooby Dam, Perseverance Dam, Cressbrook Dam, Storm King Dam and the Glenlyon Dam are some of the major water storage facilities in the area.
West of Toowoomba is the Toowoomba Wellcamp Airport. The Darling Down is situated in the drainage basins of the Condamine River and Maranoa River and tributaries; the Condamine River flood plain is noted for its good soils formed by basaltic alluvium. On the northern boundaries of the Downs are the Bunya Mountains and the Bunya Mountains National Park; the region to the north is the South Burnett and the Maranoa lies to the west. A section of the western downs lies over coal deposits of the Surat Basin. Towards the coast, the mountains of the Scenic Rim form the headwaters of the westward flowing Condamine; the majority of the Darling Downs has a humid subtropical climate although some areas experience a semi-arid or subtropical highland climate. Summer maximum temperatures range from 28 °C to 34 °C, while winter maximums range from 13 °C to 19 °C; the annual rainfall ranges to 1,000 mm in the east. In the south-east of the Darling Downs winter temperatures can drop below −5 °C with heavy frost and occasional snow, while in the north-west summer temperatures can surpass 45 °C.
Severe thunderstorms and damaging floods are a threat at times. Part of the Darling Downs, which includes the towns of Allora, Warwick and the rocky district in the south known as the Granite Belt, is known as the Southern Downs; the phrase is used to define political boundaries and in the promotion of tourism in the area. The Dumaresq and the MacIntyre are found in this part of the region.. The Darling Downs was covered with a wealth of indigenous grasses which created an ideal verdure for stock eight months of the year; the Darling Downs Aborigines had an annual burning season at the time when the indigenous grasses were ripe and dry. The annual fires gave the local Aborigines of the Darling Downs the name "Goonneeburra" or "Fire Blacks" - "goonnee" being a name for fire and "burra" a generic word for the whole race; this is what the Downs tribes were known as to the coastal Aborigines who inhabited the Moreton Bay area. Murri is a wider-spread generic word meaning the whole race but in the Kamabroi dialect.
The Downs tribes spoke one common dialect, called Waccah and so to all other surrounding tribes were known as the Wacca-burra. The Goonnee-burra were once situated. Goonnee meant "the ones who hunt with fire". Allan Cunningham set out to explore the area to the west of Moreton Bay in 1827, crossing to the west of the Great Dividing Range from the Hunter Region and travelling north. In June 1827, Cunningham climbed to the top of Mount Dumaresque and after wrote in his diary that this lush area was ideal for settlement. Exploring around Mount Dumaresque, Cunningham found a pass, now known as Cunninghams Gap. Cunningham returned to Moreton Bay in 1828 and with Charles Fraser charted the route through the pass to the Darling Downs. Ludwig Leichhardt in 1844 saw the remains of a camp showing the signs of white men through ridge poles and steel axes. News of the lush pastures spread resulting in a land grab that authorities in the distant New South Wales colony found difficult to stop. Patrick Leslie was the first person to s
Minerva Hills National Park
Minerva Hills is a national park in Central Queensland, Australia, 626 km northwest of Brisbane. The park features a rugged landscape with volcanic peaks, sheltered gorges, sheer cliffs, open woodlands and dry rainforest; the park lies within the water catchment areas of the Comet and Nogoa rivers and within the Brigalow Belt bioregion. There are a picnic area for visitors. Camping is not allowed in the park. Protected areas of Queensland