Inveravon is sited on the east side of the River Avon. It was long considered to be the site for a Roman Fort on Antonine Wall in Scotland; the fort is one of the most dubious on the wall although some excavation and geophysics has been done. Near Inveravon Tower, the bare traces of a fort were found but there's nothing a unskilled visitor could identify. Several excavations have unearthed the site's foundations as well as a section of the Military Way. Cobbled surfaces and some stone walls were found. ‘expansions’ were discovered used as signal or beacon towers. Two temporary marching camps have been found. In the 1950s aerial photography brought these to light. News about them was circulated in the Journal of Roman Studies by J. K. St. Joseph; the sites are south-east of Inveravon. In 1960, aerial photography revealed a 3rd camp, it was south of the Wall. Additional camps at Mumrills and on either side of Grangemouth Golf Course have been identified. Many Roman forts along the wall held garrisons of around 500 men.
Larger forts like Castlecary and Birrens had a nominal cohort of 1000 men but sheltered women and children as well although the troops were not allowed to marry. There is too to have been large communities of civilians around the site
Britannia has been used in several different senses. The name is a Latinisation of the native Brittonic word for the island, Pretanī, which produced the Greek form Prettanike or Brettaniai, which in the fourth to the first centuries BC, designated a collection of islands with individual names, including Albion or Britain. In Modern Welsh the name remains Prydain. By the 1st century BC, Britannia came to be used for Great Britain specifically. After the Roman conquest in 43 AD, Britannia meant Roman Britain, a province covering the island south of Caledonia; when Roman Britain was divided into four provinces in 197 AD, two were called Britannia Superior and Britannia Inferior. Britannia is the name given to the female personification of the island, it is a term still used to refer to the whole island. In the 2nd century, Roman Britannia came to be personified as a goddess, armed with a trident and shield and wearing a Corinthian helmet; the name Britannia long survived the end of Roman rule in Britain in the 5th century and yielded the name for the island in most European and various other languages, including the English Britain and the modern Welsh Prydain.
In the 9th century the associated terms Bretwalda and brytenwealda ealles ðyses ealonde were applied to some Anglo-Saxon kings to assert a wider hegemony in Britain and hyperbolic inscriptions on coins and titles in charters included the equivalent title rex Britanniae. However when England was unified the title used was rex Angulsaxonum. After centuries of declining use, the Latin form was revived during the English Renaissance as a rhetorical evocation of a British national identity. Following the Acts of Union in 1707, which joined the Kingdoms of England and Scotland, the personification of the martial Britannia was used as an emblem of British maritime power and unity, most notably in "Rule, Britannia!". A British cultural icon, she was featured on all modern British coinage series until the redesign in 2008, still appears annually on the gold and silver "Britannia" bullion coin series. In 2015 a new definitive £2 coin was issued, with a new image of Britannia, she is depicted in the Brit Awards statuette, the British Phonographic Industry's annual music awards.
The first writer to use a form of the name was the Greek explorer and geographer Pytheas in the 4th century BC. Pytheas referred to Prettanike or Brettaniai, a group of islands off the coast of North-Western Europe. In the 1st century BC, Diodorus Siculus referred to Pretannia, a rendering of the indigenous name for the Pretani people whom the Greeks believed to inhabit the British Isles. Following the Greek usage, the Romans referred to the Insulae Britannicae in the plural, consisting of Albion, Hibernia and many smaller islands. Over time, Albion came to be known as Britannia, the name for the group was subsequently dropped. Although emperor Claudius is attributed with the creation and unification of the province of Britannia in 43 AD, Julius Caesar had established Roman authority over the Southern and Eastern Britain dynasties during his two expeditions to the island in 55 and 54 BC. Just as Caesar himself had been an obside in Bithynia as a youth, he had taken the King's sons as obsides or hostages, back to Rome to be educated.
