The New York Times
The New York Times is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership. Founded in 1851, the paper has won more than any other newspaper; the Times is ranked 17th in the world by circulation and 2nd in the U. S; the paper is owned by The New York Times Company, publicly traded and is controlled by the Sulzberger family through a dual-class share structure. It has been owned by the family since 1896. G. Sulzberger, the paper's publisher, his father, Arthur Ochs Sulzberger Jr. the company's chairman, are the fourth and fifth generation of the family to helm the paper. Nicknamed "The Gray Lady", the Times has long been regarded within the industry as a national "newspaper of record"; the paper's motto, "All the News That's Fit to Print", appears in the upper left-hand corner of the front page. Since the mid-1970s, The New York Times has expanded its layout and organization, adding special weekly sections on various topics supplementing the regular news, editorials and features.
Since 2008, the Times has been organized into the following sections: News, Editorials/Opinions-Columns/Op-Ed, New York, Sports of The Times, Science, Home and other features. On Sunday, the Times is supplemented by the Sunday Review, The New York Times Book Review, The New York Times Magazine and T: The New York Times Style Magazine; the Times stayed with the broadsheet full-page set-up and an eight-column format for several years after most papers switched to six, was one of the last newspapers to adopt color photography on the front page. The New York Times was founded as the New-York Daily Times on September 18, 1851. Founded by journalist and politician Henry Jarvis Raymond and former banker George Jones, the Times was published by Raymond, Jones & Company. Early investors in the company included Edwin B. Morgan, Christopher Morgan, Edward B. Wesley. Sold for a penny, the inaugural edition attempted to address various speculations on its purpose and positions that preceded its release: We shall be Conservative, in all cases where we think Conservatism essential to the public good.
We do not believe that everything in Society is either right or wrong. In 1852, the newspaper started a western division, The Times of California, which arrived whenever a mail boat from New York docked in California. However, the effort failed. On September 14, 1857, the newspaper shortened its name to The New-York Times. On April 21, 1861, The New York Times began publishing a Sunday edition to offer daily coverage of the Civil War. One of the earliest public controversies it was involved with was the Mortara Affair, the subject of twenty editorials in the Times alone; the main office of The New York Times was attacked during the New York City Draft Riots. The riots, sparked by the beginning of drafting for the Union Army, began on July 13, 1863. On "Newspaper Row", across from City Hall, Henry Raymond stopped the rioters with Gatling guns, early machine guns, one of which he manned himself; the mob diverted, instead attacking the headquarters of abolitionist publisher Horace Greeley's New York Tribune until being forced to flee by the Brooklyn City Police, who had crossed the East River to help the Manhattan authorities.
In 1869, Henry Raymond died, George Jones took over as publisher. The newspaper's influence grew in 1870 and 1871, when it published a series of exposés on William Tweed, leader of the city's Democratic Party—popularly known as "Tammany Hall" —that led to the end of the Tweed Ring's domination of New York's City Hall. Tweed had offered The New York Times five million dollars to not publish the story. In the 1880s, The New York Times transitioned from supporting Republican Party candidates in its editorials to becoming more politically independent and analytical. In 1884, the paper supported Democrat Grover Cleveland in his first presidential campaign. While this move cost The New York Times a portion of its readership among its more progressive and Republican readers, the paper regained most of its lost ground within a few years. After George Jones died in 1891, Charles Ransom Miller and other New York Times editors raised $1 million dollars to buy the Times, printing it under the New York Times Publishing Company.
