London /ˈlʌndən/ is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom. Standing on the River Thames in the south east of the island of Great Britain and it was founded by the Romans, who named it Londinium. Londons ancient core, the City of London, largely retains its 1. 12-square-mile medieval boundaries. London is a global city in the arts, education, fashion, healthcare, professional services and development, tourism. It is crowned as the worlds largest financial centre and has the fifth- or sixth-largest metropolitan area GDP in the world, London is a world cultural capital. It is the worlds most-visited city as measured by international arrivals and has the worlds largest city airport system measured by passenger traffic, London is the worlds leading investment destination, hosting more international retailers and ultra high-net-worth individuals than any other city. Londons universities form the largest concentration of education institutes in Europe. In 2012, London became the first city to have hosted the modern Summer Olympic Games three times, London has a diverse range of people and cultures, and more than 300 languages are spoken in the region.
Its estimated mid-2015 municipal population was 8,673,713, the largest of any city in the European Union, Londons urban area is the second most populous in the EU, after Paris, with 9,787,426 inhabitants at the 2011 census. The citys metropolitan area is the most populous in the EU with 13,879,757 inhabitants, the city-region therefore has a similar land area and population to that of the New York metropolitan area. London was the worlds most populous city from around 1831 to 1925, Other famous landmarks include Buckingham Palace, the London Eye, Piccadilly Circus, St Pauls Cathedral, Tower Bridge, Trafalgar Square, and The Shard. The London Underground is the oldest underground railway network in the world, the etymology of London is uncertain. It is an ancient name, found in sources from the 2nd century and it is recorded c.121 as Londinium, which points to Romano-British origin, and hand-written Roman tablets recovered in the city originating from AD 65/70-80 include the word Londinio. The earliest attempted explanation, now disregarded, is attributed to Geoffrey of Monmouth in Historia Regum Britanniae and this had it that the name originated from a supposed King Lud, who had allegedly taken over the city and named it Kaerlud.
From 1898, it was accepted that the name was of Celtic origin and meant place belonging to a man called *Londinos. The ultimate difficulty lies in reconciling the Latin form Londinium with the modern Welsh Llundain, which should demand a form *lōndinion, from earlier *loundiniom. The possibility cannot be ruled out that the Welsh name was borrowed back in from English at a date, and thus cannot be used as a basis from which to reconstruct the original name. Until 1889, the name London officially applied only to the City of London, two recent discoveries indicate probable very early settlements near the Thames in the London area
London Borough of Croydon
The London Borough of Croydon is a London borough in south London, England and is part of Outer London. It covers an area of 87 km2 and is the largest London borough by population and it is the southernmost borough of London. At its centre is the town of Croydon from which the borough takes its name. Croydon is mentioned in Domesday Book, and from a market town has expanded into one of the most populous areas on the fringe of London. Croydon is the centre of the borough. The borough is now one of Londons leading business and cultural centres, and its influence in entertainment, the economic strength of Croydon dates back mainly to Croydon Airport which was a major factor in the development of Croydon as a business centre. Once Londons main airport for all flights to and from the capital. It is now a Grade II listed building and tourist attraction, Croydon Council and its predecessor Croydon Corporation unsuccessfully applied for city status in 1954,2000,2002 and 2012. Croydon is mostly urban, though there are suburban and rural uplands in the south.
Since 2003 Croydon has been certified as a Fairtrade borough by the Fairtrade Foundation and it was the first London Borough to have Fairtrade status which is awarded on certain criteria. The area is one of the hearts of culture in London, institutions such as the major arts and entertainment centre Fairfield Halls add to the vibrancy of the borough. However, its famous fringe theatre the Warehouse Theatre was put under administration in 2012 when the council withdrew its funding, the Croydon Clocktower was opened by Queen Elizabeth II in 1994 as an arts venue featuring a library, the independent David Lean Cinema and museum. From 2000 to 2010, Croydon staged a summer festival celebrating the areas black and Indian cultural diversity. An internet radio station, Croydon Radio, is run by people for the area. The borough is home to its own local TV station, Croydon TV. Premier League football club Crystal Palace F. C. play at Selhurst Park in South Norwood, for the history of the original town see History of Croydon The London Borough of Croydon was formed in 1965 from the Coulsdon and Purley Urban District and the County Borough of Croydon.
