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A cryptogram is a type of puzzle that consists of a short piece of encrypted text. The cipher used to encrypt the text is simple enough that the cryptogram can be solved by hand. Substitution ciphers where each letter is replaced by a different letter or number are used. To solve the puzzle, one must recover the original lettering. Though once used in more serious applications, they are now printed for entertainment in newspapers and magazines. Other types of classical ciphers are sometimes used to create cryptograms. An example is the book cipher where a article is used to encrypt a message; the Cryptogram is the name of the periodic publication of the American Cryptogram Association, which contains many cryptographic puzzles. The ciphers used in cryptograms were not created for entertainment purposes, but for real encryption of military or personal secrets; the first use of the cryptogram for entertainment purposes occurred during the Middle Ages by monks who had spare time for intellectual games.

A manuscript found at Bamberg states that Irish visitors to the court of Merfyn Frych ap Gwriad, king of Gwynedd in Wales were given a cryptogram which could only be solved by transposing the letters from Latin into Greek.. Around the thirteenth century, the English monk Roger Bacon wrote a book in which he listed seven cipher methods, stated that "a man is crazy who writes a secret in any other way than one which will conceal it from the vulgar." In the 19th century Edgar Allan Poe helped to popularize cryptograms with many newspaper and magazine articles. Well-known examples of cryptograms in contemporary culture are the syndicated newspaper puzzles Cryptoquip and Cryptoquote, from King Features. In a public challenge, writer J. M. Appel announced on September 28, 2014, that the table of contents page of his short story collection, Scouting for the Reaper doubled as a cryptogram, he pledged an award for the first to solve it. Cryptograms based on substitution ciphers can be solved by frequency analysis and by recognizing letter patterns in words, such as one letter words, which, in English, can only be "i" or "a".

Double letters and the fact that no letter can substitute for itself in the cipher offer clues to the solution. Cryptogram puzzle makers will start the solver off with a few letters. While the Cryptogram has remained popular, over time other puzzles similar to it have emerged. One of these is the Cryptoquote, a famous quote encrypted in the same way as a Cryptogram. A more recent version, with a biblical twist, is CodedWord; this puzzle makes the solution available only online where it provides a short exegesis on the biblical text. Yet a third is the Cryptoquiz; this puzzle starts off at the top with a category. For example, "Flowers" might be used. Below this is a list of encrypted words; the person must solve for the entire list to finish the puzzle. Yet another type involves using numbers; the Zodiac Killer sent four cryptograms to police. Despite much research and many investigations, only one of these has been translated, of no help in identifying the serial killer. List of famous ciphertexts American Cryptogram Association

Long-term effects of cannabis

The long-term effects of cannabis have been the subject of ongoing debate. Because cannabis is illegal in most countries, clinical research presents a challenge. In 2017, the U. S. National Academies of Science and Medicine issued a report summarizing much of the published literature on health effects of cannabis, into categories regarded as conclusive, moderate, limited and of no or insufficient evidence to support an association with a particular outcome. Cannabis is the most used illicit drug in the Western world, although in the United States 10 to 20% of consumers who use cannabis daily become dependent, it is different from addiction. Cannabis use disorder is defined in the fifth revision of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders as a condition requiring treatment. A 2012 review of cannabis use and dependency in the United States by Danovitch et al said that "42% of persons over age 12 have used cannabis at least once in their lifetime, 11.5% have used within the past year, 1.8% have met diagnostic criteria for cannabis abuse or dependence within the past year.

Among individuals who have used cannabis, conditional dependence is 9%." Although no medication is known to be effective in combating dependency, combinations of psychotherapy such as cognitive behavioural therapy and motivational enhancement therapy have achieved some success. Cannabis dependence develops in 9% of users less than that of heroin, cocaine and prescribed anxiolytics, but higher than that for psilocybin, mescaline, or LSD. Dependence on cannabis tends to be less severe than that observed with cocaine and alcohol. A 2018 review of the nature of dependency on marijuana states that the risk of dependence formation among regular marijuana consumers has declined since 2002. Acute cannabis intoxication has been shown to negatively affect attention, psychomotor task ability, short-term memory. Studies of chronic cannabis use have not demonstrated a long-lasting or refractory effect on the attention span, memory function, or cognitive abilities of moderate-dose long-term users. Once cannabis use was discontinued, these effects disappeared in users abstinent for a period of several months.