However, the newspaper was financially crippled by the Panic of 1893, by 1896, the newspaper had a circulation of less than 9,000, was losing $1,000 a day. That year, Adolph Ochs, the publisher of the Chattanooga Times, gained a controlling interest in the company for $75,000. Shortly after assuming control of the paper, Ochs coined the paper's slogan, "All The News That's Fit To Print"; the slogan has appeared in the paper since September 1896, has been printed in a box in the upper left hand corner of the front page since early 1897. The slogan was a jab at competing papers, such as Joseph Pulitzer's New York World and William Randolph Hearst's New York Journal, which were known for a lurid and inaccurate reporting of facts and opinions, described by the end of the century as "yellow journalism". Under Ochs' guidance, aided by Carr
Nintendocore is a broadly defined music genre that fuses chiptune and video game music with modern hardcore punk and heavy metal and various associated rock music styles. The genre was pioneered by Horse the Band, The Advantage, Minibosses. Nintendocore features the use of electric guitars, drum kits, typical rock instrumentation alongside synthesizers, chiptunes, 8-bit sounds, electronically produced beats, it originated out of a diverse range of musical styles, including various forms of hardcore punk and heavy metal. In addition to these origins, notable Nintendocore bands have been influenced by a variety of other genres, such as post-hardcore, electro, noise rock, post-rock, screamo. Thus, Nintendocore groups vary stylistically. Horse the Band combines metalcore, heavy metal, thrash metal, post-hardcore with post-rock passages. "The Black Hole" from Horse the Band's third album, The Mechanical Hand, is an example of Nintendocore, featuring screamed vocals, heavy "Nintendo riffs," and "sound effects from numerous games."
Math the Band includes dance-punk styles. Minibosses use Kyuss-inspired heavy metal riffing, The Advantage is associated with styles such as noise rock and post-rock; the Depreciation Guild was an indie band that incorporated 8-bit sounds, video game music, elements of shoegaze. Some bands feature singing, such as The Depreciation Guild, whose frontman Kurt Feldman provides "ethereal" and "tender vocals," and The Megas, who write lyrics that mirror video game storylines. Others, such as Horse the Band and Math the Band, add screamed vocals into the mix, but yet other groups are instrumental, such as Minibosses, The Advantage. While otherwise diverse, all Nintendocore groups "use specific instruments to mimic the sounds of Nintendo games." Although video game music started much earlier in genres like chiptune and bitpop, the first known rock band to cover a video game song was the all-female indie rock group Autoclave with their cover of the theme song from the popular video game Paperboy on their self-titled debut 1991 album.
The second rock group known to cover a video game song was the band Mr. Bungle, with their live cover of the Super Mario Bros. theme song, a regular staple throughout their 1990s’ live concert setlist. Mr. Bungle sampled sounds from video games on their debut album from 1991; the term Nintendocore was initiated by the metalcore group Horse the Band, whose frontman coined the term "Nintendocore" as a joke. At present, the group has released five studio albums in the Nintendocore style, starting with 2000's Secret Rhythm of the Universe. Another Nintendocore pioneer is The Advantage, whom The New York Times praises as one of the groups who brought video game music into the mainstream modern music spotlight; the Advantage is an instrumental rock band formed by two students attending Nevada Union High School. The group "plays nothing but music from the original Nintendo console games." By creating rock cover versions of video game sound tracks, they have "brought legitimacy to a style of music dubbed Nintendocore."The rock group Minibosses "are one of the most well-established bands in the Nintendocore genre, with an impressive roster of covers including Contra, Double Dragon, Excitebike," and other video game themes.
The band is from Phoenix, is known as one of the primary representatives of Nintendo rock, performing at various video game expositions. In addition to covers, the band has produced original work; the Harvard Crimson refers to Minibosses as "sworn rivals" of The NESkimos, another Nintendocore practitioner. The 2007 debut album by The Depreciation Guild, In Her Gentle Jaws has been referred to as Nintendocore by Pitchfork Media; the website wrote that "In Her Gentle Jaws sticks its neck out further than Nintendocore staples like The Advantage or Minibosses", that the album's instrumental title track "could plausibly come from an NES cartridge." On July 17, 2016 the genre got broad attention again when the small group of several artists called "N-Core Lives" published a Super Smash Bros. 64 themed compilation album. An article about it was published on the website of Altpress, gaining a lot of attention and bringing Nintendocore back into the minds of many people. Game Boy music Nerdcore hip hop Nintendocore musical groups Video game music cover bands Video game music culture
3OH!3 is an American electronic music duo from Boulder, made up of Sean Foreman and Nathaniel Motte. They are best known for their single "Don't Trust Me" from their album Want, which reached number seven on the Billboard Hot 100, their second single, a remix of "Starstrukk" featuring Katy Perry from Want, was a top ten hit in the United Kingdom, Finland and Australia. They gained further recognition by featuring Kesha on the song "My First Kiss", made the lead single from their album Streets of Gold; the album peaked at number seven on the Billboard 200. 3OH!3 consists of Sean Foreman, born August 27, 1985, Nathaniel Motte, born January 13, 1984, both of whom are natives of Boulder, Colorado. Foreman and Motte started their band in 2004 and named it after the 303 area code that had encompassed the entire state of Colorado and that now serves only the Denver metropolitan area and the Front Range, they released their first self-titled album: 3OH!3 in 2007 and it spawned one successful single, "Electroshock."