The name Croydon comes from Crogdene or Croindone, named by the Saxons in the 8th century when they settled here, although the area had been inhabited since prehistoric times. It is thought to derive from the Anglo-Saxon croeas deanas, meaning the valley of the crocuses, indicating that, like Saffron Walden in Essex, by the time of the Norman invasion Croydon had a church, a mill and around 365 inhabitants as recorded in the Domesday Book
John Whitgift was the Archbishop of Canterbury from 1583 to his death. Noted for his hospitality, he was somewhat ostentatious in his habits, sometimes visiting Canterbury, Whitgifts theological views were often controversial. He was the eldest son of Henry Whitgift, a merchant, of Great Grimsby, the Whitgift family is thought to have originated in the relatively close Yorkshire village of Whitgift, adjoining the River Ouse. John Whitgifts early education was entrusted to his uncle, Robert Whitgift, abbot of the neighbouring Wellow Abbey, on advice he was sent to St Anthonys School. In 1549 he matriculated at Queens College, and in May 1550 he moved to Pembroke Hall, in May 1555 he became a fellow of Peterhouse. Whitgift taught Francis Bacon and his older brother Anthony Bacon at Cambridge University in the 1570s, as their tutor, Whitgift bought the brothers their early classical text books, including works by Plato and others. Having taken holy orders in 1560, he became chaplain to Richard Cox, Bishop of Ely, the following year he was appointed Regius Professor of Divinity, and became master first of Pembroke Hall and of Trinity.
He had a share in compiling the statutes of the university, which passed the great seal on 25 September 1570. While at Cambridge he formed a relationship with Andrew Perne. Perne went on to live with Whitgift in his old age, puritan satirists would mock Whitgift as Pernes boy who was willing to carry his cloak-bag – thus suggesting that the two had enjoyed a homosexual relationship. An aunt with whom he once lodged wrote that though she thought at first she had received a saint into her house, macaulays description of Whitgift as a narrow, tyrannical priest, who gained power by servility and adulation. In June of the same year Whitgift was nominated Dean of Lincoln, in the following year he published An Answere to a Certain Libel entitled an Admonition to the Parliament, which led to further controversy between the two churchmen. On 24 March 1577, Whitgift was appointed Bishop of Worcester, Whitgift placed his stamp on the church of the Reformation, and shared Elizabeths hatred of Puritans.
Although he wrote to Elizabeth remonstrating against the alienation of church property, in his policy against the Puritans and in his vigorous enforcement of the subscription test he thoroughly carried out her policy of religious uniformity. He drew up articles aimed at nonconforming ministers, and obtained increased powers for the Court of High Commission, in 1586 he became a privy councillor. His actions gave rise to the Martin Marprelate tracts, in which the bishops, in 1595, in conjunction with the Bishop of London and other prelates, he drew up the Calvinistic instrument known as the Lambeth Articles. Although the articles were signed and agreed by several bishops they were recalled by order of Elizabeth, Whitgift maintained that she had given her approval. Whitgift attended Elizabeth on her deathbed, and crowned James I and he was present at the Hampton Court Conference in January 1604, at which he represented eight bishops
Coat of arms of the London Borough of Croydon
The coat of arms of the London Borough of Croydon is the official heraldic arms of the London Borough of Croydon, granted on 10 December 1965. The black cross is a cross flory, which means each arms is terminating in the shape of a fleur-de-lis, the cross is surmounted by five gold discs, so called bezants. The crossed swords refer to St. Paul and the keys to St. Peter refer to the Abbey of St. Peter and St. Paul of Chertsey. The keys were present in the crest of the arms of Coulsdon, the mural crown is a common heraldic symbol for local municipal authority in a town or city. Out of the crown comes a heraldic fountain, a symbol for water, the supporters are a black lion and a silver horse. The lion comes from the arms of Coulsdon and Purley and is again a reference to Hyde Abbey, the horse is from the arms of the Earls of Surrey, since the two merged entities were situated in Surrey before becoming part of Greater London. The supporters wear collars, each with a cross formy fitchy, the motto Ad summa nitamur is Latin for Let us strive for perfection.
