The company headquarters is located at Crawley Court in the village of Crawley, Hampshire. Its main customers are broadcasters and mobile network operators, and its main asset is a network of over 1,000 radio. It is owned by a consortium of investors led by CPP, Arqiva is a patron of The Radio Academy. Through its NOW Digital subsidiary, it operates various local digital radio ensembles, the company, which has a history that dates back to the beginning of regular public broadcasting in the United Kingdom, was actually only formed in 2005. Below is a history of the various organisations that are now part of Arqiva. The assets were split into a separate company, prior to being sold. The domestic transmitter network was purchased by a US company, Crown Castle, subsequently, in 2004, this was purchased by National Grid plc, which merged in its own private communication network, the name changing to National Grid Wireless in October 2005. This company developed on the back of the growth in mobile phones and this was added to by the purchase of the former BBC network National Grid Wireless, as it became, led a consortium bidding for the second UK national DAB multiplex licence, but was unsuccessful.
The licence was awarded instead to 4 Digital Group in July 2007, the Television Act 1954 gave birth to the Independent Television Authority. The ITA appointed and regulated a number of regional programme contractors, the Sound Broadcasting Act 1972 created legal commercial radio in the UK for the first time. It was modelled on ITA, in that programmes were made by local contractors while the regulator, renamed the Independent Broadcasting Authority, the Broadcasting Act 1990 split the IBA into three bodies. The Independent Television Commission regulated commercial TV and the Radio Authority regulated commercial radio, at this point, technical standards regulation, previously carried out in accordance with the IBA engineering Code of Practice, seems to have disappeared from the regulatory landscape. Transcom was acquired by International CableTel Inc. which subsequently built its brand around the NTL name and it ran up huge debts during the dot-com boom which crippled the company for many years.
In 1998, NTL acquired the UK antenna sites business of Simoco, in 1999 NTL acquired the UK field service operations business of Simoco. In 2004, NTL sold its broadcast unit to Macquarie Communications Infrastructure Group, in January 2005, Macquarie Communications Infrastructure Group renamed its new subsidiary Arqiva. Inmedia was owned by Kingston Communications and known as Kingston inmedia before being bought by the Carlyle Group in 2004. Arqiva announced the signing of a Sale & Purchase Agreement with BT to acquire the full-time service components of BT’s Satellite Broadcast Services business for £25 million in cash in November 2006. The deal will include long-term customer contracts and personnel located in the USA, Italy, deal completion is subject to regulatory approval in the UK and Germany
London Weekend Television
London Weekend Television was the ITV network franchise holder for Greater London and the Home Counties at weekends, broadcasting from Fridays at 5.15 pm to Monday mornings at 6, 00am. Like most ITV franchises, including Carltons, the London weekend franchise is operated by ITV plc. As of 2014, the franchise is still licensed, but unlike many other franchises. LWT is now managed with Carlton Television as an entity. London Weekend Television Ltd is, along with most other companies owned by ITV plc. The London Television Consortium was created and led by television presenter David Frost, the consortium consisted of three ex-BBC members of staff, Michael Peacock, Frank Muir and Doreen Stephens. Frost had originally considered applying for the new Yorkshire region franchise, changes elsewhere in the system led Frost to believe that the existing Midlands weekday broadcaster ATV had a significant risk of losing its London weekend contract. The consortiums application promised a variety of arts and drama productions.
It accordingly caught the attention of the regulator, the Independent Television Authority, so keen were the ITA that they were quoted at the time as saying the LTC had to have its chance, whatever the repercussions. The new company, renamed London Weekend Television, benefited from an extension in broadcasting hours. Having previously worked weekdays for Rediffusion, transmission staff now had to work at weekends and this led to threats of industrial action, and with the dispute still unresolved, fifteen seconds into their opening night of 2 August 1968, technicians went on strike and the screens went blank. An emergency service was provided by management from the centre of ATV at Foley Street. As a consequence viewers deserted their primetime offerings in favour of the more mainstream Saturday night viewing on BBC1, other ITV stations refused to show LWT productions because of the poor ratings. The situation came to a head during a meeting of the Network Programme Committee on 9 September 1968.
