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Cruiser (motorcycle)

A cruiser is a motorcycle in the style of American machines from the 1930s to the early 1960s, including those made by Harley-Davidson, Indian and Henderson. The riding position places the feet forward and the hands up, with the spine erect or leaning back slightly. Typical cruiser engines emphasize easy rideability and shifting, with plenty of low-end torque but not large amounts of horsepower, traditionally V-twins but inline engines have become more common. Cruisers with greater performance than usual, including more horsepower, stronger brakes and better suspension, are called power cruisers. Japanese companies began producing models evocative of the early cruisers in the mid-1980s, by 1997 the market had grown to nearly 60 percent of the US market, such that a number of motorcycle manufacturers including BMW, Moto Guzzi, Suzuki and Victory have or have had important models evocative of the American cruiser. Harley-Davidsons and other cruisers with extensive luggage for touring have been called, sometimes disparagingly or jocularly, baggers, or full baggers, as well as dressers, full dressers, or full dress tourers.

These terms may be used to refer to any touring motorcycle. Cruisers are the basis for custom motorcycle projects that result in a bike modified to suit the owner's ideals, as such are a source of pride and accomplishment. Power cruiser is a name used to distinguish bikes in the cruiser class that have higher levels of power, they come with upgraded brakes and suspensions, better ground clearance, premium surface finishes, as well as more exotic or modern muscular styling. Many power cruisers and Japanese cruisers of the 1980s have more neutral riding positions. While traditional cruisers have limited performance and turning ability due to a low-slung design, power cruisers or similar performance-oriented cruisers can be leaned farther for better cornering. Otherwise, customization can increase the bike's lean angle to enable cornering at higher speeds. Outline of motorcycles and motorcycling

William H. Schlesinger

William H. Schlesinger is a biogeochemist and the retired president of the Cary Institute of Ecosystem Studies, an independent not-for-profit environmental research organization in Millbrook, New York, he assumed that position after 27 years on the faculty of Duke University, where he served as the Dean of the Nicholas School of the Environment and Earth Sciences and James B. Duke Professor of Biogeochemistry. Schlesinger began his college education at Dartmouth College where he received his A. B. in biology in 1972. He earned his Ph. D. at Cornell University in Ecology and Systematics in 1976. Schlesinger’s teaching career began at the University of California, Santa Barbara where he was an assistant professor of biology for four years. Afterwards, he moved to Duke University, becoming a full professor and teaching for over 20 years. In 2001, Schlesinger was promoted as the Dean of the Nicholas School of the Environment and Earth Sciences at Duke University. Schlesinger retired as the dean on June 1, 2007, when he became the president of the Cary Institute of Ecosystem Studies.

Schlesinger was elected a member of the National Academy of Sciences in 2003 and was President of the Ecological Society of America from 2003 to 2004. He is a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, the American Geophysical Union, The American Association for the Advancement of Science, The Ecological Society of America, the Soil Science Society of America, he is a member of the Board of Trustees of the Southern Environmental Law Center, the Natural Resources Defense Council and the Doris Duke Charitable Foundation. He serves on the Science Advisory Board for the Environmental Protection Agency. Schlesinger has testified before U. S. House and Senate Committees on the importance of habitat preservation and the impacts of air pollution and climate change on humans and the natural environment. In addition to his 200+ scientific publications, he has authored more than 100 editorials and features on environmental subjects, appearing in the Los Angeles Times, the Chicago Tribune, the Albany Times Union, the Raleigh News and Observer.

Schlesinger has a long research career studying the circulation of the chemical elements in natural ecosystems—now known as biogeochemistry. Most of his work has focused on soils on the carbon stored in soils, which contain a major pool in the global carbon cycle, his early work provided estimates of the storage of organic carbon and inorganic carbon in soils, losses of soil carbon to runoff, changes in soil carbon with conversion of land to agriculture, accumulations of carbon during soil development. More he has examined changes in soil processes and soil carbon storage that accompany plant growth at elevated levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide, as simulated in the Duke Forest Free-Air CO2 Enrichment experiment, his work evaluates recommendations for carbon sequestration as a means to control the accumulation of CO2 in Earth’s atmosphere and to mitigate the potential for global warming. In addition to studies of soil carbon, Schlesinger has provided global budgets summarizing the sources of atmospheric ammonia, the fate of human-derived nitrogen on land, the global boron cycle.

He has shown that biology leaves its imprint on global geochemical cycles, that earth system function cannot be understood without considering the impacts of biology. His approach and much of his other work is summarized in a textbook, Biogeochemistry: an analysis of global change in its third edition and coauthored with Emily S. Bernhardt of Duke University, available through Academic Press/Elsevier, San Diego. Schlesinger served as the co-principal investigator for the Jornada Basin Long Term Ecological Research located in the Chihuahuan Desert in southern New Mexico. Research projects focus on inorganic fluxes, including studies of ammonia volatilization from soils, hydrology natural runoff plots and transect soil water content, he has worked extensively in arid ecosystems and landscapes, studying responses to resource redistribution and global change, which can lead to soil degradation and regional desertification. Schlesinger postulated that the patchy distribution of vegetation in desert regions controls many aspects of soil fertility and the response of deserts to overgrazing and climate change.