Arms, Argent on a Cross flory at the ends Sable five Bezants between in chief to the dexter two Swords Azure and Gules in saltire and to the sinister two Keys Azure and Gules in saltire. Crest, Out of a Mural Crown Or a Fountain between a Branch of Oak leaved and fructed and one of Beech slipped proper. Supporters, On the dexter side a Lion sableand on the side a Horse Argent each with a Cross formy fitchy pendent from a Collar counter-changed. Motto, AD SUMMA NITAMUR – Let us strive for perfection
Archbishop's Palace, Maidstone
The Archbishops Palace is an historic 14th-century and 16th-century building on the east bank of the River Medway in Maidstone, Kent. Originally a home from home for travelling archbishops from Canterbury, the building is principally used as a venue for wedding services. The former tithe barn for the palace, now serves as the Tyrwhitt-Drake Museum of Carriages, the Manor of Maidstone was probably given to the Archbishops of Canterbury as a royal gift during the 7th or 8th centuries. Cornhills house was demolished by Archbishop Ufford, the first work on the current building was ordered by Archbishop Ufford in 1348 and was continued by Archbishop Islip between 1349 and 1366, partly with materials from a palace at Wrotham. At the end of the 14th century Archbishop Courtenay expanded the establishment in Maidstone when he founded the neighbouring College, the palace was enlarged and improved by Archbishop Morton in 1486, but it and the College were given to Henry VIII by Archbishop Cranmer in exchange for property elsewhere.
Henry VIII granted the palace to Sir Thomas Wyatt, but the estate was forfeited to the Crown in 1554 following the led by his son, Thomas Wyatt the younger. It was given by Elizabeth I to Sir John Astley, son of John Astley, Astley extended the palace, building much of the existing structure. On his death there in 1639, he bequeathed the manor to Jacob Astley, lord Astley died at the palace in 1652 and it passed to his son and grandson, the second and third barons. On the death of the baron in 1688, the barony became extinct. In 1720, Sir Jacob sold the palace to Robert Marsham, the palace was subsequently sold by the Marsham family. At the beginning of the 20th century it was used as a Territorial Army medical school, today the palace is managed by Kent County Council and primarily used as a register office. It is only open to the public on regular Heritage Days, the Kent Gardens Trust tends the Apothecarys Garden which is open to the public between May and August on Wednesday afternoons only.
The gatehouse is used by Kent Invicta Chamber Of Commerce, the E-shaped palace building is located on the east bank of the River Medway close to its meeting with the River Len. The two-storey central section is constructed of ashlar stonework with an entrance through a central projecting porch in the north-east façade. Timber framed wings are at each side, the roof is clay tiled and two projecting stone-built dormer windows at attic level on the entrance façade are capped with finials. The south-west façade has windows in a variety of sizes, many stone-framed, close to the palace on the south side is the dungeon, a 14th-century stone building with small windows and an early Norman undercroft. The roof is tiled and a garderobe projects on the north side, the palace is a Grade I listed building, the dungeon is listed Grade II*, and the gatehouse is listed Grade II and a scheduled monument. The buildings are surrounded by walls which are Grade II listed, Grade I listed buildings in Maidstone List of scheduled monuments in Maidstone Virtual Tour of the building
Croydon is a large town in south London, England,9.5 miles south of Charing Cross. The principal settlement in the London Borough of Croydon, it is one of the largest commercial districts outside Central London, with a shopping district. Its population of 52,104 at the 2011 census includes the wards of Addiscombe, Broad Green, Croydon expanded in the Middle Ages as a market town and a centre for charcoal production, leather tanning and brewing. The Surrey Iron Railway from Croydon to Wandsworth opened in 1803 and was the worlds first public railway, nineteenth century railway building facilitated Croydons growth as a commuter town for London. By the early 20th century, Croydon was an important industrial area, known for car manufacture, metal working, Croydon was amalgamated into Greater London in 1965. Road traffic is diverted away from a largely pedestrianised town centre, East Croydon is a major hub of the national railway transport system, with frequent fast services to central London and the south coast.
The town is unique in Greater London for its Tramlink light rail transport system, although less probable, theories of the names origin have been proposed. According to John Corbett Anderson, The earliest mention of Croydon is in the joint will of Beorhtric and Aelfswth, in this Anglo-Saxon document the name is spelt Crogdaene. Crog was, and still is, the Norse or Danish word for crooked, which is expressed in Anglo-Saxon by crumb, from the Danish came our crook and crooked. This term accurately describes the locality, it is a crooked or winding valley, in reference to the valley runs in an oblique. However, there was no long-term Danish occupation in Surrey, which was part of Wessex, and Danish-derived nomenclature is highly unlikely. The town lies on the line of the Roman road from London to Portslade, later, in the 5th to 7th centuries, a large pagan Saxon cemetery was situated on what is now Park Lane, although the extent of any associated settlement is unknown. By the late Saxon period Croydon was the hub of an estate belonging to the Archbishops of Canterbury, the church and the archbishops manor house occupied the area still known as Old Town.