The Roman conquest of the island began in AD 43, leading to the establishment of the Roman province known in Latin as Britannia. The Romans never conquered the whole island, building Hadrian's Wall as a boundary with Caledonia, which covered the territory of modern Scotland, although the whole of the boundary marked by Hadrian's Wall lies within modern-day Northern England. A southern part of what is now Scotland was occupied by the Romans for about 20 years in the mid-2nd century AD, keeping in place the Picts to the north of the Antonine Wall. People living in the Roman province of Britannia were called Britons. Ireland, inhabited by the Scoti, was called Hibernia. Thule, an island "six days' sail north of Britain, near the frozen sea" Iceland, was never invaded by the Romans; the Emperor Claudius paid a visit while Britain was being conquered and was honoured with the agnomen Britannicus as if he were the conqueror. She appeared as a more regal-looking female figure. Britannia was soon personified as a goddess, looking similar to the goddess Minerva.
Early portraits of the goddess depict Britannia as a beautiful young woman, wearing the helmet of a centurion, wrapped in a white garment with her right breast exposed. She is shown seated on a rock, holding a spear, with a spiked shield propped beside her. Sometimes she leans on the shield. On another range of coinage, she is seated on a globe above waves: Britain at the edge of the world. Similar coin types were issued under Antoninus Pius. After the Roman withdrawal, the term "Britannia" remained in use in Britain and abroad. Latin was ubiquitous amongst native Brythonic writers and the term continued in the Welsh tradition that developed from it. Writing with variations on the term Britannia appeared in many Welsh works such as the Historia Britonum, Armes Prydein and the 12th-century Historia Regum Britanniae, which gained unprecedented popularity throughout western Europe during the High Middle Ages. Following the migration of Brythonic Celts, the term Britannia came to refer to the Armorican peninsula (at least f
Hunterian Museum and Art Gallery
The University of Glasgow's Hunterian is the oldest museum in Scotland. It covers the Hunterian Museum, the Hunterian Art Gallery, the Mackintosh House, the Zoology Museum and the Anatomy Museum, all located in various buildings on the main campus of the University in the west end of Glasgow. In 1783, William Hunter bequeathed his substantial and varied collections to the University of Glasgow, they were "to be well and packed up and safely conveyed to Glasgow and delivered to the Principal and Faculty of the College of Glasgow to whom I give and bequeath the same to be kept and preserved by them and their successors for ever... in such sort, way and form as... shall seem most fit and most conducive to the improvement of the students of the said University of Glasgow."The museum first opened in 1807, in a specially constructed building off the High Street, adjoining the original campus of the University. For this, Hunter ensured funds for its building and design by architect William Stark through his three trustees namely his nephew Matthew Baillie, his Scottish lawyer Robert Barclay of Capelrig House and John Millar cousin of Dr William Cullen When the University moved west to its new site at Gilmorehill the museum moved too.
In 1870, the Hunterian collections were transferred to the University’s present site and assigned halls in Sir George Gilbert Scott's neo-Gothic building. At first the entire collection was housed together, displayed in the packed conditions common in museums of that time, but significant sections were moved away to other parts of the University; the Zoological collections are now housed within the Graham Kerr Building, the art collections in The Hunterian Art Gallery, Hunter's library containing some 10,000 printed books and 650 manuscripts received in 1807, in Glasgow University Library. The University`s Librarian Professor Lockhart Muirhead became the first Keeper of the Hunterian Museum in 1823. Hunter’s anatomical collections are housed in the Allen Thomson Building, his pathological preparations at the Royal Infirmary, Glasgow; the money to build the museum, the core of its original collections, came from the bequest of the Scottish anatomist and scientist William Hunter, who died in London in 1783.
As well as his medical collections, which arose from his own work, Hunter collected widely assisted by his many royal and aristocratic patrons. He and his agents scoured Europe for coins, minerals and prints, ethnographic materials and manuscripts, as well as insects and other biological specimens. Hunter's eclectic bequest forms the core of the collections, but have grown and now include some of the most important collections of work by artists such as Charles Rennie Mackintosh and James McNeill Whistler, as well as superb geological, anatomical, archaeological and scientific instrument collections; the Hunterian Museum re-opened in September 2011 featuring a new permanent gallery devoted to the Romans in Scotland and new opening hours of 10:00–5:00 Tuesday to Saturday, 11:00–4:00 Sundays and closed Monday. Robert Arnot Staig c.1905 to c.1945 William Smellie Housed in large halls in George Gilbert Scott's University buildings on Gilmorehill, the museum features extensive displays relating to William Hunter and his collections, Roman Scotland, ethnography, ancient Egypt, scientific instruments and medals, much more.