The NPC was being chaired by Lew Grade, ATVs managing director, and I know I hate David Frost. Frost was present but no one else spoke out against LWTs programming policy, the £6.5 million they had initially put up for the franchise began to drain away more quickly than their audience figures. Michael Peacock, the architect in David Frosts vision for the future of television, ATV dropped Frosts major Saturday night slot altogether and replaced him with comedian Dave Allen, while Yorkshire and Granada relegated the show to the late evening. In September 1969, Michael Peacock was sacked by the board while six executives resigned from LWT in support, the ITA made it clear that LWTs franchise proposals must be retained
London Borough of Croydon
The London Borough of Croydon is a London borough in south London, England and is part of Outer London. It covers an area of 87 km2 and is the largest London borough by population and it is the southernmost borough of London. At its centre is the town of Croydon from which the borough takes its name. Croydon is mentioned in Domesday Book, and from a market town has expanded into one of the most populous areas on the fringe of London. Croydon is the centre of the borough. The borough is now one of Londons leading business and cultural centres, and its influence in entertainment, the economic strength of Croydon dates back mainly to Croydon Airport which was a major factor in the development of Croydon as a business centre. Once Londons main airport for all flights to and from the capital. It is now a Grade II listed building and tourist attraction, Croydon Council and its predecessor Croydon Corporation unsuccessfully applied for city status in 1954,2000,2002 and 2012. Croydon is mostly urban, though there are suburban and rural uplands in the south.
Since 2003 Croydon has been certified as a Fairtrade borough by the Fairtrade Foundation and it was the first London Borough to have Fairtrade status which is awarded on certain criteria. The area is one of the hearts of culture in London, institutions such as the major arts and entertainment centre Fairfield Halls add to the vibrancy of the borough. However, its famous fringe theatre the Warehouse Theatre was put under administration in 2012 when the council withdrew its funding, the Croydon Clocktower was opened by Queen Elizabeth II in 1994 as an arts venue featuring a library, the independent David Lean Cinema and museum. From 2000 to 2010, Croydon staged a summer festival celebrating the areas black and Indian cultural diversity. An internet radio station, Croydon Radio, is run by people for the area. The borough is home to its own local TV station, Croydon TV. Premier League football club Crystal Palace F. C. play at Selhurst Park in South Norwood, for the history of the original town see History of Croydon The London Borough of Croydon was formed in 1965 from the Coulsdon and Purley Urban District and the County Borough of Croydon.
The name Croydon comes from Crogdene or Croindone, named by the Saxons in the 8th century when they settled here, although the area had been inhabited since prehistoric times. It is thought to derive from the Anglo-Saxon croeas deanas, meaning the valley of the crocuses, indicating that, like Saffron Walden in Essex, by the time of the Norman invasion Croydon had a church, a mill and around 365 inhabitants as recorded in the Domesday Book
Crystal Palace transmitting station
The Crystal Palace transmitting station, currently known as Arqiva Crystal Palace, is a broadcasting and telecommunications site in the Crystal Palace area of the borough of Bromley, England. The station is the fifth-tallest structure in London, and is best known as the television transmitter for the London area. As such, it is the most important transmitter in the UK in terms of population covered, the transmitter is owned and operated by Arqiva. The station was constructed in the mid-1950s among the ruins of the Crystal Palace, the Aquarium on whose site it stands was destroyed in 1941 during the demolition of the Palaces north water tower. Its new 219-metre tower was the tallest structure in London until the construction of One Canada Square at Canary Wharf in 1991. In November 1956 the first colour test transmissions began from Crystal Palace, in May 1958 the first experimental Band V 625-line transmissions started from Crystal Palace. This tower was designed and built for BBC by British Insulated Callenders Construction Co Ltd with steelwork fabrication by Painter Brothers Ltd, the tower was required to transmit television programmes with good reception in 1957 and has a total height of 708 feet.
The base of the tower is 120 feet to a side, the tower was constructed using two masts as derricks, one 230 feet and the other 125 feet high in conjunction with a winch. A 16mm film was produced of the construction by BICC at the time which was available on loan from the BICC Film Library, when built it transmitted BBC Television on the VHF 405-line system, the Croydon transmitter two miles away had been built some months earlier to broadcast ITV. When UHF transmissions started in 1964, first the new BBC2, 405-line VHF television was discontinued in 1985, and all television broadcasts from Crystal Palace were on UHF. On 18 July 1986, with the First Night of the Proms on BBC2, Crystal Palace did not transmit analogue Channel 5, this came from Croydon. Croydon had reserve transmitters for ITV and Channel 4, used in the event of a fault or maintenance at Crystal Palace, the BBC decided that a complete reserve was a good idea and all four services became available from Croydon if required. These had an ERP of 20 kW before switchover and 200 kW after, with considerable beam tilt to the south and east.