3OH!3 signed to Photo Finish Records, a division of Atlantic Records and planned to start recording their second album. After having some hit shows in Boulder they moved to Denver for fan base. 3OH!3's second album, was released on July 8, 2008. It reached number 44 on the Billboard 200, their song, "Don't Trust Me" reached number seven on the Billboard Hot 100. The group contributed an original theme song titled "Sex on the Beach" for The Real World:Cancun. 3OH!3 wrote an anthem for Major League Baseball's Colorado Rockies. As they were getting started they performed at local venues around Colorado such as the Fox Theatre in Boulder and the Aggie Theater in Ft. Collins, Colorado. After playing in Denver during the Warped Tour 2008, 3OH!3 signed on for all venues of Warped Tour 2008. The band performed in Panama City Beach, Florida for MTVU's Spring Break in March 2009 and at The Mile High Music Festival at Dick's Sporting Goods Park along with other artists such as The Fray and Matisyahu; the band headlined the 2009 Alternative Press Tour across the U.
S. 3OH!3 played at End Fest in Sacramento and was part of Kiss Concert'09 at the Comcast Center in Mansfield, MA. They played at Kiss The Summer Hello 2009 at Coca-Cola Field in Buffalo, New York, June 3, 2009. 3OH!3 joined the Warped Tour once again in 2009. In summer 2009 they appeared at the Reading/Leeds festivals in the UK, they performed between award presentations at the MTV Video Music Awards 2009 on September 13. The duo was featured in a 14-page photo spread in Cliché Magazine's "Green Issue" in August 2009, they released a remix of their second hit single, "Starstrukk," featuring Katy Perry digitally on September 8, 2009. It was a top ten hit in the United Kingdom, Ireland, Belgium and Poland. A new song, "Follow Me Down", was written for the compilation album for the film Alice in Wonderland with Neon Hitch; the pair supported All Time Low, Boys Like Girls, Third Eye Blind, LMFAO on The Bamboozle Roadshow 2010. Prior to the release of Streets of Gold, 3OH!3 was featured on the track "Hey" by Lil Jon on his album, Crunk Rock in 2010.
They were featured on the Kesha song "Blah Blah Blah", which peaked at number seven on the Billboard singles chart. On February 5, 2010, it was announced that Cobra Starship and 3OH!3 would be embarking on a co-headlining tour called The Too Fast for Love Tour featuring labelmates I Fight Dragons. The two-month tour covered more than 25 cities, including a date in their home state of Colorado. Streets of Gold was released on June 29, 2010. Kesha was featured on the first single, "My First Kiss", they toured with Down with Webster. On August 31, 2010, retired professional wrestler Diamond Dallas Page filed a lawsuit against 3OH!3 for copyright infringement of his trademarked "Diamond Cutter" hand gesture. Page filed a similar lawsuit against rapper Jay-Z in 2005, which resulted in Page dropping the lawsuit for an undisclosed amount of money. On December 8, 2010, 3OH!3 announced their anticipated song "Hit it Again" would be released onto iTunes on the December 21, 2010. The song "I Know How to Say" was used in a trailer for the animated Disney film "Mars Needs Moms" as well as being featured in commercials for the new movie Paul.
It was announced in late December 2010 that the duo will be appearing on the CW series Hellcats and performing on it their hit single "My First Kiss", with Ashley Tisdale performing Kesha's parts. On January 20, 2011, their video for the song "Touchin' on My" from their album, Streets of Gold was released. On February 20, 2011, Nathaniel Motte released a statement that they are working on a fourth studio album. On May 27, 2011, 3OH!3 announced the title and a teaser of the artwork of the song, "Robot". The first time they performed "Robot" live was May 26, 2011, in Norwich, UK; the duo released their new single "Robot" on iTunes June 28. Cliché Magazine interviewed the duo on future plans and talked of the fourth studio and the fan submissions for the then-upcoming "Robot" video. On December 13, 2011, 3OH!3 released the first of three unreleased songs, "Bang Bang" on iTunes. "Dirty Mind" followed a week on December 20, 2011, the last, "Set You Free", the most successful of the three, was released on December 27, 2011.
