Grand Ole Opry
The Grand Ole Opry is a weekly American country music stage concert in Nashville, Tennessee founded on November 28, 1925, by George D. Hay as a one-hour radio "barn dance" on WSM. Owned and operated by Opry Entertainment, it is the longest running radio broadcast in US history. Dedicated to honoring country music and its history, the Opry showcases a mix of famous singers and contemporary chart-toppers performing country, Americana and gospel music as well as comedic performances and skits, it attracts hundreds of thousands of visitors from around the world and millions of radio and internet listeners. The Opry's current primary slogan is "The Show That Made Country Music Famous." Other slogans include "Home of American Music" and "Country's Most Famous Stage."In the 1930s, the show began hiring professionals and expanded to four hours. Broadcasting by at 50,000 watts, WSM made the program a Saturday night musical tradition in nearly 30 states. In 1939, it debuted nationally on NBC Radio; the Opry moved to a permanent home, the Ryman Auditorium, in 1943.
As it developed in importance, so did the city of Nashville, which became America's "country music capital." The Grand Ole Opry holds such significance in Nashville that its name is included on the city/county line signs on all major roadways. The signs read "Music City|Metropolitan Nashville Davidson County|Home of the Grand Ole Opry." Membership in the Opry remains one of country music's crowning achievements. Since 1974, the show has been broadcast from the Grand Ole Opry House east of downtown Nashville, with an annual three-month winter foray back to the Ryman since 1999. In addition to the radio programs, performances have been sporadically televised over the years; the Grand Ole Opry started as the WSM Barn Dance in the new fifth-floor radio studio of the National Life & Accident Insurance Company in downtown Nashville on November 28, 1925. On October 17, 1925, management began a program featuring "Dr. Humphrey Bate and his string quartet of old-time musicians." On November 2, WSM hired long-time announcer and program director George D.
"Judge" Hay, an enterprising pioneer from the National Barn Dance program at WLS in Chicago, named the most popular radio announcer in America as a result of his radio work with both WLS and WMC in Memphis, Tennessee. Hay launched the WSM Barn Dance with 77-year-old fiddler Uncle Jimmy Thompson on November 28, 1925, that date is celebrated as the birth date of the Grand Ole Opry; some of the bands on the show during its early days included Bill Monroe, the Possum Hunters, the Fruit Jar Drinkers with Uncle Dave Macon, the Crook Brothers, the Binkley Brothers' Dixie Clodhoppers, Sid Harkreader, Deford Bailey, Fiddlin' Arthur Smith, the Gully Jumpers. Judge Hay liked the Fruit Jar Drinkers and asked them to appear last on each show because he wanted to always close each segment with "red hot fiddle playing." They were the second band accepted with the Crook Brothers being the first. When the Opry began having square dancers on the show, the Fruit Jar Drinkers always played for them. In 1926, Uncle Dave Macon, a Tennessee banjo player who had recorded several songs and toured on the vaudeville circuit became its first real star.
The phrase "Grand Ole Opry" was first uttered on radio on December 10, 1927. At the time, the NBC Red Network's Music Appreciation Hour, a program with classical music and selections from grand opera, was followed by Barn Dance. Opry presenter George Hay introduced the programme: For the past hour, we have been listening to music taken from Grand Opera. From now on, we will present the "Grand Ole Opry." As audiences for the live show increased, National Life & Accident Insurance's radio venue became too small to accommodate the hordes of fans. They built a larger studio. After several months with no audiences, National Life decided to allow the show to move outside its home offices. In October 1934, the Opry moved into then-suburban Hillsboro Theatre before moving to the Dixie Tabernacle in East Nashville on June 13, 1936; the Opry moved to the War Memorial Auditorium, a downtown venue adjacent to the State Capitol, a 25-cent admission fee was charged to try to curb the large crowds, but to no avail.
On June 5, 1943, the Opry moved to Ryman Auditorium. Top-charting country music acts performed at the Opry during the Ryman years, including Roy Acuff – called the King of Country Music – Hank Williams, Webb Pierce, Faron Young, Martha Carson, Lefty Frizzell, many others. One hour of the Opry was nationally broadcast by the NBC Red Network from 1939 to 1956, for much of its run, it aired one hour after the program that had inspired it, National Barn Dance; the NBC segment known by the name of its sponsor, The Prince Albert Show, was first hosted by Acuff, succeeded by Red Foley from 1946 to 1954. From October 15, 1955 to September 1956, ABC-TV aired a live, hour-long television version once a month on Saturday nights that pre-empted one hour of the then-90-minute Ozark Jubilee. From 1955 to 1957, Al Gannaway owned and produced both The Country Show and Stars of the Grand Ole Opry, both filmed programs syndicated by Flamingo Films. Gannaway's Stars of the Grand Ole Opry was the first television show shot in color.