Croydon appears in Domesday Book as Croindene, held by Archbishop Lanfranc and its Domesday assets were,16 hides and 1 virgate,1 church,1 mill worth 5s,38 ploughs,8 acres of meadow, woodland worth 200 hogs. The church had established in the middle Saxon period, and was probably a minster church. A charter issued by King Coenwulf of Mercia refers to a council that had taken place close to the monasterium of Croydon, an Anglo-Saxon will made in about 960 is witnessed by Elfsies, priest of Croydon, and the church is mentioned in Domesday Book. The will of John de Croydon, dated 6 December 1347, includes a bequest to the church of S John de Croydon, the church still bears the arms of Archbishop Courtenay and Archbishop Chichele, believed to have been its benefactors. In 1276 Archbishop Robert Kilwardby acquired a charter for a market
A sash is a large and usually colorful ribbon or band of material worn around the body, draping from one shoulder to the opposing hip, or else running around the waist. The sash around the waist may be worn in daily attire, ceremonial sashes are found in a V-shaped format, draping from both shoulders to the stomach like a large necklace. In Latin America and some countries of Africa, a presidential sash indicates a presidents authority. Sashes traditionally form part of military attire. Most of the European Royal families wear sashes as a part of their royal regalia, some orders such as the Légion dhonneur include sashes as part of the seniormost grades insignia. Likewise Italian military officers wear light blue sashes over the shoulder on ceremonial occasions. Sashes are a feature of some regiments of the modern French Army for parade dress. In its traditional Franco-Algerian or zouave form the sash was four metres in length, in the historic French Army of Africa, sashes were worn around the waist in either blue for European or red for indigenous troops.
At the time of the American Civil War silk sashes in crimson were authorized for officers, generals continued to wear buff silk sashes in full dress until 1917. In the Confederate Army of the Civil War period sash colour indicated the corps or status of the wearer. For example, gold for cavalry, burgundy for infantry, black for chaplains, red for sergeants, green or blue for medics, and grey or cream for general officers. With the exception of the West Point Band Drum Major, today the West Point cadet officer is the person in the US Army who wears a sword and sash. The modern British Army retains a scarlet sash for wear in certain orders of dress by sergeants and above serving in infantry regiments, over the right shoulder to the left hip. A similar crimson silk net sash is worn around the waist by officers of the Foot Guards in scarlet full dress, the same practice is followed in some Commonwealth armies. The present day armies of India and Pakistan both make use of waist-sashes for ceremonial wear.
The colours vary according to regiment or branch and match those of the turbans where worn. Typically two or more colours are incorporated in the sash, in vertical stripes, one end hangs loose at the side and may have an ornamental fringe. The practice of wearing distinctive regimental sashes or cummerbunds goes back to the nineteenth century
Henry VIII of England
Henry VIII was King of England from 21 April 1509 until his death. Henry was the second Tudor monarch, succeeding his father, Henry VII, Henry is best known for his six marriages and, in particular, his efforts to have his first marriage, to Catherine of Aragon, annulled. Despite his resulting excommunication, Henry remained a believer in core Catholic theological teachings, Henry is known for his radical changes to the English Constitution, ushering in the theory of the divine right of kings to England. Besides asserting the supremacy over the Church of England, he greatly expanded royal power during his reign. Charges of treason and heresy were commonly used to quash dissent, and he achieved many of his political aims through the work of his chief ministers, some of whom were banished or executed when they fell out of his favour. Thomas Wolsey, Thomas More, Thomas Cromwell, Richard Rich and his contemporaries considered Henry in his prime to be an attractive and accomplished king, and he has been described as one of the most charismatic rulers to sit on the English throne.
