Head of a Faun
Head of a faun is a lost sculpture by Italian Renaissance master Michelangelo, dating from c. 1489. His first known work of sculpture in marble, it was sculpted when he was 15 or 16 as a copy of an antique work with some minor alterations. According to Giorgio Vasari's biography of the artist, it was the creation of this work that secured the young Michaelangelo the patronage of Lorenzo de' Medici. Artists Life — Michelangelo, page 14,15 — Enrica Crispino, 2001, Giunti Editore; the Life of Michelangelo Buonarroti, page 23 — John Addington Symonds, BiblioBazaar. Michael Angelo: Giorgio Vasari's Lives of the Artists, Fordham University The Boy Michelangelo carving the Head of the Faun - Sculpture of Cesare Zocchi, it is in Casa Buonarroti
Madonna of Bruges
The Madonna of Bruges is a marble sculpture by Michelangelo of Mary with the Child Jesus. Michelangelo's depiction of the Madonna and Child differs from earlier representations of the same subject, which tended to feature a pious Virgin smiling down on an infant held in her arms. Instead, Jesus stands upright unsupported, only loosely restrained by Mary's left hand, appears to be about to step away from his mother. Meanwhile, Mary does not cling to her son or look at him, but gazes down and away, it is believed the work was intended for an altar piece. If this is so it would have been displayed facing to the right and looking down; the early 16th-century sculpture displays the High Renaissance Pyramid style seen in the works of Leonardo da Vinci during the late 1400s. Madonna and Child shares certain similarities with Michelangelo's Pietà, completed shortly before – the chiaroscuro effect and movement of the drapery; the long, oval face of Mary is reminiscent of the Pietà. The work is notable in that it was the only sculpture by Michelangelo to leave Italy during his lifetime.
In 1504, it was bought by Giovanni and Alessandro Moscheroni, who were wealthy cloth merchants in Bruges one of the leading commercial cities in Europe. The sculpture was sold for 4,000 florins; the sculpture was removed twice from Belgium after its initial arrival. The first was in 1794, after French Revolutionaries had conquered the Austrian Netherlands during the French Revolutionary Wars, it was returned after Napoleon's final defeat at Waterloo in 1815. The second removal was in 1944, during World War II, with the retreat of German soldiers, who smuggled the sculpture to Germany enveloped in mattresses in a Red Cross truck, it was discovered a year in Altaussee/Austria within a salt mine and again returned. It now sits in the Church of Our Lady in Belgium; this is part of the fact-based movie The Monuments Men. Roman Catholic Marian art Monuments Men
The statue of an Angel was created by Michelangelo out of marble. Its height is 51.5 cm. It is situated in the Basilica of Bologna. Basilica of San Domenico St. Proclus St. Petronius
Tilia is a genus of about 30 species of trees, or bushes, native throughout most of the temperate Northern Hemisphere. In the British Isles they are called lime trees, or lime bushes, although they are not related to the tree that produces the lime fruit. Other names include linden for the European species, basswood for North American species; the genus occurs in Europe and eastern North America, but the greatest species diversity is found in Asia. Under the Cronquist classification system, this genus was placed in the family Tiliaceae, but genetic research summarised by the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group has resulted in the incorporation of this genus, of most of the previous family, into the Malvaceae. Tilia species are large, deciduous trees, reaching 20 to 40 metres tall, with oblique-cordate leaves 6 to 20 centimetres across; as with elms, the exact number of species is uncertain, as many if not most of the species will hybridise both in the wild and in cultivation. Limes are hermaphroditic, having perfect flowers with both male and female parts, pollinated by insects.
The genus is called lime or linden in Britain and linden, lime, or basswood in North America."Lime" is an altered form of Middle English lind, in the 16th century line, from Old English feminine lind or linde, Proto-Germanic *lendā, cognate to Latin lentus "flexible" and Sanskrit latā "liana". Within Germanic languages, English "lithe", German lind "lenient, yielding" are from the same root. "Linden" was the adjective, "made from linwood or lime-wood". Neither the name nor the tree is related to the citrus fruit called "lime". Another common name used in North America is basswood, derived from bast, the name for the inner bark. Teil is an old name for the lime tree. Latin tilia is cognate to Greek πτελέᾱ, ptelea, "elm tree", τιλίαι, tiliai, "black poplar" from a Proto-Indo-European word *ptel-ei̯ā with a meaning of "broad"; the Tilia's sturdy trunk stands like a pillar and the branches divide and subdivide into numerous ramifications on which the twigs are fine and thick. In summer, these are profusely clothed with large leaves and the result is a dense head of abundant foliage.