Chronic use of cannabis during adolescence, a time when the brain is still developing, is correlated in the long term with lower IQ and cognitive deficits. It is not clear, though, if the causality is in the reverse. Recent studies have shown that IQ deficits existed in some subjects before chronic cannabis use, suggesting that lower IQ may instead be a risk factor for cannabis addiction. Cannabis can contain over 100 different cannabinoid compounds, many of which have displayed psychoactive effects; the most distinguished cannabinoids are ∆9 – THC and cannabidiol, with THC being the primary agent responsible for the psychoactivity of cannabis. The effects of THC and CBD are salient regarding anxiety; as of 2017 there is clear evidence that long term use of cannabis increases the risk of psychosis, regardless of confounding factors, for people who have genetic risk factors. However in those with no family history of psychosis, the administration of pure THC in clinical settings has been demonstrated to elicit transient psychotic symptoms.

According to the National Academies of Sciences and Medicine, there is substantial evidence of a statistical association between cannabis use and the development of schizophrenia or other chronic psychoses, with the highest risk among the most frequent users. Yet the possible connection between psychosis and cannabis has been seen as controversial. Medical evidence suggests that the long-term use of cannabis by people who begin use at an early age display a higher tendency towards mental health problems and other physical and development disorders, although a causal link could not be definitively addressed by the available data; the risks appear to be most acute in adolescent users. In one 2013 review, the authors concluded long-term cannabis use "increases the risk of psychosis in people with certain genetic or environmental vulnerabilities", but does not cause psychosis. Important predisposing factors were childhood trauma and urban upbringing. Another review that same year concluded that cannabis use may cause permanent psychological disorders in some users such as cognitive impairment, anxiety and increased risks of psychosis.

Key predisposing variables included age of first exposure, frequency of use, the potency of the cannabis used, individual susceptibility. Some researchers maintain there exists "a strong association between schizophrenia and cannabis use...", while cannabis use alone does not predict the transition to subsequent psychiatric illness. Many factors are involved, including genetics, time period of initiation and duration of cannabis use, underlying psychiatric pathology that preceded drug use, combined use of other psychoactive drugs; the temporal relationship between cannabis and psychosis was reviewed in 2014, the authors proposed that "ecause longitudinal work indicates that cannabis use precedes psychotic symptoms, it seems reasonable to assume a causal relationship" between cannabis and psychosis, but that "more work is needed to address the possibility of gene-environment correlation."In 2016 a meta-analysis was published on associations studies covering a range of dosing habits, again showing that cannabis use increases the risk of psychosis, that a dose–response relationship exists between the level of cannabis use and risk of psychosis.

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Ockley is a rural village in Surrey. It lies astride the A29, the modern road using the alignment of Stane Street; the A29 diverges from the A24 from London about 2.5 miles northeast and takes the alignment of Stane Street a mile north of the village. It has a medieval parish church, see list of places of worship in Mole Valley. Finds of small artifacts dating to Roman Britain associated with the Roman road stretching from Chichester to London have been made since at least the 19th century. Ockley's name appears to fit the uncertain site where battle took place described in the entry for the year 851 of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. According to the chronicler, king Æthelwulf and his son Æthelbald, together with the West-Saxon army, fought against an invading Danish army of 350 ships that had plundered London and Canterbury and had put king Beorhtwulf of Mercia to flight; the chronicler refers to the battlefield as Aclea, Oak Lea, the Danish army was defeated suffering “the greatest slaughter… we have heard tell of up to this present day”.