The group announced that "Do or Die" would be on the upcoming album, it was released on YouTube. On June 25, 2012, Nathaniel announced via Twitter the title of the album to be Omens and said it would be released in the Fall of 2012. On July 9, 2012, Sean Foreman announced the release of the first official single from the album, "You're Gonna Love This", released th
Hip hop or hip-hop, is a culture and art movement that began in the Bronx in New York City during the early 1970s. The origin of the word is disputed, it is argued as to whether hip hop started in the South or West Bronx. While the term hip hop is used to refer to hip hop music, hip hop is characterized by nine elements, of which only four elements are considered essential to understand hip hop musically; the main elements of hip hop consist of four main pillars. Afrika Bambaataa of the hip hop collective Zulu Nation outlined the pillars of hip hop culture, coining the terms: "rapping", a rhythmic vocal rhyming style. Other elements of hip hop subculture and arts movements beyond the main four are: hip hop culture and historical knowledge of the movement; the fifth element, although debated, is considered either street knowledge, hip hop fashion, or beatboxing. The Bronx hip hop scene emerged in the mid-1970s from neighborhood block parties thrown by the Black Spades, an African-American group, described as being a gang, a club, a music group.
Brother-sister duo Clive Campbell, aka DJ Cool Herc, Cindy Campbell additionally hosted DJ parties in the Bronx and are credited for the rise in the genre. Hip hop culture has spread to both urban and suburban communities throughout the United States and subsequently the world; these elements were adapted and developed particularly as the art forms spread to new continents and merged with local styles in the 1990s and subsequent decades. As the movement continues to expand globally and explore myriad styles and art forms, including hip hop theater and hip hop film, the four foundational elements provide coherence and a strong foundation for Hip Hop culture. Hip hop is a new and old phenomenon. Sampling older culture and reusing it in a new context or a new format is called "flipping" in hip hop culture. Hip hop music follows in the footsteps of earlier African-American-rooted musical genres such as blues, rag-time and disco to become one of the most practiced genres worldwide. In 1990, Ronald "Bee-Stinger" Savage, a former member of the Zulu Nation, is credited for coining the term "Six elements of the Hip Hop Movement" by being inspired by Public Enemy's recordings.
The "Six Elements Of The Hip Hop Movement" are: Consciousness Awareness, Civil Rights Awareness, Activism Awareness, Political Awareness, Community Awareness in music. Ronald Savage is known as the Son of The Hip Hop Movement. In the 2000s, with the rise of new media platforms and Web 2.0, fans discovered and downloaded or streamed hip hop music through social networking sites beginning with Myspace, as well as from websites like YouTube, SoundCloud, Spotify. Keith "Cowboy" Wiggins, a member of Grandmaster Flash and the Furious Five, has been credited with coining the term in 1978 while teasing a friend who had just joined the US Army by scat singing the made-up words "hip/hop/hip/hop" in a way that mimicked the rhythmic cadence of marching soldiers. Cowboy worked the "hip hop" cadence into his stage performance; the group performed with disco artists who would refer to this new type of music by calling them "hip hoppers." The name was meant as a sign of disrespect but soon came to identify this new music and culture.
The song "Rapper's Delight" by The Sugarhill Gang, released in 1979, begins with the phrase "I said a hip, the hippie the hippie to the hip hip hop, you don't stop". Lovebug Starski — a Bronx DJ who put out a single called "The Positive Life" in 1981 — and DJ Hollywood began using the term when referring to this new disco rap music. Bill Alder, an independent consultant, once said, "There was hardly a moment when rap music was underground, one of the first so-called rap records, was a monster hit. Hip hop pioneer and South Bronx community leader Afrika Bambaataa credits Love-bug Starski as the first to use the term "hip hop" as it relates to the culture. Bambaataa, former leader of the Black Spades did much to further popularize the term; the words "hip hop" first appeared in print on September 21, 1982, in The Village Voice in a profile of Bambaataa written by Steven Hager, who published the first comprehensive history of the culture with St. Martins' Press. In the 1970s, an underground urban movement known as "hip hop" began to form in the Bronx, New York City.