The leaves of all the Tilia species are heart-shaped and most are asymmetrical, the tiny fruit, looking like peas, always hang attached to a ribbon-like, greenish-yellow bract, whose use seems to be to launch the ripened seed-clusters just a little beyond the parent tree. The flowers of the European and American Tilia species are similar, except the American bears a petal-like scale among its stamens and the European varieties are devoid of these appendages. All of the Tilia species may be propagated by cuttings and grafting, as well as by seed, they grow in rich soil, but are subject to the attack of many insects. Tilia is notoriously difficult to propagate from seed. If allowed to dry, the seeds will take 18 months to germinate. In particular, aphids are attracted by the rich supply of sap, are in turn "farmed" by ants for the production of the sap which the ants collect for their own use, the result can be a dripping of excess sap onto the lower branches and leaves, anything else below. Cars left under the trees can become coated with a film of the syrup thus dropped from higher up.
The ant/aphid "farming" process does not appear to cause any serious damage to the trees. In Europe, some linden trees reached considerable ages. A coppice of T. cordata in Westonbirt Arboretum in Gloucestershire is estimated to be 2,000 years old. In the courtyard of the Imperial Castle at Nuremberg is a Tilia which, by tradition recounted in 1900, was planted by the Empress Cunigunde, the wife of Henry II of Germany circa 1000; the Tilia of Neuenstadt am Kocher in Baden-Württemberg, was estimated at 1000 years old when it fell. The Alte Linde tree of Naters, Switzerland, is mentioned in a document in 1357 and described by the writer at that time as magnam. A plaque at its foot mentions that in 1155 a linden tree was on this spot; the Najevnik linden tree, a 700-year-old T. cordata, is the thickest tree in Slovenia. The excellence of the honey of the far-famed Hyblaean Mountains was due to the linden trees that covered its sides and crowned its summit. Lime fossils have been found in the Tertiary formations of Grinnell Land, Canada, at 82° N latitude, in Svalbard, Norway.
Sapporta believed he had found there the common ancestor of the Tilia species of America. The linden is recommended as an ornamental tree when a mass of a deep shade is desired; the tree produces fragrant and nectar-producing flowers, the medicinal herb lime blossom. They are important honey plants for beekeepers, producing a pale but richly flavoured monofloral honey; the flowers are used for herbal teas and tinctures. Linden trees produce soft and worked timber, which has little grain and a density of 560 kg per cubic metre, it was used by Germanic tribes for constructing shields. It is a popular wood for intricate carving. In Germany, it was the classic wood for sculpture from the Middle Ages onwards and is the material for the elaborate altarpieces of Veit Stoss, Tilman Riemenschnei
The Rebellious Slave is a 2.15m high marble statue by Michelangelo, dated to 1513. It is now held in the Louvre in Paris; the two "slaves" of the Louvre date to the second version of the tomb of Pope Julius II, commissioned by the Pope's heirs, the Della Rovere in May 1513. Although the initial plans for a gigantic mausoleum were set aside, the work was still monumental, with a corridor richly decorated with sculpture and Michelangelo was put in charge of the work. Among the first pieces completed were the two Prigioni, destined for the lower part of the funerary monument, next to the pilasters which framed the niches containing the Victories, their poses were determined by the needs of this architectural setting, so from the front they have great effect, but the side views received less care than usual. The date of the two statues is confirmed by a letter of Michelangelo to Marcello dei Covi, in which he speaks of a viewing by Luca Signorelli in his Roman house, while he worked on "a figure of marble, standing four cubits high, which has its hands behind its back".
All the Prigioni produced in the studio of the artist were eliminated from the monument in its final version, completed in 1542. In 1546 Michelangelo gave the two works in the Louvre to Roberto Strozzi, for his generous hospitality in his Roman house during Michelangelo's periods of sickness in July 1544 and June 1546; when Strozzi was exiled to Lyon in April 1550 for his opposition to Cosimo I de' Medici, he had the two statues sent ahead. In April 1578 they were put on view in two niches in the courtyard of the castle of the constable of Montmorency at Écouen, near Paris. In 1632 they were sold by Henri II de Montmorency to Cardinal Richelieu, who had them sent to his Château in Poitou, where they were seen by Gianlorenzo Bernini who made an illustration of them, on his travels. In 1749, the Duke of Richelieu had them placed in the Pavillon de Hanovre, they were hidden in 1793, but when the widow of the last Marshal of Richelieu attempted to put them on sale, they became property of the government and joined the collection, now in the Louvre.