The museum contains many donated collections, such as the Begg Collection of fossils donated by James Livingstone Begg in the 1940s. The museum contains a high number of scientific instruments owned by or created by Lord Kelvin and other 19th century instrument makers. In September 2016 the new Hunterian Collections and Study Centre, embracing the full range and activities of the Museum and the Art Gallery, opened in the transformed Kelvin Hall in Phase 1 of a partnership with Glasgow City Council Glasgow Life and the National Library of Scotland. Most of the zoology collections, including those of William Hunter, are displayed in a separate museum within the Graham Kerr building, which houses most of the University's zoological research and teaching; this is open to the general public. The insect collections are important and extensive, are the feature of some excellent recent displays; the Gallery is now housed in a modern, custom-built facility, part of the extensive Glasgow University Library complex, designed by William Whitfield.
This displays the University's extensive art collection, features an outdoor sculpture garden. The bas relief aluminium doors to the Hunterian Gallery were designed by sculptor Eduardo Paolozzi; the gallery's collection includes a large number of the works of James McNeill Whistler and the majority of the watercolours of Charles Rennie Mackintosh. The Hunterian Art Gallery reopened in September 2012 after a refurbishment, with an exhibition dedicated to Rembrandt and the Passion; the Mackintosh House is part of the gallery-library complex. It stands on the site of one of two rows of terraced houses which were once sections of Hillhead Street and Southpark Avenue, demolished in the 1960s to make room for the University's expansion across the residential crown of Gilmorehill. One of the buildings lost, 78 Southpark Avenue, was a home to Glasgow architect Charles Rennie Mackintosh; the University rebuilt the form of the house 100 metres from the site of the original. Due to its displacement, one door now hangs precariously above a 20-foot drop, the ground on what was
Duntocher is a village in West Dunbartonshire, Scotland. It has an estimated population of 6,850; the etymology of the name of the village indicates that its name means "the fort on the causeway". Duntocher has become a northern suburb of the nearby town of Clydebank, as have neighbouring Hardgate and Faifley. Duntocher expanded due to housebuilding by Clydebank Burgh Council after the Second World War, although the area was never formally absorbed into the burgh; when burghs were abolished by local government reorganisation in 1975, Duntocher was included in the larger Clydebank District, which existed until the creation of West Dunbartonshire in 1997. Further housing was built by the Wimpey firm in the late 1960s and early 1970s, on what had been green belt land. At one time this was the most north westerly point on the Glasgow Corporation Transport tram system, trams operating from here via Hardgate to Clydebank, at times, on to Partick depot. Duntocher had several cotton and corn mills, driven by the Duntocher Burn, the traditional boundary between Duntocher and neighbouring village Hardgate.
The Antonine Wall runs through the village, ancient Roman fortifications are still visible in the local Goldenhill Park. Lottery funding is to provide funds for a children's playpark at Goldenhill. Sir George Macdonald wrote about the findings at Duntocher. Duntocher has a Roman Catholic church - St. Mary's, a United Presbyterian Church and a Church of Scotland - Duntocher Trinity; the village has one Roman Catholic primary school - St Mary's and one non-denominational, Carleith Primary School. The village has a main street; the majority of the villages shops and pubs, the cafe and the local churches and village halls are located along or close to a small stretch of this road The village is at the southern edge of the Kilpatrick Hills. The Roman Fort at Duntocher has been known about since at least the 18th century. Digital reconstructions of the fort and the fortlet it was built to replace, have been created. Two distance slabs of the Second Legion were found in the area. Other distance slabs by the Second Legion include one from Balmuildy.