However, Aclea always appears in modern English as Oakley not Ockley and the identification of Ockley with the battlefield is made impossible. Ockley appears in Domesday Book of 1086 as Hoclei, it was held by Radulf from Richard Fitz Gilbert. Its domesday assets were: 1 hide, it had 5 ploughs, woodland worth 20 hogs. It rendered £3 10s 0d to its overlords per year. Nicholas Culpeper, a leading Stuart period herbalist, was born here on 18 October 1616. In 1911 the parish was "agricultural, except for a little brick and tile making". Informal football is played on Ockley Green which has football posts in place. Ockley has Gatton Manor Golf Course on the outskirts of the village, within the parish bounds; the village has featured in longer routes of the London-Surrey Cycle Classic. Between Dorking and Horsham, close to the Sussex/Surrey border, Ockley stretches to the escarpment of Leith Hill, the second highest point in South East England, after Walbury Hill in the far south-west of Berkshire; the northern border is marked by the Greensand Ridge.

Close to the Greensand Ridge are small beds of Sussex marble, remnants of a former limestone area of the Weald. The A29 is the main road through the village with Horsham to Dorking to the north. Local minor roads provide straight access from just north of the village's developed area to Ewhurst and Cranleigh to the west and Capel to the east; the village is served by Ockley railway station, 2 miles to the east, due to a Victorian aristocrat having imposed his manor's name on a station closer to Capel, Surrey. The average level of accommodation in the region composed of detached houses was 28%, the average, apartments was 22.6%. The proportion of households in the civil parish who owned their home outright compares to the regional average of 35.1%. The proportion who owned their home with a loan compares to the regional average of 32.5%. The remaining % is made up of rented dwellings. List of places of worship in Mole Valley Media related to Ockley at Wikimedia Commons

Elizabeth Kolbert

Elizabeth Kolbert is an American journalist and author and visiting fellow at Williams College. She is best known for her Pulitzer Prize-winning book The Sixth Extinction: An Unnatural History, as an observer and commentator on environmentalism for The New Yorker magazine; as of March 2017, Kolbert serves as a member of the Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists' Science and Security Board. Kolbert spent her early childhood in the New York. After graduating from Mamaroneck High School, Kolbert spent four years studying literature at Yale University. In 1983, she was awarded a Fulbright Scholarship to study at the Universität Hamburg, in Germany. Elizabeth Kolbert started working for The New York Times as a stringer in Germany in 1983. In 1985, she went to work for the Metro desk. Kolbert served as the Times' Albany bureau chief from 1988 to 1991, wrote the Metro Matters column from 1997 to 1998. Since 1999, she has been a staff-writer for The New Yorker, she was awarded a Pulitzer Prize for her book "The Sixth Extinction" in 2015.

She received the Sam Rose and Julie Walters Prize for Global Environmental Activism at Dickinson College in 2016 and the Blake-Dodd Prize from the American Academy of Arts and Letters in 2017. She has received two National Magazine Awards, for Public Interest in 2006 and for Reviews and Criticism in 2010 Kolbert resides in Williamstown, with her husband, John Kleiner, three sons, she appeared on The Daily Show with Jon Stewart on February 11, 2014, to discuss her book The Sixth Extinction. 2005 American Association for the Advancement of Science Journalism Award 2006 National Magazine Award for Public Interest 2006 Lannan Literary Fellowship 2006 National Academies Communication Award 16th Annual Heinz Award with special focus on global change, 2010 2010 National Magazine Award for Commentary 2010 Guggenheim Fellowship in Science Writing 2015 Pulitzer Prize for General Nonfiction 2016 Sam Rose'58 and Julie Walters Prize at Dickinson College for Environmental Activism 2017 SEAL Environmental Journalism Award Kolbert, Elizabeth.

The prophet of love: and other tales of power and deceit. New York: Bloomsbury. —. Field notes from a catastrophe: man and climate change. New York: Bloomsbury. Kolbert, Elizabeth & Francis Spufford, eds.. The ends of the Earth: an anthology of the finest writing on the Arctic and the Antarctic. 1st U. S. ed. New York: Bloomsbury. Kolbert, Elizabeth, ed.. The best American science and nature writing 2009. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. —. The sixth extinction: an unnatural history. Kolbert, Elizabeth. "The Lost Mariner". The Critics. Books; the New Yorker. 78: 206–211. —. "Batless". Postcard from Vermont; the New Yorker. 86: 42–43. —. "Up all night: the science of sleeplessness". Modern Life; the New Yorker. 89: 24–27. —. "Head count: fertilizer and the clashes over population growth". The Critics. Books; the New Yorker. 89: 96–99. —. "The lost world: the mastodon's molars". Annals of Extinction. Part One; the New Yorker. 89: 28–38. —. "the lost world: fossils of the future". Annals of Extinction. Part Two; the New Yorker. 89: 48–56.

