Ashmansworth is a village and civil parish in the Basingstoke and Deane district of the English county of Hampshire. The village is about 7.5 miles south west of Newbury in Berkshire, 9 miles north east from Andover in Hampshire, just south west of the top of a ridge line running south. The ridge overlooks Highclere Castle and Newbury, with views over large areas of Berkshire and North Hampshire. With heights between 235 and 240 metres above sea-level, Ashmansworth is the highest village in Hampshire and a spot height of 242 metres is at the top of the ridge on the north east side of the village makes it one of the highest points in Hampshire, it lies within the North Wessex Downs Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty, the area is popular with walkers and horse riders. The village is at the junction of five minor roads about 1 km west of the A343 between Newbury and Andover. Access has not always been as good as today. For instance Blacks Guide, published in 1871, described the village as being “among the least trodden districts and most secluded angles of the country, noteworthy only for its early English church”.
In 1901 a spokesman for the Archaeological Society described Ashmansworth as “a long scattered village and deserted in its aspect, with a decreasing population”. At this time the church had fallen into disrepair as a result of it being subordinate to the East Woodhay parish. An independent Parish Council for Ashmansworth was founded in 1894. One of the first issues it addressed was the water supply. Throughout its history Ashmansworth experienced difficulties in maintaining an adequate supply of drinking water. Before the installation of piped water in the late 1930s, the only sources of drinking water for many villagers were Mere Pool and the 100 metres deep well at Church Farm. Over the course of the 20th century the character of Ashmansworth changed largely as a result of the intensive farming practices adopted after the Second World War; the modern village has a central core, concentrated around the main thoroughfare where the village hall, village green, war memorial, former Plough Inn, former chapel and old school house are all located.
There are many key buildings in the village including eight listed buildings, some dating from the 18th century such as Plough cottage and Pheasant cottage. According to the 2001 census, it had a population of 215; the village church dates from the 12th century. The village was served for many years by the local public house, The Plough, which ceased trading in 2008; the composer Gerald Finzi lived in Ashmansworth. Ashmansworth Parish Council. Parish website containing information on the Parish Council and other aspects of the village. Hampshire Treasures: Volume 2 Pages 001, 003, 004, 005, 006
National Heritage List for England
The National Heritage List for England is England’s official list of buildings, monuments and gardens, wrecks and World Heritage Sites. It is maintained by Historic England and brings together these different designations as a single resource though they vary in the type of legal protection afforded to each. Conservation areas do not appear on the NHLE since they are designated by the relevant local planning authority; the passage of the Ancient Monuments Protection Act 1882 established the first part of what the list is today, it established a list of 50 prehistoric monuments which were protected by the state. Further amendments to this act increased the levels of protection and added more monuments to the list; the Town and Country Planning Acts created the first listed buildings and the process for adding properties to it. As of 2018, more than 600,000 properties are listed individually; each year additional properties are added to the National Register as part of the different constituent registers that are part of the list.
The National Heritage List for England was launched in 2011 as the statutory list of all designated historic places including listed buildings and scheduled monuments. The list is managed by Historic England, is available as an on-line database with 400,000 listed buildings, registered parks and battlefields, protected shipwrecks and scheduled monuments. A unique reference number, the NHLE Code, is used to refer to the related database entry, such as 1285296 – this example is for Douglas House. Template:National Heritage List for England — the template used for generating a formatted citation containing the targeted external link. Historic England.org: National Heritage List for England
John Wallis Titt
John Wallis Titt was a late nineteenth-century English mechanical engineer and builder of a particular design of large wind engine. Titt was born in 1841 at Elm Farm, Wiltshire to John Titt and Eliza Titt; the farm had a post mill, which he worked for his father until he left in 1865 to join Messrs Wallis and Stevens, agricultural engineers and steam engine manufacturers of Basingstoke, Hampshire. Titt worked for them for two years as a commercial traveller. In 1867, he joined the millwrighting firm of May, based in Devizes, Wiltshire, he remained with them for five years. From 1870, Titt was an agent for May. In 1872, Titt established himself at Portway, Devizes as an agricultural engineer, employed by Brown & May, he was an agent for Messrs Fowler's of Leeds, Yorkshire. In 1874 he entered business on his own account and in 1876 he established the Woodcock Ironworks at Warminster. At first, he manufactured elevators. Titt continued in business as an agricultural iron founder. In 1884, Titt manufactured his first wind engine, for the Boyton estate.