The Second Legion is associated with The Bridgeness Slab. The slabs are two of the four inscriptions on stone found at Duntocher; the first, with its upper right corner missing lacks information about its discovery. Both slabs have a Pegasus below their inscriptions. Both slabs have two decorative pelta shields, one on either side of the slab each of, embellished with two griffins' heads. Symmetry suggests both were designed with four rosettes in the corners though one has the upper right rosette missing. Other differences between the slabs are the amount of decoration around the inscription, the Emperor's title, but most notably the number of paces being 4,140 versus 3,271. Other find which have been RTI mapped include rooftile fragments, a water nymph fountainhead, a hypocausted tile; until 1649 the villages of Bowling, West Dunbartonshire, Hardgate and Old Kilpatrick were all part of Kilpatrick Parish for a further 240 or so years formed part of Old or West Kilpatrick Parish. In 1889 however, the formation of Dumbarton County Council saw the transfer of authority to that body where it remained until 1975 when the villages were split up.
Bowling and Milton became part of the Dumbarton District Council area and Duntocher, along with Old Kilpatrick and Hardgate, was absorbed by Clydebank District. Industry around the village was aided by the nearness of the Duntocher Burn, a fast flowing waterway ideal for industrial purposes. Between 1808 and 1831 four large cotton mills were set up there leading to a significant population increase and subsequent improvements being instituted to road and river transport links; the boom was short lived however and the demise of the cotton industry towards the end of the 1800s left Duntocher the loser. There were lime mines near Duntocher in the 19th century. Today all five of the villages form a bedroom community for commuters to Clydebank and Glasgow. Traditionally a gala was held in the first week in June for Hardgate. "Duntocher". Encyclopædia Britannica. 8. 1911
A nymph in Greek mythology is a supernatural being associated with many other minor female deities that are associated with the air, seas or water, or particular locations or landforms. Different from Greek goddesses, nymphs are more regarded as divine spirits who animate or maintain Nature for the environments where they live, are depicted as beautiful, young graceful maidens, they are divided into various broad subgroups, such as Aurai, Nereides and Dryades The Greek word νύμφη has the primary meaning of "young woman. Yet the etymology of the noun νύμφη remains uncertain; the Doric and Aeolic form is νύμφα. Modern usage more applies to young women at the peak of their attractiveness, contrasting with parthenos "a virgin", generically as kore "maiden, girl"; the term is sometimes used by women to address each other and remains the regular Modern Greek term for "bride". Nymphs were sometimes beloved by many and dwell in most specific areas related to the natural environment. E.g. mountainous forests by springs or rivers.
Other nymphs appeared in the shape of young maidens, were part of the retinue of a god, such as Dionysus, Hermes, or Pan, or a goddess the huntress Artemis. The Greek nymphs were spirits invariably bound to places, not unlike the Latin genius loci, sometimes this produced complicated myths like cult of Arethusa to Sicily. In some of the works of the Greek-educated Latin poets, the nymphs absorbed into their ranks the indigenous Italian divinities of springs and streams, while the Lymphae, Italian water-goddesses, owing to the accidental similarity of their names, could be identified with the Greek Nymphae; the classical mythologies of the Roman poets were unlikely to have affected the rites and cults of individual nymphs venerated by country people in the springs and clefts of Latium. Among the Roman literate class, their sphere of influence was restricted, they appear exclusively as divinities of the watery element; the ancient Greek belief in nymphs survived in many parts of the country into the early years of the twentieth century, when they were known as "nereids".
Nymphs tended to frequent areas distant from humans but could be encountered by lone travelers outside the village, where their music might be heard, the traveler could spy on their dancing or bathing in a stream or pool, either during the noon heat or in the middle of the night. They might appear in a whirlwind; such encounters could be dangerous, bringing dumbness, besotted infatuation, madness or stroke to the unfortunate human. When parents believed their child to be nereid-struck, they would pray to Saint Artemidos. A motif that entered European art during the Renaissance was the idea of a statue of a nymph sleeping in a grotto or spring; this motif came from an Italian report of a Roman sculpture of a nymph at a fountain above the River Danube. The report, an accompanying poem on the fountain describing the sleeping nymph, are now concluded to be a fifteenth-century forgery, but the motif proved influential among artists and landscape gardeners for several centuries after, with copies seen at neoclassical gardens such as the grotto at Stourhead.
