USS Florida (SSGN-728)
USS Florida, an Ohio-class cruise missile submarine, is the sixth ship of the United States Navy to be named for the 27th state. She was commissioned with the designation of SSBN-728, with her conversion to a cruise missile submarine, from a ballistic missile submarine. The boat was unnamed at the keel-laying ceremony, the initial ships crew formed the precommissioning unit on 8 July 1980. The first shipboard watches were stationed on 14 February 1981 to support the operational control transfer of engineering systems to ships force control, the Secretary of the Navy finally named her on 19 January 1981. Florida was launched on 14 November 1981 sponsored by Mrs. Marcia M. Carlucci, the reactor was initially taken critical on 13 November 1982, the ship went into service and the crew moved onboard on 21 January 1983. Florida commenced initial builders sea trials on 21 February 1983 and was delivered to the Navy on 17 May 1983,43 days ahead of schedule. She was commissioned on 18 June 1983, with Captain William L.
Powell in command of the Blue Crew, both crews successfully completed the demonstration and shakedown operations, each culminated by the successful launch of a Trident C-4 missile. Florida transited the Panama Canal in February and arrived in Bangor and she completed her first strategic deterrent patrol on 25 July 1984. As of November 2002, Florida had successfully completed 61 strategic deterrent patrols and she won the Battle E in 1989,1991,1994,1999, and 2002. In 1991, she won the Marjorie Sterrett Battleship Fund Award. In 1997, Floridas skipper, Commander Michael J. Alfonso, was relieved of command because he had unable to foster an effective command team so necessary to the success of the U. S. submarine force. On 12 August, Commander Gregory M. Billy, USN, Florida entered Norfolk Naval Shipyard in July 2003 to undergo a refueling and conversion from an SSBN to an SSGN. Florida completed her conversion in April 2006 and is homeported in Naval Submarine Base Kings Bay, on 25 May 2006 she had a return to service ceremony at Naval Station Mayport, Florida.
Ms. Carlucci was the sponsor for her recommissioning in Mayport. See the article on the Ohio class for more regarding the conversion. On 19 March 2011, in conjunction with other U. S. Navy and Royal Navy warships and submarines and this was the first combat action for the Florida or any other Ohio-class submarine. During Operation Odyssey Dawn, Florida launched 93 Tomahawk missiles, with 90 effective, some other Tomahawk missiles were fired by American surface ships and by a few Royal Navy nuclear submarines. On 28 June 2010, Florida was one of three Ohio-class submarines involved in a US response to Chinese missile testing in the contested East China Sea
Special Service Group (Navy)
The Special Services Group Navy, or Special Service Group Navy codename SSG, are the Pakistan Navys elite principal special operations force component. The SSG are trained to conduct sea-air-land incursion, counter-terrorism, naval intelligence gathering, hostage rescue, all SSG personnel are male, active-duty members of the Pakistan Navy. The details of most SSG missions are highly secretive, and the identities of operatives are kept classified, official numbers place the units strength between 700 and 1000 however, the actual strength is classified. During training, SSG members are sent to the United States for specialised courses. After the Indo-Pakistani war of 1965, the Pakistan Navy, under the advice of the U. S. Navy, decided to create its own special warfare unit, the Navy organized Underwater Demolition Teams tasked with gathering intelligence while operating Midget submarines. Admiral Syed Mohammad Ahsan personally took initiatives to establish this unit within the navy, Admiral Ahsan needed to determine its scope of operations and decided to establish guerrilla and counter-guerrilla warfare units within the navy. S.
government as per request of Admiral Ahsan. The first UDT course took place in Karachi Naval Dockyard, followed by armed diving at PNS Himalaya, Training facilities were constructed in Karachi, Peshawar by the navy and Cherat by army, and training of first commando unit was launched. The hydrographic surveys was taken during this time and the Eastern Command identified East Pakistan as a hot spot for unconventional forces. During the war, SSG commandos clashed with the Bengali insurgents directly, the SSG, first launching the Operation Barisal, had driven the insurgents to India which was seen as quite a success, but it was temporary. The war intensified, and many intense battles took place between the SSG and the insurgents, in mid-1971, the Bengali insurgents orchestrated a major offensive against the Pakistani military - the Operation Jackpot. The insurgents hoped to sabotage Pakistani military assets in East Pakistan, the SSG responded by taking aggressive military measures and deploying the naval commandos in combat areas.