—. "Big score: when Mom takes the SAT's". American Chronicles; the New Yorker. 90: 38–41. —. "Rough forecasts". The Talk of the Town. Comment; the New Yorker. 90: 21–22. —. "Stone soup". Annals of Alimentation; the New Yorker. 90: 26–29. —. "Bug bed". The Talk of the Town. Field Studies; the New Yorker. 90: 20. —. "The big kill: New Zealand's crusade to rid itself of mammals". Annals of Extermination; the New Yorker. 90: 120–126, 128–129. —. "Civic duty". The Talk of the Town. Postcard from Rome; the New Yorker. 90: 20, 22. —. "Such a Stoic: how Seneca became Ancient Rome's philosopher-fixer". The Critics. Books; the New Yorker. 90: 66–69. —. "The last trial: a great-grandmother and the arc of justice". Letter from Berlin; the New Yorker. 91: 24–30. —. "Swords, sandals". The Talk of the Town; the Pictures. The New Yorker. 92: 21–22. —. "Greenland Is Melting". Letter from Greenland; the New Yorker. Retrieved September 12, 2019. —. "Rage against the machine: will robots take your job?". The Critics. Books; the New Yorker. 92: 114–118. —. "Incident".

The Talk of the Town. Art's Sake Dept; the New Yorker. 93: 23. —. "Last chances". The Talk of the Town. Comment; the New Yorker. 95: 23–24. —. Photographs by Vasantha Yogananthan. "The ice stupas: artificial glaciers at the edge of the Himalayas". Portfolio; the New Yorker. 95: 54–67. Van Gelder, Gordon, ed.. Welcome to the greenhouse: new science fiction on climate change. Preface by Elizabeth Kolbert. New York: OR Books. Field notes from Mariana. "In epoch of man, Earth takes a beating". The New York Times; the sixth extinctionGore, Al. "Without a trace". Book Review; the New York Times. Media related to Elizabeth Kolbert at Wikimedia Commons Official website "An Interview with Elizabeth Kolbert", Natural Resources Defense Council 2006 Appearances on C-SPAN

Moine Mhòr

Moine Mhòr encompasses a large area of raised bog in the Kilmartin Glen area of Argyll and Bute, Scotland. As well as raised bog there are areas of saltmarsh, brackish grassland, alder carr and woodland, the variety of habitats at Moine Mhòr provide important habitats for a variety of animal and plant species; the area was declared a National Nature Reserve in 1987, is now owned and managed by Scottish Natural Heritage. According to SNH lowland raised bogs like Moine Mhòr are some of the rarest and most threatened natural wildlife habitats in Europe, due to removal of peat and reclamation of farmland. Around 8,000 people visit the Moine Mhòr NNR every year, with the reserve being popular with local people and school groups, as well as tourists visiting the nearby attractions of Kilmartin Glen and the Crinan Canal. A 600 m nature trail has been constructed at the northern edge of the reserve; the Moine Mhòr began to form after the last Ice Age some 10,000 years ago, as rising sea levels covered the area in impermeable marine clay.

The land began to rise as the glaciers melted due to post-glacial rebound, a shallow estuary formed at the mouth of the River Add. A freshwater loch formed over the Moine Mhòr by an area of saltmarsh. About 5,500 years ago sea levels fell further, sphagnum mosses started to colonise the area, kept damp due to the impermeable clay. Over time layers of peat were laid down. Moine Mhòr lies to the west of Kilmartin Glen, one of the most important prehistoric landscapes in Scotland, however the boggy conditions prevented these prehistoric people from living or farming on the moss, it is nonetheless that they would have used the bog to cut peat for fuel, to collect berries and lichens for food, drinks and potions. Core samples have shown that the bog was burnt to maintain open grazing for animals; the Crinan Canal, built to the south of the Moine Mhòr between 1794 and 1801, led to a decline in peat cutting, as coal from the Glasgow area began to replace peat as fuel. Landowners began to "reclaim" the bog by drainage in order to commence agriculture.