It focused on emceeing over neighborhood block party events, held outdoors. Hip hop music has been a powerful medium for protesting the impact of legal institutions on minorities police and prisons. Hip hop arose out of the ruins of a post-industrial and ravaged South Bronx, as a form of expression of urban Black and Latino youth, whom the public and political discourse had written off as marginalized communities. Jamaican-born DJ Clive "Kool Herc" Campbell pioneered the use of DJing percussion "breaks" in hip hop music. Beginning at Herc's home in a high-rise apartment at 1520 Sedgwick Avenue, the movement spread across the entire borough. On August 11, 1973 DJ Kool Herc was the DJ at
Brokencyde is an American hip hop group from Albuquerque, New Mexico, founded in 2006. The group's lineup consists of David "Se7en" Gallegos and Michael "Mikl" Shea, musically are one of the founding groups in the crunkcore genre, crunk hip hop music with screamed vocals. Brokencyde was founded by singers Mikl; the name of the group originated from the idea that their music was "broke inside" due to personal problems. After the band began promoting themselves online, members Phat J and Antz joined Brokencyde, they released their debut mixtape, The Broken!, in July 2007, followed by another mixtape, Tha $c3ne Mixtape. Brokencyde toured with bands such as Breathe Carolina, The Morning Of, Karate High School, Drop Dead, Gorgeous. In July 2008, Brokencyde appeared on MTV's Total Request Live, where they performed the single "FreaXXX" on the segment "Under the Radar." They signed with Suburban Noize Records that summer, released the BC13 EP on November 11, 2008 during a promotion with the retail chain Hot Topic.
In 2008, the group performed dates on the Millionaires-headlined "Get F$cked Up" tour, appeared twice on "Fearless Music TV," performing "Sex Toyz" and "FreaXXX" in December 2008. The group's first full-length release, I'm Not a Fan, But the Kids Like It!, debuted at #86 on the Billboard 200 in July, 2009. Brokencyde was featured on the US Warped Tour 2009, but left the tour in August to play featured appearances in Europe. Brokencyde played dates on "The Original Gangstour" tour with Eyes Set to Kill, And Then There Were None, Drop Dead, Gorgeous, they played dates on the "Saints and Sinners Tour 2009" with Senses Fail, Hollywood Undead, Haste The Day. In early 2010 the band released two songs for free download on their Myspace; the songs were. In the summer Brokencyde co-headlined the 2 DRUNK 2 FUCK tour with Jeffree Star. Soon after the tour ended they announced that they were in the studio. In the beginning of fall their new album was announced to be complete with the title of Will Never Die.
The album was released on Break Silence Recordings on November 9. In winter 2010, Brokencyde co-headlined the KA$H 4 KU$H tour with the Millionaires. On October 30, the video for "Teach Me How to Scream" was released via MySpace; the group released their third studio album Guilty Pleasure on November 8, 2011. An updated version was released on March 13, 2012 titled Guilty Pleasurez which the band is supporting with a European "Guilty Pleasurez" tour. In 2012, Brokencyde played dates on the "Fight to Unite Tour" alongside other acts including Blood on the Dance Floor, Polkadot Cadaver, William Control and The Bunny the Bear. On October 29, 2012, Julian "Phat J" McClellan announced via his official YouTube page that he was amicably leaving Brokencyde to pursue a solo career. In December 2014, Brokencyde launched an Indiegogo crowdfunding campaign, seeking US$30,000 to help fund the recording and marketing of a new album entitled All Grown Up. By the time the funding period ended in February 2015, the band only managed to raise US$1,421 from 33 backers — less than 5% of their intended goal.
The group still self-released a 23-track album titled All Grown Up. In April 2018, the band announced that they had signed a deal with Cleopatra Records through which they would be releasing their firth album; the album, 0 To Brokencyde, was released on June 22, 2018. Brokencyde is panned by critics. Cracked.com contributor Michael Swaim said the band sounded like "a Slipknot-Cher duet", while another Cracked contributor Adam Tod Brown commented on their song FreaXXX "I hate that song so much that I would hold it face down in a bathtub until it drowns if I could."British comic book writer Warren Ellis considered Brokencyde's "FreaXXX" music video "a near-perfect snapshot of everything that’s shit about this point in the culture". A writer for the Warsaw Business Journal attempted to describe their music: "Imagine an impassioned triceratops mating with a steam turbine, while off to the side Daft Punk and the Bee Gees beat each other to death with skillets and spatulas. Imagine the sound that would make.