The operation was successful for the Bengali insurgents. In December 1971, the Instrument of Surrender was proceeded and the Pakistani military surrendered to Indian Army, the surviving SSG commandos surrendered to the Indian Army. The poor performances in 1971 war led the decommissioning of the Marines from their services, adopting new defence policy in 1974, the Joint Strategic Forces Command was established under Joints Chiefs and the combat training began with the Pakistan Army. Many of army special forces officers were drafted to Navy to provide the military training, lieutenant Colonel Sajjad Ali Shah, was among the notable drafted officers from armys Special Services Group officers into the Navy. Earlier, Shah was selected and sent to the United States in 1974 to undergo the U. S. Navy Sea, after the successful completion of the worlds toughest course, he was selected for basic underwater demolition course at amphibious base, Coronado, CA. On returning to Pakistan, he was given the task of raising Navy commando unit in Karachi, now as Commander, took part in formulating and implementing new ideas in SSG.
As of today, the SSG teams are participating in recent insurgencies in Pakistan
The Trident missile is a submarine-launched ballistic missile equipped with multiple independently targetable reentry vehicles. Originally developed by Lockheed Missiles and Space Corporation, the missile is armed with thermonuclear warheads and is launched from nuclear-powered ballistic missile submarines, Trident missiles are carried by fourteen US Navy Ohio-class submarines, with US warheads, and four Royal Navy Vanguard-class submarines, with British warheads. The missile is named after the mythological trident of Neptune, in 1971, The US Navy began studies of an advanced Undersea Long-range Missile System. A Decision Coordinating Paper for the ULMS was approved on 14 September 1971, ULMS program outlined a long-term modernization plan, which proposed the development of a longer-range missile termed ULMS II, which was to achieve twice the range of the existing Poseidon missile. In addition to a missile, a larger submarine was proposed to replace the James Madison. The ULMS II missile system was designed to be retrofitted to the existing SSBNs, in May 1972, the term ULMS II was replaced with Trident.
The Trident was to be a larger, higher-performance missile with a capacity greater than 6000 mi. Trident I was deployed in 1979 and retired in 2005 and its objective was to achieve performance similar to Poseidon but at extended range. Trident II had the objective of improved circular error probable, and was first deployed in 1990, Trident missiles are provided to the United Kingdom under the terms of the 1963 Polaris Sales Agreement which was modified in 1982 for Trident. British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher wrote to President Carter on 10 July 1980, however, in 1982 Thatcher wrote to President Reagan to request the United Kingdom be allowed to procure the Trident II system, the procurement of which had been accelerated by the US Navy. This was agreed in March 1982, under the agreement, the United Kingdom paid an additional 5% of their total procurement cost of 2.5 billion dollars to the US government as a research and development contribution. In 2002, the United States Navy announced plans to extend the life of the submarines and this requires a D5 Life Extension Program, which is currently underway.
The main aim is to replace obsolete components at minimal cost by using commercial off the shelf hardware, in 2007, Lockheed Martin was awarded a total of $848 million in contracts to perform this and related work, which includes upgrading the missiles reentry systems. On the same day, Draper Labs was awarded $318 million for upgrade of the guidance system, then-British Prime Minister Tony Blair was quoted as saying the issue would be fully debated in Parliament prior to a decision being taken. Blair outlined plans in Parliament on 4 December 2006, to build a new generation of submarines to carry existing Trident missiles and it is called the Dreadnought-class submarine. The first flight test of a D-5 LE subsystem, the MK6 Mod 1 guidance system, in Demonstration and Shakedown Operation -23 and this was almost exactly 22 years after the first Trident II missile was launched from Tennessee in February 1990. The total cost of the Trident program thus far came to $39.546 billion in 2011, the launch from the submarine occurs below the sea surface.