Titt continued to run the firm until he retired through ill health in 1903, the year in which he exhibited three wind engines at the Royal Agricultural Society's show, Park Royal, London. He died in May 1910. After his death, the firm was run by his two sons. At its peak, 150 people were employed. Apart from the agricultural side of the business, the firm handled bicycles and motor cars; the firm declined. In the 1940s, under the management of G. T. Frost, the firm expanded again, employing 60 people in 1952. A branch was established at Somerset; the Warminster headquarters closed in 1986 but the firm continued in business in Frome until 2009. Titt made three main types of wind engine: Simplex direct and the Simplex geared. After the firm was taken over by his sons, another standard type of windpump, the Imperial, was produced; the Woodcock engine was a conventional iron windpump. It came in two sizes, with wind wheels of 10 feet and 12 feet and could be supplied with a wood or steel tower; the Woodcock wind engine could pump water to a total height of 150 feet.
The Simplex engines came either as direct geared drive. The direct drive engines had a wind wheel diameter of 14 feet, 16 feet, 18 feet, 20 feet and 25 feet. A 25 feet high tower was supplied as standard, but could be made to any height a customer desired at extra cost; the blades of the wind wheel were similar in design and operation to the shutters on a Spring or Patent sail. Some of the larger direct engines were turned to wind by a fantail. A single or double fantail could be had, per the customer's wishes; the geared engines came in the same sizes as the direct engines, were available in 30 feet, 35 feet and 40 feet diameter. A 25 feet tower was standard for the smallest three sizes and the largere sizes came with a 35 feet as standard. Again, a taller tower could be supplied at extra cost; the geared Simplex engines were turned into wind by a fantail. Two remaining wind engines made by John Wallis Titt are on show at the Wind Energy Museum in Repps with Bastwick, Norfolk. Titt wind engines are known to have been built at the following locations:- unless otherwise indicated The name "Simplex" was independently used by an Australian windmill manufacturer for its windmills, with the name used to describe greatness in simplicity.
The windmill and its design had no association with Titt's machines. A restored IBC Direct Acting Simplex windmill is part of the National Museum of Australia collection, it is 13 metres high with a six-metre sail diameter. The windmill drew water from the Great Artesian Basin at Kenya Station in central Queensland from the 1920s until 1988, when it was decommissioned, it was subsequently donated to the museum in 2008 and installed in 2011. Kenya station windmill, National Museum of Australia
In England, a civil parish is a type of administrative parish used for local government, they are a territorial designation, the lowest tier of local government below districts and counties, or their combined form, the unitary authority. Civil parishes can trace their origin to the ancient system of ecclesiastical parishes which played a role in both civil and ecclesiastical administration; the unit rolled out across England in the 1860s. A civil parish can range in size from a large town with a population of about 75,000 to a single village with fewer than a hundred inhabitants. Eight parishes have city status. A civil parish may be known as and confirmed as a town, neighbourhood or community by resolution of its parish council, a right reserved not conferred on other units of English local government. 35% of the English population live in a civil parish. As of 31 December 2015 there were 10,449 parishes in England; the most populous is Weston super Mare and those with cathedral city status are Chichester, Hereford, Ripon, Salisbury and Wells.
On 1 April 2014, Queen's Park became the first civil parish in Greater London. Before 2008 their creation was not permitted within a London borough. Wales was divided into civil parishes until 1974, when they were replaced by communities, which are similar to English parishes in the way they operate. Civil parishes in Scotland were abolished for local government purposes by the Local Government Act 1929, the Scottish equivalent of English civil parishes are community council areas, which were established by the Local Government Act 1973; the Parish system in Europe was established between the 8th and 12th centuries and in England was old by the time of the Conquest. These areas were based on the territory of one or more manors, areas which in some cases derived their bounds from Roman or Iron Age estates. Parish boundaries were conservative, changing little, after 1180'froze' so that boundaries could no longer be changed at all, despite changes to manorial landholdings - though there were some examples of sub-division.