With digital switchover completed all services come from Crystal Palace again, although DTT requires far less power to achieve the same coverage as analogue TV, this 17 dB difference is too large to ensure comparable coverage. The station therefore has a range of about 30 miles for DTT and it has medium wave transmitters on 558 kHz,720 kHz and 1035 kHz. Since the tower is grounded, a wire aerial span close to it is used for the MW services, since 1995 the tower has been one of five London transmitters for the BBC DAB multiplex. This was joined in 1999 by the Digital One DAB service, on 2 December 2009 the site entered service as one of the first DVB-T2 transmitters in the world, carrying a variant of the BBCs Multiplex B broadcasting high-definition TV services. The Governments plans for digital switchover were based on the use of almost all current analogue TV transmitter sites, Crystal Palace remains a key part of the network since analogue was switched off in the London area in April 2012
The A215 is an A road in South London, starting at Elephant and Castle and finishing around Shirley. It runs through the London Boroughs of Lambeth and Croydon, beginning as Walworth Road, the A215 becomes Camberwell Road—much of which is a conservation area—after entering the former Metropolitan Borough of Camberwell. Crossing the A202, the A215 becomes Denmark Hill, originally known as Dulwich Hill, after passing Herne Hill railway station the road becomes Norwood Road, Knights Hill, and Beulah Hill at its crossroads with the A214. Beulah Hill was the site of Britains first independent television transmitter, descending towards South Norwood the A215 becomes South Norwood Hill and Portland Road, just after crossing the A213. A short section starting at the junction with Woodside Green is known as Spring Lane, leading to Shirley Road, the A215 was Britains most crash-prone A-road between 1999-2010, having had 2,836 crashes over its 10 mile length. At its northernmost point at Elephant & Castle in Newington, the A215 begins as Walworth Road and it runs through Walworth and is the major shopping street of the area.
East Street Market is especially busy on Fridays and Sundays, other attractions include the Cuming Museum, Newington Reference Library and John Smith House, a former Labour Party headquarters which is now used by the local education authority. Charles Babbage, the Victorian mathematician and computer pioneer, was born at 44 Crosby Row, now Larcom Street. A commemorative blue plaque is displayed on the Sexual Health Clinic at the junction of Larcom Street, just off the Walworth Road was Walworth Road railway station on the London and Dover Railway that was opened in 1863 and shut in 1916 due to wartime constraints. Walworth Road transitions into Camberwell Road where the A215 enters the former Metropolitan Borough of Camberwell, the road runs adjacent to the railway between Elephant & Castle tube station and Loughborough Junction railway station. Much of Camberwell Road is an area, due to its well preserved large houses from the early 19th century. By the time of the Domesday Book, Camberwell was already a significant settlement, the town remained a popular resort for Londoners due to its believed medicinal wells.
In 1685, John Evelyns Diary mentions a Roman urn filled with bones which was uncovered intact during repairs to the road, Camberwell Green, at the junction of Camberwell Road and Camberwell Church Street, was the traditional site of Camberwell Fair, an annual fair held every August. Following complaints about the noise and high crime levels generated by the fair, in Victorian times Camberwell Road was a focal point of South Londons Music hall scene, with a number of music halls opening from the 1850s onwards. Following the advent of the cinema and of television, the halls fell into decline. Nearby Orpheus Street marks the site of the Metropole Music Hall, since the New Works Programme of the 1930s, London Transport and its successors have planned to extend the Bakerloo line south to a station on Camberwell Road. The original plans were abandoned due to the war before much construction had been completed, construction again began in the 1950s and 1970s, but was abandoned each time. Transport for London still intend to build this extension but no date has been set for this, after the A215 crosses the A202 it becomes Denmark Hill
DVB has been standardized by ETSI. This system transmits compressed digital audio and other data in physical layer pipes, the higher offered bit rate, with respect to its predecessor DVB-T, makes it a system suited for carrying HDTV signals on the terrestrial TV channel. As of 2014, it was implemented in broadcasts in the United Kingdom, Finland, Sweden, Thailand Flanders, Ukraine, Denmark, Romania, in March 2006 DVB decided to study options for an upgraded DVB-T standard. The novel system should provide a minimum 30% increase in payload, the BBC, ITV, Channel 4 and Channel 5 agreed with the regulator Ofcom to convert one UK multiplex to DVB-T2 to increase capacity for HDTV via DTT. They expected the first TV region to use the new standard would be Granada in November 2009 and it was expected that over time there would be enough DVB-T2 receivers sold to switch all DTT transmissions to DVB-T2, and H.264. Ofcom published its decision on 3 April 2008, for HDTV using DVB-T2 and H.264. ITV and C4 had, as expected, applied to Ofcom for the 2 additional HD slots available from 2009 to 2012.