The missiles are ejected from their tubes by igniting an explosive charge in a container which is separated by seventeen titanium alloy pinnacles activated by a double alloy steam system
An attack submarine or hunter-killer submarine is a submarine specifically designed for the purpose of attacking and sinking other submarines, surface combatants and merchant vessels. In the Soviet and Russian navies they were and are called multi-purpose submarines and they are used to protect friendly surface combatants and missile submarines. Some attack subs are armed with missiles mounted in vertical launch tubes. Attack submarines may be either nuclear-powered or diesel-electric powered, in the United States Navy naming system, and in the equivalent NATO system, nuclear-powered attack submarines are known as SSNs and their diesel-electric predecessors were SSKs. In the US Navy, SSNs are unofficially called fast attacks, in the action of 9 February 1945, HMS Venturer sank U-864 while both were at periscope depth. This was the first and so far only intentional sinking of a submarine by a submerged submarine. Following World War II, advanced German submarines, especially the Type XXI U-boat, became available to the Allies, particularly the United States Navy and the Soviet Navy.
In the US Navy, the Greater Underwater Propulsion Power Program was developed to modernize World War II submarines along the lines of the Type XXI. It was realized that the Soviet Union had acquired Type XXI and other advanced U-boats, the projected US SSK force levels for these scenarios were 250 for the former and 970 for the latter. Additional anti-surface, guided missile, and radar picket submarines would be needed, by comparison, the total US submarine force at the end of World War II, excluding obsolescent training submarines, was just over 200 boats. A small submarine suitable for production was designed to meet the SSK requirement. This resulted in the three submarines of the K-1 class, which entered service in 1951, at 750 long tons surfaced, they were considerably smaller than the 1,650 long tons boats produced in World War II. They were equipped with a passive sonar, the bow-mounted BQR-4. Initially, a sonar located around the tower was considered. While developing the purpose-built SSKs, consideration was given to converting World War II submarines into SSKs, the less-capable Gato class was chosen for this, as some of the deeper-diving Balao- and Tench-class boats were being upgraded as GUPPYs.
Seven Gato-class boats were converted to SSKs in 1951-53 and these had the bow-mounted BQR-4 sonar of the other SSKs, with four of the six bow torpedo tubes removed to make room for the sonar and its electronics. The four stern tubes were retained. Two diesel engines were removed, and the machinery was relocated in their place
The Ohio class is a class of nuclear-powered submarines currently used by the United States Navy. The navy has 18 Ohio-class submarines,14 ballistic missile submarines, the Ohio class was named after the lead submarine of this class, USS Ohio. The 14 Trident II SSBNs together carry approximately fifty percent of the total US active inventory of strategic thermonuclear warheads. All the Ohio-class submarines, except for USS Henry M. Jackson, are named for U. S. states, the Ohio-class submarines are the largest submarines ever built for the U. S. Navy. The Ohio-class submarines were designed specifically for extended war-deterrence patrols, each of these submarines is provided with two complete crews, called the Blue crew and the Gold crew, with each crew serving typically on 70- to 90-day deterrent patrols. To decrease the time in port for crew turnover and replenishment, the classs design allows the warship to operate for about fifteen years between major overhauls. These submarines are reported to be as quiet at their speed of 20 knots or more than the previous Lafayette-class submarines at 6 knots.