As H. J. Rose states, all the names for various classes of nymphs are plural feminine adjectives agreeing with the substantive nymphai, there was no single classification that could be seen as canonical and exhaustive. Thus, the classes of nymphs tend to overlap. Rose mentions dryads and hamadryads as nymphs of trees meliai as nymphs of ash trees, naiads as nymphs of water, but no others specifically; the following is not the authentic Greek classification, but is intended as a guide: The following is a list of groups of nymphs associated with this or that particular location. Nymphs in such groupings could belong to any of the classes mentioned above; the following is a selection of names of the nymphs whose class was not specified in the source texts. For lists of Naiads, Dryades etc. See respective articles. Sabrina Burkert, Walter. Greek Religion. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-36281-9. Larson, Jennifer Lynn. Greek Nymphs: Myth, Lore. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-514465-9.
Lawson, John Cuthbert, Modern Greek Folklore and Ancient Greek Religion, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1910, p. 131 Nereids paleothea.com homepage Tomkinson, John L.. Haunted Greece: Nymphs and Other Exotika. Athens: Anagnosis. ISBN 978-960-88087-0-6; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Nymphs". Encyclopædia Britannica. 19. Cambridge University Press. P. 930. Theoi.com: Nymphs Theoi Project – List of Nymphs
Kinneil House is a historic house to the west of Bo'ness in east-central Scotland. It was once the principal seat of the Hamilton family in the east of Scotland; the house was saved from demolition in 1936 when 16th-century mural paintings were discovered, it is now in the care of Historic Scotland. It sits within a public park, which incorporates a section of the Roman Antonine Wall and the only visible example of an Antonine fortlet available today. A digital reconstruction of the fortlet has been created; the house now consists of a symmetrical mansion built in 1677 on the remains of an earlier 16th- or 15th-century tower house, with two rows of gunloops for early cannon still visible. A smaller east wing, of the mid 16th century, contains the two painted rooms; the house is protected as a Category A listed building. The lands of Kinneil with Larbert and Auldcathy were given to Walter Fitz Gilbert, an ancestor of the Hamilton family by Robert the Bruce in 1323. A charter of 1474 mentions a castle at "Craig Lyown", the saltpans which added to the estate income.
The Castle of Lyon was nearer the sea at Snab Brae, remembered by the name of Castleloan housing estate. Parts of an older castle, which replaced the castle at the Snab may be incorporated in the present building. James Hamilton, 1st Earl of Arran wished to be buried at Hamilton; the east wing of the surviving building, the earlier tower with wide-mouthed gunloops, was built by James Hamilton, 2nd Earl of Arran. He was the Governor or Regent of Scotland on the death of James V; some payments were recorded in the royal treasurer's accounts. Coal was shipped from Kinneil to Leith for Edinburgh Castle, timber for repairing Arran's chamber at'Craig Lyon' came from Leith in May 1545. Timber for roofing and panelling was sent by boat from Leith in 1549 and 1550 to complete one section; the garden or "yaird" was improved for the Spring of 1553, by planting trees, hedges and lettuce. In September 1553, Arran gave a gift of 44 shillings to masons laying the foundation stones of another part of the Palace.
One of the masons was Thomas Bargany and at this time John Scrimgeour of Myres was Arran's master of work or architect. The 16th century painted interior decoration and a stone armorial carry Arran's ducal coronet, the collar of the Order of Saint Michael, French honours he received in 1548; the stone has the Hamilton motto, the woodsman's cry, "Through!", the arms of his wife, Margaret Douglas, with her motto "Lock Sickar", meaning secure or steadfast. The armorial stone was set on the north pavilion of the main block, is now displayed with other carved stones in a cellar. One of his painted rooms has decoration that evokes verdure tapestry and vignettes of Samson and Delilah and Isaac, David and Bathsheba and The Temptation of St. Anthony; the other room has scenes from the Parable of the Good Samaritan, Saint Jerome and Mary Magdalene. The original use of this suite of rooms is unknown; the subjects of these paintings allude to the Power of Women a political reference to Mary of Guise, Mary Queen of Scots and the two Tudor Queens of England.