He was an author and composer, as he aged, Henry became severely obese and his health suffered, contributing to his death in 1547. He is frequently characterised in his life as a lustful, harsh. He was succeeded by his son Edward VI, born 28 June 1491 at the Palace of Placentia in Greenwich, Henry Tudor was the third child and second son of Henry VII and Elizabeth of York. Of the young Henrys six siblings, only three – Arthur, Prince of Wales and Mary – survived infancy and he was baptised by Richard Fox, the Bishop of Exeter, at a church of the Observant Franciscans close to the palace. In 1493, at the age of two, Henry was appointed Constable of Dover Castle and Lord Warden of the Cinque Ports. He was subsequently appointed Earl Marshal of England and Lord Lieutenant of Ireland at age three, and was inducted into the Order of the Bath soon after. The day after the ceremony he was created Duke of York, in May 1495, he was appointed to the Order of the Garter. Henry was given an education from leading tutors, becoming fluent in Latin and French.
Not much is known about his early life – save for his appointments – because he was not expected to become king, as Duke of York, Henry used the arms of his father as king, differenced by a label of three points ermine. In 1502, Arthur died at the age of 15 of sweating sickness, Arthurs death thrust all his duties upon his younger brother, the 10-year-old Henry. After a little debate, Henry became the new Duke of Cornwall in October 1502, Henry VII gave the boy few tasks. Young Henry was strictly supervised and did not appear in public, as a result, the young Henry would ascend the throne untrained in the exacting art of kingship
Georgian architecture is the name given in most English-speaking countries to the set of architectural styles current between 1714 and 1830. It is eponymous for the first four British monarchs of the House of Hanover—George I, George II, George III, and George IV—who reigned in continuous succession from August 1714 to June 1830. The style of Georgian buildings is very variable, but marked by a taste for symmetry and proportion based on the architecture of Greece and Rome. Ornament is normally in the tradition, but typically rather restrained. In towns, which expanded greatly during the period, landowners turned into property developers, even the wealthy were persuaded to live in these in town, especially if provided with a square of garden in front of the house. There was an amount of building in the period, all over the English-speaking world. The period saw the growth of a distinct and trained architectural profession, before the mid-century the high-sounding title and this contrasted with earlier styles, which were primarily disseminated among craftsmen through the direct experience of the apprenticeship system.
Authors such as the prolific William Halfpenny published editions in America as well as Britain, mail-order kit homes were popular before World War II. The architect James Gibbs was a figure, his earlier buildings are Baroque, reflecting the time he spent in Rome in the early 18th century. Other prominent architects of the early Georgian period include James Paine, Robert Taylor, and John Wood, the styles that resulted fall within several categories. In the mainstream of Georgian style were both Palladian architecture—and its whimsical alternatives and Chinoiserie, which were the English-speaking worlds equivalent of European Rococo. John Nash was one of the most prolific architects of the late Georgian era known as The Regency style, greek Revival architecture was added to the repertory, beginning around 1750, but increasing in popularity after 1800. Leading exponents were William Wilkins and Robert Smirke, regularity of housefronts along a street was a desirable feature of Georgian town planning.
In Britain brick or stone are almost invariably used, brick is often disguised with stucco, in America and other colonies wood remained very common, as its availability and cost-ratio with the other materials was more favourable. Versions of revived Palladian architecture dominated English country house architecture, Houses were increasingly placed in grand landscaped settings, and large houses were generally made wide and relatively shallow, largely to look more impressive from a distance. The height was usually highest in the centre, and the Baroque emphasis on corner pavilions often found on the continent generally avoided, in grand houses, an entrance hall led to steps up to a piano nobile or mezzanine floor where the main reception rooms were. A single block was typical, with a perhaps a small court for carriages at the front marked off by railings and a gate, but rarely a stone gatehouse, or side wings around the court. Windows in all types of buildings were large and regularly placed on a grid, this was partly to minimize window tax and their height increasingly varied between the floors, and they increasingly began below waist-height in the main rooms, making a small balcony desirable
Croydon Minster is the parish and civic church of the London Borough of Croydon. There are currently more than 35 churches in the borough, with Croydon Minster being the most prominent, six Archbishops of Canterbury are buried in the church, Edmund Grindal, John Whitgift, Gilbert Sheldon, William Wake, John Potter, and Thomas Herring. A charter issued by King Coenwulf of Mercia refers to a council which had taken place close to what is called the monasterium of Croydon, an Anglo-Saxon will made in about 960 is witnessed by Elfsies, priest of Croydon, and the church is mentioned in Domesday Book. In its final form, the church was mainly a Perpendicular-style structure of late 14th. It still bears the arms of archbishops Courtenay and Chicheley, believed to have been its benefactors, the medieval building underwent some restoration in 1851 and 1857–9, under the direction of George Gilbert Scott. The churchs reconsecration by Archbishop Archibald Tait took place on 5 January 1870, the church still contains several important monuments and fittings saved from the old building.