Fire control for their Mark 48 torpedoes is carried out by Mark 118 Mod 2 system, the Ohio-class submarines were constructed from sections of hull, with each four-deck section being 42 ft in diameter. The sections were produced at the General Dynamics Electric Boat facility, Quonset Point, Rhode Island, the US Navy has a total of 18 Ohio-class submarines which consist of 14 ballistic missile submarines, and four cruise missile submarines. The SSBN submarines are known as Trident submarines, and provide the sea-based leg of the U. S. nuclear triad. Each SSBN submarine is armed with up to 24 Trident II submarine-launched ballistic missiles, each SSGN is capable of carrying 154 Tomahawk cruise missiles, plus a complement of Harpoon missiles to be fired through their torpedo tubes. The first eight Ohio-class submarines were armed at first with 24 Trident I C4 SLBMs, beginning with the ninth Trident submarine, the remaining boats were equipped with the larger, three-stage Trident II D5 missile.
Starting with Alaska in 2000, the Navy began converting its remaining ballistic missile submarines armed with C4 missiles to carry D5 missiles and this task was completed in mid-2008. The first eight submarines had their home ports at Bangor, the remaining ten submarines originally had their home ports at Kings Bay, replacing the Poseidon and Trident Backfit submarines of the Atlantic Fleet. During the conversion of the first four submarines to SSGNs, five of the submarines, Kentucky, Maine, further transfers occur as the strategic weapons goals of the United States change. In 2011, Ohio-class submarines carried out 28 deterrent patrols, each patrol lasts around 70 days. Four boats are on station in designated areas at any given time. From January to June 2014, Pennsylvania carried out a 140-day-long patrol, after the end of the Cold War, plans called for Ohio to be retired in 2002, followed by three of her sister boats
Project 949 and Project 949A are Soviet Navy/Russian Navy cruise missile submarines. Project 949 submarines were the largest cruise missile submarines in service, until the Ohio-class SSGN cruise missile submarine converted from SSBN and they are the fourth largest class of submarines in displacement and length. Only the Typhoon-class Soviet/Russian submarines, the American Ohio-class ballistic missile submarines, the first submarine of Project 949 was laid down in the mid-1970s and was commissioned in 1980. In 1982 an updated and larger version replaced the earlier version, in total thirteen submarines were constructed. The Oscar class was designed to attack NATO carrier battle groups using long-range SS-N-19 Shipwreck anti-ship missiles, as of 2011, five submarines are currently active with several more in reserve or waiting for repairs. Two Project 949 Granit submarines were built at Severodvinsk and assigned to the Soviet Northern Fleet and they were K-525 laid down in 1975 and K-206 laid down in 1979.
Both were decommissioned in 1996 and scrapped in 2004, eleven Project 949A Antey submarines were completed at Severodvinsk, of which five were assigned to the Soviet Northern Fleet. At one stage it had planned to develop a new fourth-generation follow-on to the Project 949A. The external differences between the two classes were that the 949A class is about 10 metres longer than its predecessor, providing space for improved electronics and possibly quieter propulsion. Some sources speculate that the performance of the Oscar II class is superior to early Akula-class submarine. It has a fin, and a seven-bladed propeller instead of a four-bladed one. Like all post-World War II Soviet designs, they are of double hull construction, a distinguishing mark is a slight bulge at the top of the fin. A large door on side of the fin reaches this bulge. These are wider at the top than on the bottom, and are hinged on the bottom, the Federation of American Scientists reports that this submarine carries an emergency crew escape capsule, it is possible that these doors cover it.
The VSK escape capsule can accommodate 110 people, the modernization will include updated electronic and communication equipment as well as new weaponry. Up to eight submarines will be modenized at a cost of 12 billion RUB per submarine, the modernization will include replacing the 24 SS-N-19 missiles with up to 72 newer 3M55 Oniks or 3M54 Klub anti ship missiles. In December 2012, construction began on a special research and rescue submarine, designated project 09852. The submarine is designed to carry both manned as well as unmanned underwater vessels
Operation Odyssey Dawn
Operation Odyssey Dawn was the U. S. On 19 March 2011, several countries prepared to take military action at a summit in Paris. The goal of coalition forces was to impose a zone for Libyan government forces. The U. S. but passed complete military command of the operation to NATO, however, NATOs objectives did not include aiding the rebel forces efforts to take control of territory held by the government. The British name for its support of Resolution 1973 is Operation Ellamy, the Canadian participation is Operation Mobile. Sixth Fleet, assumed responsibilities as the Joint Forces Maritime Component Commander, major General Margaret H. Woodward was commander of US Air Force aircraft involved in the operation. On 21 March 2011, President Obama stated the U. S. military action would be scaled back soon and was considering handing over command of the operation to either France, the UK or NATO. On 24 March 2011, NATO took command of enforcing the zone in Libya and was considering taking control of the rest of the mission.