The consistency of these boundaries, up until the 19th century is useful to historians, is of cultural significance in terms of shaping local identities, a factor reinforced by the adoption of parish boundaries unchanged, by successor local government units. There was huge variation in size between parishes, for instance Writtle in Essex was 13,568 acres while neighbouring Shellow Bowells was just 469 acres, Chignall Smealy 476 acres; until the break with Rome, parishes managed ecclesiastical matters, while the manor was the principal unit of local administration and justice. The church replaced the manor court as the rural administrative centre, levied a local tax on produce known as a tithe. In the medieval period, responsibilities such as relief of the poor passed from the Lord of the Manor to the parish's rector, who in practice would delegate tasks among his vestry or the monasteries. After the dissolution of the monasteries, the power to levy a rate to fund relief of the poor was conferred on the parish authorities by the Act for the Relief of the Poor 1601.
Both before and after this optional social change, local charities are well-documented. The parish authorities were consisted of all the ratepayers of the parish; as the number of ratepayers of some parishes grew, it became difficult to convene meetings as an open vestry. In some built up, areas the select vestry took over responsibility from the entire body of ratepayers; this innovation allowed governance by a self-perpetuating elite. The administration of the parish system relied on the monopoly of the established English Church, which for a few years after Henry VIII alternated between the Roman Catholic Church and the Church of England, before settling on the latter on the accession of Elizabeth I in 1558. By the 18th century, religious membership was becoming more fractured in some places, due for instance to the progress of Methodism; the legitimacy of the parish vestry came into question and the perceived inefficiency and corruption inherent in the system became a source for concern in some places.
For this reason, during the early 19th century the parish progressively lost its powers to ad hoc boards and other organisations, for example the loss of responsibility for poor relief through the Poor Law Amendment Act 1834. Sanitary districts covered England in Ireland three years later; the replacement boards were each entitled to levy their own rate in the parish. The church rate ceased to be levied in many parishes and became voluntary from 1868; the ancient parishes diverged into two distinct, nearly overlapping, systems of parishes during the 19th century. The Poor Law Amendment Act 1866 declared all areas that levied a separate rate: C of E ecclesiastical parishes, extra-parochial areas and their analogue, chapelries, to be "civil parishes". To have collected rates this means these beforehand had their own vestries, boards or equivalent bodies; the Church of England parishes, which cover more than 99% of England, became termed "ecclesiastical parishes" and the boundaries of these soon diverged from those of the Ancient Parishes in order to reflect modern circumstances.
After 1921 each ecclesiastical parish has been the responsibility of the parochial church councils. In the late 19th century, most of the ancient irregularities inheri
Diana, the Hon. Lady Mosley, born Diana Freeman-Mitford and known as Diana Mitford, was one of the Mitford sisters, she was first married to Bryan Walter Guinness, heir to the barony of Moyne, upon her divorce from him married Sir Oswald Mosley, 6th Baronet of Ancoats, leader of the British Union of Fascists. This her second marriage took place at the home of Joseph Goebbels in 1936, with Adolf Hitler as guest of honour. Subsequently, her involvement with Fascist political causes resulted in three years' internment during the Second World War, she moved to Paris and enjoyed some success as a writer. In the 1950s she edited the magazine The European. In 1977 she published her autobiography, A Life of Contrasts, two more biographies in the 1980s, she was a regular book reviewer for Books & Bookmen and at The Evening Standard in the 1990s. She caused controversy when she appeared on Desert Island Discs in 1989. A family friend, James Lees-Milne, wrote of her beauty, "She was the nearest thing to Botticelli's Venus that I have seen".