The "Rebellious Slave" is portrayed trying to free himself from the fetters which hold his hands behind his back, contorting his torso and twisting his head. The impression given, which would have contributed to the spatial appearance of the monument, was that he was moving towards the viewer, with his raised shoulder and knee; the iconographic significance of the two figures is linked to the motif of the Captive in Roman art. For Ascanio Condivi, they symbolised the Arts taken prisoner after the death of pontif; the Rebellious Slave in particular might, represent sculpture or architecture. Other meanings of a symbolic and philosophical nature have been suggested as well as some linked to Michelangelo's personal life and his "torments". From a stylistic point of view, they are based on ancient models Hellenistic sculpture, like the statue group of Laocoön and His Sons, discovered in 1506 and at that time in Michelangelo's possession, but the sculptural friezes on the triumphal arches of Rome and depictions of Saint Sebastian.
Umberto Baldini. Michelangelo scultore. Rizzoli, Milano 1973. Marta Alvarez Gonzáles. Michelangelo. Mondadori Arte, Milano 2007. ISBN 978-88-370-6434-1 Media related to Michelangelo's Rebellious Slave at Wikimedia Commons Dying Slave Tomb of Pope Julius II List of works by Michelangelo Page on the Louvre's official site
The Bargello known as the Palazzo del Bargello, Museo Nazionale del Bargello, or Palazzo del Popolo, is a former barracks and prison, now an art museum, in Florence, Italy. The word bargello appears to come from the late Latin bargillus, meaning "castle" or "fortified tower". During the Italian Middle Ages it was the name given to a military captain in charge of keeping peace and justice during riots and uproars. In Florence he was hired from a foreign city to prevent any appearance of favoritism on the part of the Captain; the position could be compared with that of a current Chief of police. The name Bargello was extended to the building, the office of the captain. Construction began in 1255; the palace was built to house first the Capitano del Popolo and in 1261, the'podestà', the highest magistrate of the Florence City Council. This Palazzo del Podestà, as it was called, is the oldest public building in Florence; this austere crenellated building served as model for the construction of the Palazzo Vecchio.
In 1574, the Medici dispensed with the function of the Podestà and housed the bargello, the police chief of Florence, in this building, hence its name. It was employed as a prison; when Leopold II, Holy Roman Emperor Peter Leopold was exiled, the makeshift Governor of Tuscany decided that the Bargello should no longer be a jail, it became a national museum. The original two-storey structure was built alongside the Volognana Tower in 1256; the third storey, which can be identified by the smaller blocks used to construct it, was added after the fire of 1323. The building is designed around an open courtyard with an external staircase leading to the second floor. An open well is found in the centre of the courtyard; the Bargello opened as a national museum in 1865, displaying the largest Italian collection of gothic and Renaissance sculptures. The museum houses masterpieces by Michelangelo, such as his Bacchus, Pitti Tondo and David-Apollo, its collection includes Donatello's David and St. George Tabernacle, Vincenzo Gemito's Pescatore, Jacopo Sansovino's Bacchus, Giambologna's Architecture and his Mercury and many works from the Della Robbia family.
Benvenuto Cellini is represented with his bronze bust of Cosimo I. There are a few works from the Baroque period, notably Gianlorenzo Bernini's 1636-7 Bust of Costanza Bonarelli; the museum has a fine collection of ceramics, tapestries, silver and coins. The lost right-hand panel of the Franks Casket is held by the museum, it features the competing designs for The Sacrifice of Isaac that were made by Lorenzo Ghiberti and Filippo Brunelleschi to win the contest for the second set of doors of the Florence Baptistery. Honolulu Hale's interior courtyard and open ceiling were modeled after the Bargello; the Islamic Hall at the Bargello was set up in 1982 by Marco Spallanzani and Giovanni Curatola at the direction of Paola Barocchi and Giovanna Gaeta Bertelà the director. "Bargello National Museum". Ministry of Cultural Heritage. Retrieved 14 August 2016