Kaiser-class oiler USNS Lewis and Clark, a Lewis and Clark-class dry cargo ship USNS Robert E. C, deployed as the Air Contingency Battalion, on 1 March 2011 to serve as the new Battalion Landing Team for the 26th MEU. The ACB was attached to the 26th MEU on 5 March 2011 at NAS Souda Bay and this was the first time ACB has been used in almost a decade. Two MV-22 Osprey tiltrotor aircraft from the 26th MEU participated in the pilot rescue, two CH-53E Super Stallions from the 26th MEU participated in the pilot rescue. One KC-130J Hercules from the 26th MEU participated in the pilot rescue. S. the U. S. Department of Defense reports that the dismantling of Libyas ability to hinder the enforcement of the UN no-fly zone was only the first of multiple stages in the operation. USMC Harriers participated in an air strike against a military convoy outside Benghazi. Day 2,20 March 2011 Sustained anti-aircraft fire erupted in Tripoli at around 02,33 EET, Three B-2 Spirit bombers targeted 45 hardened aircraft shelters at a Libyan airfield near Sirte.
At the same time, U. S. Air Force fighter jets conducted missions searching for Libyan ground forces to attack, U. S. Navy EA-18G Growlers jammed Libyan radar and communications. No U. S. aircraft were lost during the missions, the warplanes included Marine Corps AV-8B Harrier IIs, Air Force B-2 Spirit stealth bombers, and F-15E Strike Eagle and F-16C Fighting Falcon fighter jets. Admiral Mike Mullen, Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, states that there would be continuous allied air cover over Benghazi, and that the no-fly zone is effectively in place. An EC-130J was recorded warning Libyan shipping If you attempt to port, you will be attacked and destroyed immediately in Arabic, French
Anti-ship missiles are guided missiles that are designed for use against ships and large boats. Most anti-ship missiles are of the sea skimming variety, and many use a combination of inertial guidance and active radar homing. A good number of other anti-ship missiles use infrared homing to follow the heat that is emitted by a ship, the first anti-ship missiles, which were developed and built by Nazi Germany, used radio command guidance. A variant of the HS293 had a TV transmitter on board, the bomber carrying it could fly outside the range of naval AA guns and use TV guidance to lead the missile to its target by radio control. The term surface-to-surface missile is used when appropriate, the longer-range anti-ship missiles are often called anti-ship cruise missiles. A typical abbreviation for the phrase anti-ship missile is ASM, but AShM can be used to avoid confusion with air-to-surface missiles, anti-submarine missiles, Anti-ship missiles were among the first instances of short-range guided missiles during World War II in 1943–44.
These all used radio command-guidance from the bombardiers of the warplanes that launched them, some of these hit and either sank or damaged a number of ships, including warships offshore of amphibious landings on western Italy. These radio-controlled missiles were used successfully until the Allied navies developed missile countermeasures—principally radio jamming, the Allies developed some of their own similar radio-guided AShMs, starting with the U. S. During the Cold War, the Soviet Union turned to a sea-denial strategy concentrating on submarines, naval mines, one of the first products of the decision was the SS-N-2 Styx missile. Further products were to follow, and they were loaded onto the Soviet Air Forces Tu-95 Bear and Tu-22 Blinder bombers. In 1967, the Israeli Navys destroyer Eilat was the first ship to be sunk by a ship-launched missile – a number of Styx missiles launched by Egyptian Komar-class missile boats off the Sinai Peninsula. In the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971 the Indian Navy conducted two raids using OSA 1-class missile boats employing the Styx on the Pakistani Naval base at Karachi and these raids resulted in the destruction or crippling of approximately two thirds of the Pakistani Navy.