Ofcom indicated that it found a channel covering 3.7 million households in London. Ofcom indicated that they would look for more unused UHF channels in other parts of the UK, the DVB-T2 draft standard was ratified by the DVB Steering Board on 26 June 2008, and published on the DVB homepage as DVB-T2 standard BlueBook. It was handed over to the European Telecommunications Standards Institute by DVB. ORG on 20 June 2008, the ETSI process resulted in the DVB-T2 standard being adopted on 9 September 2009. The ETSI process had several phases, but the changes were text clarifications. Since the DVB-T2 physical layer specification was complete, and there would be no further technical enhancements, a draft PSI/SI specification document was agreed with the DVB-TM-GBS group. Prototype receivers were shown in September IBC2008 and more recent version at the IBC2009 in Amsterdam, as of 2012, Appear TV produce DVB-T2 receivers, DVB-T2 modulators and DVB-T2 gateways. Other companies like ENKOM or IfN develop software based decoding, NORDIG published a DVB-T2 receiver specification and performance requirement on 1 July 2009.
The DTGs test house, DTG Testing are testing Freeview HD products against this specification, many tests broadcast transmission using this standard are being in process in France, with local Gap filler near Rennes CCETT. DVB-T2 was tested in October 2010, in Geneva region, with Mont Salèves repeater, a mobile van was testing BER, and quality reception, with special PCs used as spectrum analysers, constellation testers. The van was moving in Canton Geneva, and France, there were none demonstrated in TELECOM2011 at Palexpo. The following characteristics have been devised for the T2 standard, COFDM modulation with QPSK, 16-QAM, 64-QAM, OFDM modes are 1k, 2k, 4k, 8k, 16k, and 32k
Very high frequency
Very high frequency is the ITU designation for the range of radio frequency electromagnetic waves from 30 MHz to 300 MHz, with corresponding wavelengths of ten to one meters. Frequencies immediately below VHF are denoted high frequency, and the higher frequencies are known as ultra high frequency. Air traffic control communications and air navigation systems work at distances of 100 kilometres or more to aircraft at cruising altitude, some older DVB-T receivers included channels E2 to E4 but newer ones only go down to channel E5. VHF propagation characteristics are suited for terrestrial communication, with a range generally somewhat farther than line-of-sight from the transmitter. VHF waves are restricted to the radio horizon less than 100 miles. VHF is less affected by noise and interference from electrical equipment than lower frequencies. Unlike high frequencies, the ionosphere does not usually reflect VHF waves, the distance to the radio horizon is slightly extended over the geometric line of sight to the horizon, as radio waves are weakly bent back toward the Earth by the atmosphere.
These approximations are only valid for antennas at heights that are compared to the radius of the Earth. They may not necessarily be accurate in mountainous areas, since the landscape may not be transparent enough for radio waves, in engineered communications systems, more complex calculations are required to assess the probable coverage area of a proposed transmitter station. The accuracy of calculations for digital TV signals is being debated. Portable radios usually use whips or rubber ducky antennas, while base stations usually use larger fiberglass whips or collinear arrays of vertical dipoles, for directional antennas, the Yagi antenna is the most widely used as a high gain or beam antenna. For television reception, the Yagi is used, as well as the log periodic antenna due to its wider bandwidth and turnstile antennas are used for satellite communication since they employ circular polarization. For even higher gain, multiple Yagis or helicals can be mounted together to make array antennas, vertical collinear arrays of dipoles can be used to make high gain omnidirectional antennas, in which more of the antennas power is radiated in horizontal directions.