Diana Mitford was the fourth child and third daughter of David Freeman-Mitford, 2nd Baron Redesdale, his wife, daughter of Thomas Gibson Bowles, MP. She was a first cousin of Clementine Churchill, second cousin of Angus Ogilvy, first cousin, twice removed, of Bertrand Russell. Mitford was born in Belgravia and raised in the country estate of Batsford Park from the age of 10 at the family home, Asthall Manor, in Oxfordshire, at Swinbrook House, a home her father had built in the village of Swinbrook, she was educated at home by a series of governesses except for a six-month period in 1926 when she was sent to a day school in Paris. In childhood, her younger sisters Jessica Mitford and Deborah Cavendish, Duchess of Devonshire, were devoted to her. At the age of 18, shortly after her presentation at Court, she became secretly engaged to Bryan Walter Guinness. Guinness, an Irish aristocrat and brewing heir, would inherit the barony of Moyne, her parents were opposed to the engagement but in time were persuaded.
Sydney was uneasy at the thought of two such young people having possession of such a large fortune, but she was convinced Bryan was a suitable husband. They married on 30 January 1929; the couple had an income of £20,000 a year, an estate at Biddesden in Wiltshire, houses in London and Dublin. They were well known for hosting aristocratic society events involving the Bright Young People; the writer Evelyn Waugh exclaimed that her beauty "ran through the room like a peal of bells", he dedicated the novel Vile Bodies, a satire of the Roaring Twenties, to the couple. Her portrait was painted by Pavel Tchelitchew and Henry Lamb; the couple had two sons and Desmond. In February 1932, Diana met Sir Oswald Mosley at a garden party at the home of the society hostess Emerald Cunard, he soon became leader of the newly formed British Union of Fascists, Diana's lover. Diana left her husband,'moving with a skeleton staff of nanny, house-parlourmaid and lady's maid to a house at 2 Eaton Square, round the corner from Mosley's flat', but Sir Oswald would not leave his wife.
Quite Cynthia died in 1933 of peritonitis. Mosley was devastated by the death of his wife, but started an affair with her younger sister Lady Alexandra Metcalfe. Owing to Diana's parents' disapproval over her decision to leave Guinness for Mosley, she was estranged from most of her family, her affair and eventual marriage to Mosley strained relationships with her sisters. Jessica and Deborah were not permitted to see Diana as she was "living in sin" with Mosley in London. Deborah got to know Mosley and ended up liking him much. Jessica became permanently estranged from Diana after the late 1930s. Pam and her husband Derek Jackson got along well with Mosley. Nancy never liked Mosley and, like Jessica, despised his political beliefs, but was able to learn to tolerate him for the sake of her relationship with Diana. Nancy wrote the novel Wigs on the Green, which satirised his beliefs. After it was published in 1935 relations between the sisters became strained to non-existent and it was not until the mid-1940s that they were able to get back to being close again.
The couple rented a country house in Staffordshire which Diana had intended to buy. She furnished much of her new home with much of the Swinbrook furniture; the Mosleys lived at Wootton Lodge along with their children from 1936 to 1939. In 1934 Mitford went to Germany with her 19-year-old sister Unity. While there, they attended the first Nuremberg rally after the Nazi rise to power. A friend of Hitler's, Unity introduced Diana to him in March 1935, they returned again for the second rally that year and were entertained as his guests at the 1935 rally. In 1936 he provided a Mercedes-Benz to chauffeur Diana to the Berlin Olympic games, she became well acquainted with Magda Goebbels. Diana and Oswald wed in secret on 6 October 1936 in Nazi propaganda chief Joseph Goebbels' drawing room. Adolf Hitler, Robert Gordon-Canning and Bill Allen were in attendance; the marriage was kept secret until the birth of their first child in 1938. In
Sir Oswald Ernald Mosley of Ancoats, 6th Baronet was a British politician who rose to fame in the 1920s as a Member of Parliament and in the 1930s became leader of the British Union of Fascists. Mosley inherited the title'Sir' by virtue of his baronetcy. After military service during the First World War, Mosley was one of the youngest Members of Parliament, representing Harrow from 1918 to 1924, first as a Conservative an independent, before joining the Labour Party, he returned to Parliament as the MP for Smethwick at a by-election in 1926, having stood as a Labour candidate, served as Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster in the Labour Government of 1929–31. He was considered a potential Labour Prime Minister, but resigned due to discord with the Government's unemployment policies, he founded the New Party. He lost his Smethwick seat at the 1931 general election; the New Party became the British Union of Fascists in 1932. Mosley was imprisoned in May 1940 and the BUF was banned, he was released in 1943 and, politically disgraced by his association with fascism, moved abroad in 1951, spending the majority of the remainder of his life in Paris.