Just try. BrokeNCYDE is kind of like that, except it makes you want to jab your thumbs into your eyeballs and gargle acid."The New Musical Express stated in a review of I'm Not a Fan, But the Kids Like It!, that "even if I caught Prince Harry and Gary Glitter adorned in Nazi regalia defecating through my grandmother’s letterbox I would still consider making them listen to this album too severe a punishment." August Brown of the Los Angeles Times writes: "This'Albucrazy'-based band has done for MySpace emo what some think Soulja Boy did for hip-hop: turn their career into a kind of macro-performance art that exists so far beyond the tropes of irony and sincerity that to ask'are they kidding?' is like trying to peel an onion to get to a perceived central core that, in the end, does not exist and renders all attempts to reassemble the pieces futile." Timeline Full-lengthsEPsOther releases
A music sequencer is a device or application software that can record, edit, or play back music, by handling note and performance information in several forms CV/Gate, MIDI, or Open Sound Control, audio and automation data for DAWs and plug-ins. The advent of Musical Instrument Digital Interface and the Atari ST home computer in the 1980s gave programmers the opportunity to design software that could more record and play back sequences of notes played or programmed by a musician; this software improved on the quality of the earlier sequencers which tended to be mechanical sounding and were only able to play back notes of equal duration. Software-based sequencers allowed musicians to program performances that were more expressive and more human; these new sequencers could be used to control external synthesizers rackmounted sound modules, it was no longer necessary for each synthesizer to have its own devoted keyboard. As the technology matured, sequencers gained more features, such as the ability to record multitrack audio.
Sequencers used for audio recording are called digital audio workstations. Many modern sequencers can be used to control virtual instruments implemented as software plug-ins; this allows musicians to replace expensive and cumbersome standalone synthesizers with their software equivalents. Today the term "sequencer" is used to describe software. However, hardware sequencers still exist. Workstation keyboards have their own proprietary built-in MIDI sequencers. Drum machines and some older synthesizers have their own step sequencer built in. There are still standalone hardware MIDI sequencers, although the market demand for those has diminished due to the greater feature set of their software counterparts. Music sequencers can be categorized by handling data types, such as: MIDI data on the MIDI sequencers CV/Gate data on the analog sequencers and others Automation data for mixing-automation on the DAWs, the software effect / instrument plug-ins on the DAWs with sequencing features Audio data on the audio sequencers including DAW, loop-based music software, etc..
Alternative subsets of audio sequencers include: Also, music sequencer can be categorized by its construction and supporting modes. Realtime sequencers record the musical notes in real-time as on audio recorders, play back musical notes with designated tempo and pitch. For editing "punch in/punch out" features originated in the tape recording are provided, although it requires sufficient skills to obtain the desired result. For detailed editing another visual editing mode under graphical user interface may be more suitable. Anyway, this mode provides usability similar to audio recorders familiar to musicians, it is supported on software sequencers, DAWs, built-in hardware sequencers. Analog sequencers are implemented with analog electronics, play the musical notes designated by a series of knobs or sliders corresponding to each musical note, it is designed for live performance. And possibly, the time-interval between each musical note can be independently adjustable. Analog sequencers are used to generate the repeated minimalistic phrases which may be reminiscent of Tangerine Dream, Giorgio Moroder or trance music.
On step sequencers, musical notes are rounded into steps of equal time-intervals, users can enter each musical note without exact timing. On the bass machines: select a step note from a chromatic keypads select a step duration from a group of length-buttons, sequentially. On the several home keyboards: in addition to the realtime sequencer, a pair of step trigger button is provided. In general, step mode, along with quantized semi-realtime mode, is supported on the drum machines, bass machines and several groove machines. Software sequencer is a class of application software providing a functionality of music sequencer, provided as one feature of the DAW or the integrated music authoring environments; the features provided as sequencers vary depending on the software. The user may control the software sequencer either by using the graphical user interfaces or a specialized input devices, such as a MIDI controller; the early music sequencers were sound producing devices such as automatic musical instruments, music boxes, mechanical organs, player pianos, Orchestrions.