Television and FM broadcasting stations use arrays of specialized dipole antennas such as batwing antennas. Certain subparts of the VHF band have the same use around the world, some national uses are detailed below. 108–118 MHz, Air navigation beacons VOR and Instrument Landing System localiser, 118–137 MHz, Airband for air traffic control, AM,121.5 MHz is emergency frequency 144–146 MHz, Amateur radio. Other capital cities and regional areas used a combination of these, the initial commercial services in Hobart and Darwin were respectively allocated channels 6 and 8 rather than 7 or 9. By the early 1960s it became apparent that the 10 VHF channels were insufficient to support the growth of television services and this was rectified by the addition of three additional frequencies—channels 0, 5A and 11
The British Broadcasting Corporation is a British public service broadcaster. It is headquartered at Broadcasting House in London, the BBC is the worlds oldest national broadcasting organisation and the largest broadcaster in the world by number of employees. It employs over 20,950 staff in total,16,672 of whom are in public sector broadcasting, the total number of staff is 35,402 when part-time and fixed contract staff are included. The BBC is established under a Royal Charter and operates under its Agreement with the Secretary of State for Culture and Sport. The fee is set by the British Government, agreed by Parliament, and used to fund the BBCs radio, TV, britains first live public broadcast from the Marconi factory in Chelmsford took place in June 1920. It was sponsored by the Daily Mails Lord Northcliffe and featured the famous Australian Soprano Dame Nellie Melba, the Melba broadcast caught the peoples imagination and marked a turning point in the British publics attitude to radio. However, this public enthusiasm was not shared in official circles where such broadcasts were held to interfere with important military and civil communications.
By late 1920, pressure from these quarters and uneasiness among the staff of the licensing authority, the General Post Office, was sufficient to lead to a ban on further Chelmsford broadcasts. But by 1922, the GPO had received nearly 100 broadcast licence requests, John Reith, a Scottish Calvinist, was appointed its General Manager in December 1922 a few weeks after the company made its first official broadcast. The company was to be financed by a royalty on the sale of BBC wireless receiving sets from approved manufacturers, to this day, the BBC aims to follow the Reithian directive to inform and entertain. The financial arrangements soon proved inadequate, set sales were disappointing as amateurs made their own receivers and listeners bought rival unlicensed sets. By mid-1923, discussions between the GPO and the BBC had become deadlocked and the Postmaster-General commissioned a review of broadcasting by the Sykes Committee and this was to be followed by a simple 10 shillings licence fee with no royalty once the wireless manufactures protection expired.
The BBCs broadcasting monopoly was made explicit for the duration of its current broadcast licence, the BBC was banned from presenting news bulletins before 19.00, and required to source all news from external wire services. Mid-1925 found the future of broadcasting under further consideration, this time by the Crawford committee, by now the BBC under Reiths leadership had forged a consensus favouring a continuation of the unified broadcasting service, but more money was still required to finance rapid expansion. Wireless manufacturers were anxious to exit the loss making consortium with Reith keen that the BBC be seen as a service rather than a commercial enterprise. The recommendations of the Crawford Committee were published in March the following year and were still under consideration by the GPO when the 1926 general strike broke out in May. The strike temporarily interrupted newspaper production and with restrictions on news bulletins waived the BBC suddenly became the source of news for the duration of the crisis.
The crisis placed the BBC in a delicate position, the Government was divided on how to handle the BBC but ended up trusting Reith, whose opposition to the strike mirrored the PMs own
This service started on Saturday,24 September 1955 and was extended until Sunday,28 July 1968. ATV was awarded the franchise to provide the weekdays Independent Television service for the Midlands region and this service started on Friday,17 February 1956 and was extended until Monday,29 July 1968. Both companies had applied for a contract to one of the new ITV stations. By the time of the merger ABDC were well advanced with their plans whilst ITPC planned to operate as an independent producer selling their shows to the new network contractors. When financial problems hit ABDC, the Independent Television Authority, the body of ITV, invited Grade. This provided the required and put Littler and Grade in control of the new company. After ABC had been operating for three weeks the name was changed to Associated TeleVision Ltd, the logo, designed for ABC and tweaked for ATV, was a shadowed eye inspired by the CBS logo and reputedly designed by Lew Grade on a transatlantic flight back from the US.
The logo is one of the most recognisable in broadcasting, ABC began broadcasting in its own right on Saturday 24 September 1955, after jointly presenting the networks opening night on Thursday 22 September. The name ATV was first seen in London on Saturday 8 October 1955, the company won two contracts, the weekend contract for London and the Monday–Friday contract for the Midlands. The latter service opened on 17 February 1956, with ABC providing the weekend programmes, the company ran into financial difficulty due to the staggering losses of the first two years of ITV and start-up costs. The London weekday contractor Associated-Rediffusion shouldered some of ATVs losses and further funding was achieved by selling shares to the Daily Mirror newspaper. The company structure was changed several times until 1966, when ATV and this marked the point where Lew Grade advanced from being the greatest influence over the company to taking control. ATVs main impact was in variety and light entertainment, at this point the company was renamed ATV Network Limited.