He stood for Parliament twice in the postwar era, achieving little support. Mosley was born on 16 November 1896 at 47 Hill Street, Westminster, He was the eldest of the three sons of Sir Oswald Mosley, 5th Baronet, Katharine Maud Edwards-Heathcote, daughter of Captain Justinian H. Edwards-Heathcote of Apedale Hall, Staffordshire, he had two younger brothers: Edward Heathcote Mosley. The family traces its roots to Ernald de Mosley of Bushbury, Staffordshire in the time of King John in the 12th century; the family was prominent in Staffordshire and three baronetcies were created, two of which are now extinct. His five-time great-grandfather John Parker Mosley, a Manchester hatter, was made a baronet in 1781, his branch of the Mosley family was the Anglo-Irish family at its most prosperous, landowners in Staffordshire seated at Rolleston Hall near Burton-upon-Trent. His father was a third cousin to the 14th Earl of Strathmore and Kinghorne, father of Lady Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon, who served alongside King George VI as Queen.
After his parents separated he was brought up by his mother, who went to live at Betton Hall near Market Drayton, his paternal grandfather, Sir Oswald Mosley, 4th Baronet. Within the family and among intimate friends, he was always called "Tom", he lived for many years at his grandparents' stately home, Apedale Hall, was educated at West Downs School and Winchester College. Mosley was a fencing champion in his school days, winning titles in both foil and sabre, retained an enthusiasm for the sport throughout his life. In January 1914, Mosley entered the Royal Military College, but was expelled in June for a "riotous act of retaliation" against a fellow student. During the First World War he was commissioned into the British cavalry unit the 16th The Queen's Lancers and fought in France on the Western Front, he transferred to the Royal Flying Corps as an observer, but while demonstrating in front of his mother and sister he crashed, which left him with a permanent limp, as well as a reputation for being brave and somewhat reckless.
He returned to the trenches before the injury had healed, at the Battle of Loos he passed out at his post from pain. He spent the remainder of the war at desk jobs in the Ministry of Munitions and in the Foreign Office. On 11 May 1920, he married Lady Cynthia "Cimmie" Curzon, second daughter of the 1st Earl Curzon of Kedleston, Viceroy of India, 1899–1905, Foreign Secretary, 1919–1924, Lord Curzon's first wife, the U. S. mercantile heiress, the former Mary Leiter. Lord Curzon had to be persuaded that Mosley was a suitable husband, as he suspected Mosley was motivated by social advancement in Conservative Party politics and her inheritance; the 1920 wedding took place in the Chapel Royal in St James's Palace in London – arguably the social event of the year. The hundreds of guests included King George V and Queen Mary, as well as foreign royalty such as the Duke and Duchess of Brabant. During this marriage he began an extended affair with his wife's younger sister Lady Alexandra Metcalfe, with their stepmother, Grace Curzon, Marchioness Curzon of Kedleston, the American-born second wife and widow of Lord Curzon of Kedleston.
He succeeded to the Baronetcy of Ancoats upon his father's death in 1928, which entitles the current holder to the prefix style Sir. Among his many travels, Mosley travelled to India accompanied by Lady Cynthia in the winter of 1924, his father-in-law's past as Viceroy of the British Raj allowed for the acquaintance of various personalities along the journey. They stopped shortly in Cairo. Having arrived in Ceylon, the journey continued along mainland India, they spent these initial days in the government house of Ceylon. Followed by Madras and Calcutta, where the Governor at the time was Lord Lytton. Mosley met Gandhi through C. F. Andrews, a clergyman and an intimate friend of the Indian Saint, as Mosley described him, they met in Kadda, where Gandhi was quick to invite him to a private conference in which Gandhi was chairman. They enjoyed each other's company for the short time. Mosley further described Gandhi as a'sympathetic personality of subtle intelligence'. Cynthia died of peritonitis in 1933, after which Mosley married his mistress Diana Guinness, née Mitford.
They married in secr