Major losses included two destroyers, an oiler, an ammunition ship, approximately a dozen merchant ships. Major shore based facilities, including fuel storage tanks and naval installations were destroyed, the Osas returned to base without loss. The Battle of Latakia in 1973 was the scene of the worlds first combat between missile boats, in this battle, the Israeli Navy destroyed Syrian warships without suffering any damage, using electronic countermeasures and ruses for defense. Anti-ship missiles were used in the 1982 Falklands War, the British warship HMS Sheffield, a 4,820 ton Type 42 Destroyer, was struck by a single air-launched Exocet AShM, she sank as a result of the damage that she sustained. The container ship Atlantic Conveyor was sunk by an Exocet, in 1987, a US Navy guided-missile frigate, the USS Stark, was hit by an Exocet anti-ship missile fired by an Iraqi Mirage F-1 fighter plane. Stark was damaged, but she was able to steam to a port for temporary repairs
The Gato-class were a class of submarines built for the United States Navy and launched in 1941–1943, they were the first mass-production US submarine class of World War II. Together with their near-sisters the Balao and Tench classes, their design formed the majority of the United States Navys World War II submarine fleet, Gatos name comes from a species of small catshark. Like most other U. S. Navy submarines of the period, in some references, the Gatos are combined with their successors, especially the Balao class. The Gato-class boats were considered to be Fleet Submarines, the original rationale behind their design was that they were intended to operate as adjuncts to the main battle fleet, based on Standard-type battleships since World War I. This was a concept born from experience in World War I. In order to operate effectively in this role, a submarine had to have high speed, long range and endurance. Limitations in submarine design and construction in the 1920s and 1930s made this combination of very difficult to achieve.
By 1931, the phase of fleet submarine development was over. By 1940, a better developed industrial base and experience gained from the Porpoise, Salmon. Finally, the USN had hit the right combination of factors, however, conspired against the actual use of these boats in their assigned role. The attack on Pearl Harbor on 7 December 1941 destroyed the Pacific Fleet battle line, the successful Pearl Harbor attack overturned 20 years of submarine strategic concept development and left the fleet submarine without a mission. The Gato-class design was a near-duplicate of the preceding Tambor and Gar-class boats, the Gatos, along with nearly all of the USN fleet-type submarines of World War II, were of partial double hull construction. The inner pressure-resisting hull was wrapped by an outer hydrodynamic hull, the voids between the two hulls provided space for fuel and ballast tanks. The outer hull merged with the hull at both ends in the area of the torpedo room bulkheads, hence the partial double hull.
The Gatos were slow divers when compared to some German and British designs, acknowledging this limitation, the Bureau designers incorporated a negative tank into the design, which was flooded to provide a large amount of negative buoyancy at the start of the dive. Based on wartime experience, the tank was normally kept full or nearly full at the surface, at the start of the war these boats could go from fully surfaced to periscope depth in approximately 45–50 seconds. The superstructure that sat atop the hull provided the main walking deck when the boat was surfaced and was free flooding. When the dive began the boat would hang for a few seconds while this superstructure filled with water
The Tomahawk is a long-range, all-weather, subsonic cruise missile named after the Native American axe. Introduced by McDonnell Douglas in the 1970s, it was designed as a medium to long-range. It has been improved several times, and after corporate divestitures, some Tomahawks were manufactured by General Dynamics. The Tomahawk missile family consists of a number of subsonic, jet engine-powered missiles designed to attack a variety of surface targets, although a number of launch platforms have been deployed or envisaged, only sea launched variants are currently in service. Tomahawk has a design, allowing a wide variety of warhead, guidance. The Tomahawk project was awarded to Applied Physics Laboratory in Laurel. James H. Walker led a team of scientists to design, the original design with advanced technology is still used today. There have been variants of the BGM-109 Tomahawk employing various types of warheads. BGM-109A Tomahawk Land Attack Nuclear - Not deployed, bGM-109A Tomahawk Land Attack Missile – Nuclear with a W80 thermonuclear weapon.