The church was elevated to the status of Croydon Minster on 29 May 2011, Croydon has strong religious links, Croydon Palace having been a residence of the Archbishop of Canterbury from at least the beginning of the 13th century to the beginning of the 19th. The Bishop of Croydon is a position as a bishop in the Anglican Diocese of Southwark. The current area bishop is Jonathan Clark, who was consecrated on 21 March 2012, until recently the vicar was Colin J. Luke Boswell, Vicar of Croydon and Chaplain to the Whitgift Foundation. The church has a large pipe organ, much of which is by William Hill & Sons. A specification of the organ is on the National Pipe Organ Register, there is a small organ in the St Nicholas Chapel which was obtained from St Mary the Virgin, Preston Candover in 1997. A specification of the organ is on the National Pipe Organ Register. Before the fire of 1867 records are incomplete, but include, after the fire of 1867, John Rhodes 1857–1868 Frederick Cambridge 1868–1911 F.
Rowland Tims 1911–1918 H. Leslie Smith 1918–1948 Edward Shakespeare 1948–1952 J. A. Rogans 1952–1953 B, the eight original bells were recast and hung with new fittings in a new frame with four additional trebles. The new ring of 12 was dedicated by the Bishop of Croydon on 12 December 1936, the tower and ringers are affiliated to the Surrey Association of Church Bell Ringers. Antiquities of Croydon Church, destroyed by fire, January 5th,1867 and it is linked to the The Minster Schools. Croydon Minster official website Croydon bell ringers website
The Anglo-Saxons are a people who have inhabited Great Britain from the 5th century. Historically, the Anglo-Saxon period denotes the period in Britain between about 450 and 1066, after their settlement and up until the Norman conquest. The early Anglo-Saxon period includes the creation of an English nation, with many of the aspects that survive today, including government of shires. During this period, Christianity was re-established and there was a flowering of literature and law were established. The term Anglo-Saxon is popularly used for the language that was spoken and written by the Anglo-Saxons in England, in scholarly use, it is more commonly called Old English. The history of the Anglo-Saxons is the history of a cultural identity and it developed from divergent groups in association with the peoples adoption of Christianity, and was integral to the establishment of various kingdoms. Threatened by extended Danish invasions and occupation of eastern England, this identity was re-established, the visible Anglo-Saxon culture can be seen in the material culture of buildings, dress styles, illuminated texts and grave goods.
Behind the symbolic nature of these emblems, there are strong elements of tribal. The elite declared themselves as kings who developed burhs, and identified their roles and peoples in Biblical terms, above all, as Helena Hamerow has observed and extended kin groups remained. the essential unit of production throughout the Anglo-Saxon period. Use of the term Anglo-Saxon assumes that the words Angles, Saxons or Anglo-Saxon have the meaning in all the sources. Assigning ethnic labels such as Anglo-Saxon is fraught with difficulties and this term began to be used only in the 8th century to distinguish the Germanic groups in Britain from those on the continent. The Old English ethnonym Angul-Seaxan comes from the Latin Angli-Saxones and became the name of the peoples Bede calls Anglorum, Anglo-Saxon is a term that was rarely used by Anglo-Saxons themselves, it is not an autonym. It is likely they identified as ængli, Seaxe or, more probably, the use of Anglo-Saxon disguises the extent to which people identified as Anglo-Scandinavian after the Viking age or the conquest of 1016, or as Anglo-Norman after the Norman conquest.
The earliest historical references using this term are from outside Britain, referring to piratical Germanic raiders, Saxones who attacked the shores of Britain, procopius states that Britain was settled by three races, the Angiloi and Britons. The term Angli Saxones seems to have first been used in writing of the 8th century. The name therefore seemed to mean English Saxons, the Christian church seems to have used the word Angli, for example in the story of Pope Gregory I and his remark, Non Angli sed angeli. The terms ænglisc and Angelcynn were used by West Saxon King Alfred to refer to the people, at other times he uses the term rex Anglorum, which presumably meant both Anglo-Saxons and Danes. Alfred the Great used Anglosaxonum Rex, the term Engla cyningc is used by Æthelred