During the 1970s, ATV received much criticism over its lack of programming, particularly for the east of its region. ATV Midlands Limited, a company created by ACC solely for the franchise process. ATV ceased broadcasting at 12. 34am on Friday 1 January 1982, the final closedown was marked by a brief tribute to ATV from original announcer Shaw Taylor before duty announcer Mike Prince signed off with the playing of the National Anthem. The newly reformed company, Central Independent Television plc, began broadcasting with a promo at 9. 25am that morning. Central inherited the studios at ATV Centre, Birmingham and ATV Elstree along with land that ATV Midlands had purchased for their new Nottingham studio centre
Altitude 25 is an apartment building on Fairfield Road in the London Borough of Croydon, London. The development was intended to regenerate a brownfield site near to East Croydon station. The building was completed in 2009, and has 26 floors of apartments up to floor 25, hence the name Altitude 25, a height of 82.00. It is part of the Croydon Vision 2020 regeneration project for a new generation of buildings in the town, the scheme of residential flats comprises 196 apartments with a mix of private and affordable housing. With the support of the planners, the focus of the design is a 25 storey elliptical tower. This structure is proposed to create a new urban landmark within the centre of Croydon, devereux were appointed as lead consultant and architect by Howard Holdings plc, having previously designed residential schemes, most recently in Guildford, Surrey for the same client. The scheme is adjacent to a hotel, Croydon Park Hotel. It 100 parking spaces for residents of the apartment block, Park Hill Recreation Ground, a large urban park and ornamental gardens in Croydon, is located opposite the building.
The Ashcroft Theatre and Fairfield Halls which provide theatre performances and concerts are both on the road as Altitude 25. No.1 Croydon Nestlé Tower Altitude 25
Telecommunication is the transmission of signs, messages, writings and sounds or intelligence of any nature by wire, optical or other electromagnetic systems. Telecommunication occurs when the exchange of information between communication participants includes the use of technology and it is transmitted either electrically over physical media, such as cables, or via electromagnetic radiation. Such transmission paths are divided into communication channels which afford the advantages of multiplexing. The term is used in its plural form, telecommunications. Early means of communicating over a distance included visual signals, such as beacons, smoke signals, semaphore telegraphs, signal flags, other examples of pre-modern long-distance communication included audio messages such as coded drumbeats, lung-blown horns, and loud whistles. Zworykin, John Logie Baird and Philo Farnsworth, the word telecommunication is a compound of the Greek prefix tele, meaning distant, far off, or afar, and the Latin communicare, meaning to share.
Its modern use is adapted from the French, because its use was recorded in 1904 by the French engineer. Communication was first used as an English word in the late 14th century, in the Middle Ages, chains of beacons were commonly used on hilltops as a means of relaying a signal. Beacon chains suffered the drawback that they could pass a single bit of information. One notable instance of their use was during the Spanish Armada, in 1792, Claude Chappe, a French engineer, built the first fixed visual telegraphy system between Lille and Paris. However semaphore suffered from the need for skilled operators and expensive towers at intervals of ten to thirty kilometres, as a result of competition from the electrical telegraph, the last commercial line was abandoned in 1880. Homing pigeons have occasionally used throughout history by different cultures. Pigeon post is thought to have Persians roots and was used by the Romans to aid their military, frontinus said that Julius Caesar used pigeons as messengers in his conquest of Gaul.
The Greeks conveyed the names of the victors at the Olympic Games to various cities using homing pigeons, in the early 19th century, the Dutch government used the system in Java and Sumatra. And in 1849, Paul Julius Reuter started a service to fly stock prices between Aachen and Brussels, a service that operated for a year until the gap in the telegraph link was closed. Sir Charles Wheatstone and Sir William Fothergill Cooke invented the telegraph in 1837. Also, the first commercial electrical telegraph is purported to have constructed by Wheatstone and Cooke. Both inventors viewed their device as an improvement to the electromagnetic telegraph not as a new device, samuel Morse independently developed a version of the electrical telegraph that he unsuccessfully demonstrated on 2 September 1837