Player pianos, for example, had much in common with contemporary sequencers. Composers or arrangers transmitted music to piano rolls which were subsequently edited by technicians who prepared the rolls for mass duplication. Consumers were able to purchase these rolls and play them back on their own player pianos; the origin of automatic musical instruments seems remarkably old. As early as the 9th century, Persian inventors Banū Mūsā brothers invented a hydropowered organ using exchangeable cylinders with pins, an automatic flute playing machine using steam power, as described in their Book of Ingenious Devices. In the 1
Dance music is music composed to facilitate or accompany dancing. It can be either part of a larger musical arrangement. In terms of performance, the major categories are recorded dance music. While there exist attestations of the combination of dance and music in ancient times, the earliest Western dance music that we can still reproduce with a degree of certainty are the surviving medieval dances. In the Baroque period, the major dance styles were noble court dances. In the classical music era, the minuet was used as a third movement, although in this context it would not accompany any dancing; the waltz arose in the classical era. Both remained part of the romantic music period, which saw the rise of various other nationalistic dance forms like the barcarolle, ecossaise and polonaise. Modern popular dance music emerged from late 19th century's Western ballroom and social dance music. During the early 20th century, ballroom dancing gained popularity among the working class who attended public dance halls.
Dance music became enormously popular during the 1920s. In the 1930s, called the Swing era, Swing music was the popular dance music in America. In the 1950s, rock and roll became the popular dance music; the late 1960s saw the rise of R&B music. The rise of disco in the early 1970s led to dance music becoming popular with the public. By the late 1970s, electronic dance music was developing; this music, made using electronics, is a style of popular music played in nightclubs, radio stations and raves. Many subgenres of electronic dance music have evolved. Folk dance music is music accompanying traditional dance and may be contrasted with historical/classical, popular/commercial dance music. An example of folk dance music in the United States is the old-time music played at square dances and contra dances. While there exist attestations of the combination of dance and music in ancient times, the earliest Western dance music that we can still reproduce with a degree of certainty are the surviving medieval dances such as carols and the Estampie.
The earliest of these surviving dances are as old as Western staff-based music notation. The Renaissance dance music was written for instruments such as the lute, tabor and the sackbut. In the Baroque period, the major dance styles were noble court dances. Examples of dances include the French courante, sarabande and gigue. Collections of dances were collected together as dance suites. In the classical music era, the minuet was used as a third movement in four-movement non-vocal works such as sonatas, string quartets, symphonies, although in this context it would not accompany any dancing; the waltz arose in the classical era, as the minuet evolved into the scherzo. Both remained part of the romantic music period, which saw the rise of various other nationalistic dance forms like the barcarolle and polonaise. In the romantic music era, the growth and development of ballet extended the composition of dance music to a new height. Dance music was a part of opera. Modern popular dance music emerged from late 19th century's Western ballroom and social dance music.
Dance music works bear the name of the corresponding dance, e.g. waltzes, the tango, the bolero, the can-can, salsa, various kinds of jigs and the breakdown. Other dance forms include contradance, the merengue, the cha-cha-cha, it is difficult to know whether the name of the music came first or the name of the dance. Ballads are chosen for slow-dance routines; however ballads have been deemed as the opposite of dance music in terms of their tempo. The ballad was a type of dance as well. Ballads are still danced on the Faeroe Islands. "Dansband" is a term in Swedish for bands who play a kind of popular music, "dansbandsmusik", to partner dance to. These terms came into use around 1970, before that, many of the bands were classified as "pop groups"; this type of music is popular in the Nordic countries. Disco is a genre of dance music containing elements of funk, soul and salsa, it was most popular during the mid to late 1970s. It inspired the electronic dance music genre. By 1981, a new form of dance music was developing.
This music, made using electronics, is a style of popular music played in dance music nightclubs, radio stations and raves. During its gradual decline in the late 1970s, disco became influenced by computerization. Looping and segueing as found in disco continued to be used as creative techniques within trance music, techno music and house music. Electronic dance music experienced a boom after the proliferation of personal computers in the 1980s, manifest in the dance element of Tony Wilson's Haçienda scene and London clubs like Delirium, The Trip, Shoom; the ongoing influence of Shoom can be seen in its 25th anniversary party, held at Cable Nightclub on 8 December 2012, which sold out in four days. The scene expanded to the Summer Of Love in Ibiza, which became the European capital of house and trance. Clubs like Sundissential and Manumission became househo