The house was empty on 4 February 1560 when French troops led by d'Oysel burnt it. On Easter Day 1562, the 3rd Earl of Arran, who suffered from mental ill health, escaped from his father and bedchamber at Kinneil using sheets as a rope; the drop was 30 fathoms. After the battle of Corrichie in October 1562, Arran was the reluctant keeper of George Gordon at Kinneil, the forfeited heir of the Earl of Huntly. Regent Lennox damaged the house with gunpowder and spoiled the lands after the assassination of Regent Moray at Linlithgow by a Hamilton. James VI reduced the power of the Hamiltons by military force in 1579, the Duke's wife, Margaret Douglas, daughter Lady Jean Hamilton, Countess of Eglinton, were brought to Kinneil from Craignethan Castle. In 1581 the king gave their titles to James Stewart; the new Earl resided at Kinneil until after his own fall in the autumn of 1585, when he remained at Kinneil under house-arrest, for a time Kinneil was called Arran House. James VI of Scotland stayed in May 1582, to receive an envoy, Signor Paul, sent by the Duke of Guise with a gift of horses and gunpowder.
The visit was controversial because Paul was known to have been involved in the St. Bartholomew's Day massacre. After the Raid of Ruthven, the Earl of Arran was confined at Kinneil; when the Ruthven regime collapsed, James VI came to banquet at Kinneil with Arran on 13 November 1583. The next day, Ludovic Stewart son of the King's favourite Esmé Stewart arrived from France at Leith and was taken to Kinneil to meet the King. James VI held court at Kinneil again at Christmas-time in 1588 as the guest of John Hamilton, Commendator of Arbroath, he played at the "maye" with his English courtier, Roger Aston, told him that the more he did to please Elizabeth the less regard she had of him. The Earl of Huntly, the Earl of Crawford and the Chancellor, John Maitland, were present; the Arbour Room was redecorated c.1620 for James Hamilton, 2nd Marquess of Hamilton and his wife Ann Cunningham and the "shakefork" and rabbit supporters of Cunningham heraldry can still be seen. This painting was certainly the work of Valentine Jenkins and burgess of Glasgow, painter of the Chapel Royal at Stirling Castle.
When Anne died in 1644, she left Kinneil with its new tapestries and the furnishings she had made to her son, James, 1st Duke of Hamilton. She had laboured to make the coal mines and salt pans profitable and urged him to employ faithful servants a
Watling Lodge was a Roman fortlet on the Antonine Wall in Scotland. It was located near what is now Lock Sixteen on the Forth and Clyde Canal in Falkirk with neighbouring forts at Rough Castle to the west and Falkirk to the east. There was a fort at Camelon to the north. There was a Roman temporary camp found a short distance south of the site. Watling Lodge has been described as the best preserved stretch of ditch from the Antonine Wall still in existence today, it is situated along south-west of Falkirk. This stretch is excellently preserved. One of the best overviews of the site is the video of the Bridgeness Slab by Falkirk Council, presented by Geoff Bailey, Keeper of Archeology and Local History at Falkirk Museum, from about 4 minutes 30s. In Falkirk, the site is accessed from the B816, Tamfourhill Road. There is an information panel close to the top of the wall; the panel shows how the Wall may have looked, suggests Watling Lodge's place in the grand design of the construction. Sir George Macdonald wrote about the site.
A digital reconstruction of the fortlet has been created. A minecraft model of the site has been constructed. Many Roman forts along the wall held garrisons of around 500 men. Larger forts like Castlecary and Birrens had a nominal cohort of 1000 men but sheltered women and children as well, although the troops were not allowed to marry, it is that large communities of civilians were located around the site