Controlled burning of the unimproved sections of the bog continued, however the focus shifted from grazing to sporting interests, with the aim of encouraging red grouse for shooting parties. Around 1980 100 ha of conifer plantation were planted at Moine Mhor. In order to prevent the disappearance of more of the blanket bog, the Nature Conservancy Council decided to purchase 500 ha of land and declared the area a national nature reserve. Since taking ownership SNH have attempted to reverse historical drainage of the bog by the damming of drainage ditches, with over 190 dams having been constructed by 2017; this has led to a rise in the water table, allowed the sphagnum mosses to regenerate. SNH has taken action to remove trees and scrubs in order to maintain the area as a raised bog. Sphagnum mosses are the key plants in the formation of a raised bog and nine species have been recorded at Moine Mhòr NNR; the marginal habitats mean that there is a diverse flowering plant community, including purple heath orchid, round-leaved sundew, bog myrtle and bog asphodel.

The plant life of the bog helps supports many types of invertebrates, including the marsh fritillary, which lives on devil's-bit scabious, a plant of the drier fringes of the bog. The large heath butterfly, a UK Biodiversity Action Plan priority species is present, the reserve hosts many species of dragonflies.235 bird species have been recorded at the reserve, with the bog itself supporting species such as curlew and meadow pipit, whilst redshank and oystercatcher breed on the saltmarsh areas. The reserve hosts an important population of breeding hen harriers. Otters visit the watercourses, roe and sika deer visit the Moine Mhòr; the national nature reserve is classified as a Category IV protected area by the International Union for Conservation of Nature. Moine Mhòr holds other national and international conservation designations for its natural heritage, being both a Site of Special Scientific Interest and a Special Area of Conservation: these designations cover a wider area than the NNR.

Moine Mhòr lies within the Knapdale national scenic area "The Story of Moine Mhòr National Nature Reserve". Scottish Natural Heritage. Retrieved 2019-03-07. Moine Mhòr National Nature Reserve - Scottish Natural Heritage Scotland's National Nature Reserves

John Fund

John H. Fund is an American political journalist, he is the national-affairs columnist for National Review Online and a senior editor at The American Spectator. Fund was born in Arizona, he attended Sacramento where he studied Journalism and Economics. He worked for The Wall Street Journal for more than two decades, starting in 1984, was a member of the Journal's editorial board from 1995 to 2001, he wrote a column named "On the Trail" for the Journal's opinion page from 2000 to 2011, contributed to the Journal's newsletter, Political Diary. Fund has written for Esquire, Reader's Digest, The New Republic, National Review. Fund cowrote Cleaning House: America's Campaign for Term Limits with James Coyne, he collaborated with Rush Limbaugh on another 1992 book, The Way Things Ought to Be, transcribing it from tape and editing it. In 2004, Fund wrote Stealing Elections: How Voter Fraud Threatens Our Democracy, in which he criticizes the American election system, describing it as "befitting an emerging Third World country rather than the world's leading democracy."

He published an updated edition of the book in 2008. In 2012, Fund and Hans von Spakovsky wrote Who's Counting?: How Fraudsters and Bureaucrats Put Your Vote at Risk, which argues voter fraud is a significant issue in U. S. elections. Fund and Hans von Spakovsky, Who's Counting?: How Fraudsters and Bureaucrats Put Your Vote at Risk Stealing Elections: How Voter Fraud Threatens Our Democracy Cleaning House: America's Campaign for Term Limits Fund's columns at at the Wayback Machine "Leave it to Deaver" Fund writes about meeting Michael Deaver and Ronald Reagan while in high school. Appearances on C-SPAN