Schlesinger was the co-principal investigator for the Free Air CO2 Enrichment Experiment in the Duke Forest. The object of the study was to investigate the efficacy of carbon sequestration in forest ecosystems in response to elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration, as a means to mitigate the potential for global warming. During this decade-long experiment and John Lichter found only small changes in soil carbon content, suggesting that enhanced carbon storage in soils is unlikely to play a major role in slowing the growth of atmospheric CO2 and the magnitude of global climate change. Much larger changes were seen in the growth rate of trees, but those were unlikely to sequester a significant increment of carbon worldwide as a result of rising CO2 in Earth’s atmosphere; when he was appointed President of the Cary Institute in Millbrook, NY. Schlesinger expanded its existing science program with the hiring of three new scientists and establishing strong programs for the translation of science to the public.

The Cary Institute’s Friday-Night-at-Cary Lecture series and its daily program, Earth Wise, on WAMC Northeast Public Radio were followed for their presentations of science for the general public. Schlesinger, W. H. Better Living Through Biogeochemistry, Ecology, 85, 2004, pp. 2402–2407 Schlesinger, W. H. and Bernhardt, E


ASuite is a free open source application launcher for Windows. It can be used for applications in the PortableApps format and is an integral part of the Lupo PenSuite. In the main window, under the List tab, user can be able to create and manage own customized application list. While Search tab will let you look for item names. User can add applications to list manually or using Scan File. ASuite lets you specify the path, what file types you want to scan for and what file types you want to exclude from your scan. Other than the main window, user can execute applications from a graphic and skinnable menu xp style; this menu can open it by clicking on ASuite icon in System tray. Moreover, ASuite opens applications using relative path. So it can work like external hard disks and USB flash drives. Comparison of application launchers Official website ASuite on

Anterior cranial fossa

The anterior cranial fossa is a depression in the floor of the cranial base which houses the projecting frontal lobes of the brain. It is formed by the orbital plates of the frontal, the cribriform plate of the ethmoid, the small wings and front part of the body of the sphenoid; the lesser wings of the sphenoid separate middle fossae. It is traversed by the frontoethmoidal and sphenofrontal sutures, its lateral portions roof in the orbital support the frontal lobes of the cerebrum. The central portion corresponds with the roof of the nasal cavity, is markedly depressed on either side of the crista galli, it presents, in and near the median line, from before backward, the commencement of the frontal crest for the attachment of the falx cerebri. Lateral to either olfactory groove are the internal openings of the anterior and posterior ethmoidal foramina. Farther back in the middle line is the ethmoidal spine, bounded behind by a slight elevation separating two shallow longitudinal grooves which support the olfactory lobes.

Behind this is the anterior margin of the chiasmatic groove, running laterally on either side to the upper margin of the optic foramen. The anterior cranial fossa contains the following parts of the brain: frontal lobe of the cerebral cortex, olfactory bulb, olfactory tract, orbital gyri. There are several openings connecting the anterior cranial fossa with other parts of the skull, these are the following: anterior ethmoidal foramen, cribriform foramina; the paired anterior ethmoidal foramen connects the anterior cranial fossa with each orbit and transmits the anterior ethmoidal artery and vein. The cribriform foramina are the openings in the cribriform plate of the ethmoid bone, which connect the anterior cranial fossa with the nasal cavity and transmit the olfactory nerves. Middle cranial fossa Posterior cranial fossa This article incorporates text in the public domain from page 190 of the 20th edition of Gray's Anatomy Anatomy photo:22:os-0801 at the SUNY Downstate Medical Center

Alfredo Dug├Ęs

Alfredo Dugès. He was the son of zoologist Antoine Louis Dugès. Alfredo Dugès is remembered for his extensive studies of Mexican herpetology, he studied medicine at the University of Paris, in 1852 emigrated to Mexico. He settled in Guanajuato, where he worked as an obstetrician giving classes in natural history at the Escuela de Estudios Superiores de Guanajuato. With his brother, entomologist Eugenio Dugès, he organized frequent field trips in order to collect specimens. Dugès published numerous scientific papers in several fields including herpetology and entomology. At Guanajuato, he was director of the local museum named the Museo Alfredo Dugès in his honor. In Mexico, he described 40 new species of reptiles and amphibians, of which nearly half are considered valid today; as a botanist, he is the taxonomic authority of the genus Barcena. Dugès is commemorated in the scientific names of five taxa of reptiles: Diadophis punctatus dugesi, Geophis dugesii, Phrynosoma orbiculare dugesi, Plestiodon dugesii, Sceloporus dugesii.

"Early foundations of Mexican herpetology. This article is based on a translation of an equivalent article at the French Wikipedia

Upper Sepik languages

The Upper Sepik languages are a group of languages classified among the Sepik languages of northern Papua New Guinea. They include the Wogamus Iwam languages. Foley includes Abau; the Upper Sepik languages are: Wogamus languages: Wogamusin, Chenapian Iwam languages: Sepik Iwam, May River Iwam AbauBeing typologically and lexically diverse, the three groups are not related to each other. Pronouns in the three groups do not appear to be cognate. Foley classifies the three groups together on the basis of a unique noun classification system present in the numeral systems of all three groups, with numerals up to ‘four’ agreeing with the classes of head nouns. Additionally, Foley considers Sepik Iwam and Wogamusin noun class prefixes to be cognate with each other. Abau is more divergent, but its inclusion by Foley is based on the similarity of Abau verbal morphology to that of the Iwam languages. Foley observes that much of the lexicon and pronouns of Upper Sepik languages do not derive from proto-Sepik.

Upper Sepik numerals are: Malcolm. "Pronouns as a preliminary diagnostic for grouping Papuan languages". In Andrew Pawley. Papuan pasts: cultural and biological histories of Papuan-speaking peoples. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics. Pp. 15–66. ISBN 0858835622. OCLC 67292782