Retired from service sometime between 2010 and 2013, rGM/UGM-109B Tomahawk Anti Ship Missile – active radar homing anti-ship missile variant, withdrawn from service in the 1990s. BGM-109C Tomahawk Land Attack Missile – Conventional with a unitary warhead and this was initially a modified Bullpup warhead. BGM-109D Tomahawk Land Attack Missile – Dispenser with cluster munitions, rGM/UGM-109E Tomahawk Land Attack Missile – improved version of the TLAM-C. BGM-109G Ground Launched Cruise Missile – with a W84 nuclear warhead, aGM-109H/L Medium Range Air to Surface Missile – a shorter range, turbojet powered ASM with cluster munitions, never entered service, cost US$569,000. Many of the versions were converted into TLAMs at the end of the Cold War. The Block III TLAMs that entered service in 1993 can fly farther, Block IV TLAMs are completely redesigned with an improved turbofan engine. The F107-402 engine provided the new BLK III with a throttle control and this engine provided better fuel economy.
The Block IV TLAMs have enhanced capabilities and are equipped with a real-time targeting system for striking fleeting targets. A major improvement to the Tomahawk is network-centric warfare-capabilities, using data from sensors to find its target
Transporter erector launcher
A transporter erector launcher is a missile vehicle with an integrated prime mover that can carry, elevate to firing position and launch one or more missiles. Such vehicles exist for both missiles and surface-to-surface missiles. A transporter erector launcher and radar is the same as a TEL, such vehicles have the capability of being autonomous, greatly enhancing their effectiveness. With this type of each vehicle can fight regardless of the state or presence of support vehicles. The TEL or TELAR may have a turntable that it can use to aim the missiles. The vehicle may have to turn to aim the missiles or they may fire straight up, conversely, a transporter launcher and radar is the same as a TELAR without the erector capability, because the missile in question is transported in the launch-ready position. An example is the 9K330 Tor, which mounts a Vertical Launching System-style block of SAMs, usually a number of TELs and TELARs are linked to one command post vehicle. They may utilise target information from Target acquisition and guidance radar or, the Patriot missile system uses the abbreviation MEL as a towed launch vehicle
A torpedo tube is a cylinder shaped device for launching torpedoes. There are two types of torpedo tube, underwater tubes fitted to submarines and some surface ships. Thus a submarine torpedo tube operates on the principle of an airlock, the diagram on the right illustrates the operation of a submarine torpedo tube. The diagram is somewhat simplified but does show the working of a torpedo launch. A torpedo tube has a number of interlocks for safety reasons. For example, an interlock prevents the door and muzzle door from opening at the same time. The submarine torpedo launch sequence is, in simplified form, Open the breech door in the torpedo room, load the torpedo into the tube. Hook up the connection and the torpedo power cable. Shut and lock the breech door, turn on power to the torpedo. A minimum amount of time is required for torpedo warmup, fire control programs are uploaded to the torpedo. This may be manually or automatically, from sea or from tanks. The tube must be vented during this process to allow for complete filling, Open the equalizing valve to equalize pressure in the tube with ambient sea pressure.
If the tube is set up for Impulse Mode the slide valve will open with the muzzle door, if Swim Out Mode is selected, the slide valve remains closed. The slide valve allows water from the pump to enter the tube. Modern torpedoes have a safety mechanism that prevents activation of the torpedo unless the torpedo senses the required amount of G-force, the power cable is severed at launch. However, if a wire is used, it remains connected through a drum of wire in the tube. Torpedo propulsion systems vary but electric torpedoes swim out of the tube on their own and are of a smaller diameter,21 weapons with fuel-burning engines usually start outside of the tube. Once outside the tube the torpedo begins its run toward the target as programmed by the control system