On October 2, 1954, a teenage Elvis Presley had his only Opry performance. Although the audience reacted politely to his revolutionary brand of rockabilly music, Opry manager Jim Denny told Presley's producer Sam Phillips after the show that the singer's style did not suit the program. In the 1960s, as the hippie counterculture movement spread, the Opry maintained a strait-laced, conservative ima
A Grammy Award, or Grammy, is an award presented by The Recording Academy to recognize achievements in the music industry. The annual presentation ceremony features performances by prominent artists, the presentation of those awards that have a more popular interest; the Grammys are the second of the Big Three major music awards held annually. It shares recognition of the music industry as that of the other performance awards such as the Academy Awards, the Emmy Awards, the Tony Awards, the Game Awards; the first Grammy Awards ceremony was held on May 4, 1959, to honor and respect the musical accomplishments by performers for the year 1958. Following the 2011 ceremony, the Academy overhauled many Grammy Award categories for 2012; the 61st Annual Grammy Awards, honoring the best achievements from October 1, 2017 to September 30, 2018, were held on February 10, 2019, at the Staples Center in Los Angeles. The Grammys had their origin in the Hollywood Walk of Fame project in the 1950s; as the recording executives chosen for the Walk of Fame committee worked at compiling a list of important recording industry people who might qualify for a Walk of Fame star, they realized there were many more people who were leaders in their business who would never earn a star on Hollywood Boulevard.
The music executives decided to rectify this by creating an award given by their industry similar to the Oscars and the Emmys. This was the beginning of the National Academy of Recording Arts and Sciences. After it was decided to create such an award, there was still a question of, they settled on using the name of the invention of Emile Berliner, the gramophone, for the awards, which were first given for the year 1958. The first award ceremony was held in two locations on May 4, 1959 - Beverly Hilton Hotel in Beverly Hills California, Park Sheraton Hotel in New York City, 28 Grammys were awarded; the number of awards given grew and fluctuated over the years with categories added and removed, at one time reaching over 100. The second Grammy Awards held in 1959, was the first ceremony to be televised, but the ceremony was not aired live until the 13th Annual Grammy Awards in 1971; the gold-plated trophies, each depicting a gilded gramophone, are made and assembled by hand by Billings Artworks in Ridgway, Colorado.
In 1990 the original Grammy design was revamped, changing the traditional soft lead for a stronger alloy less prone to damage, making the trophy bigger and grander. Billings developed a zinc alloy named grammium, trademarked; the trophies with the recipient's name engraved on them are not available until after the award announcements, so "stunt" trophies are re-used each year for the broadcast. By February 2009, a total of 7,578 Grammy trophies had been awarded; the "General Field" are four awards. Record of the Year is awarded to the performer and the production team of a single song if other than the performer. Album of the Year is awarded to the performer and the production team of a full album if other than the performer. Song of the Year is awarded to the writer/composer of a single song. Best New Artist is awarded to a promising breakthrough performer who releases, during the Eligibility Year, the first recording that establishes the public identity of that artist; the only two artists to win all four of these awards are Christopher Cross, who won all four in 1980, Adele, who won the Best New Artist award in 2009 and the other three in 2012 and 2017.
Other awards are given for performance and production in specific genres, as well as for other contributions such as artwork and video. Special awards are given for longer-lasting contributions to the music industry; because of the large number of award categories, the desire to feature several performances by various artists, only the ones with the most popular interest - about 10 to 12, including the four General Field categories and one or two categories in the most popular music genres - are presented directly at the televised award ceremony. The many other Grammy trophies are presented in a pre-telecast'Premiere Ceremony' earlier in the afternoon before the Grammy Awards telecast. On April 6, 2011, The Recording Academy announced a drastic overhaul of many Grammy Award categories for 2012; the number of categories was cut from 109 to 78. The most important change was the elimination of the distinction between male and female soloists and between collaborations and duo/groups in various genre fields.
Several categories for instrumental soloists were discontinued. Recordings in these categories now fall under the general categories for best solo performances. In the rock field, the separate categories for hard rock and metal albums were combined and the Best Rock Instrumental Performance category was eliminated due to a waning number of entries. In R&B, the distinction between best contemporary R&B album and other R&B albums has been eliminated, they now feature in general Best R&B Album category. In rap, the categories for best rap soloist and best rap duo or group have been merged into the new Best Rap Performance category; the most eliminations occurred in the roots category. Up to and including 2011, there were separate categories for various regional American music forms, such as Hawaiian music, Native American music and Zydeco/Cajun music. Due to the low number
Hollywood Walk of Fame
The Hollywood Walk of Fame comprises more than 2,600 five-pointed terrazzo and brass stars embedded in the sidewalks along 15 blocks of Hollywood Boulevard and three blocks of Vine Street in Hollywood, California. The stars are permanent public monuments to achievement in the entertainment industry, bearing the names of a mix of musicians, directors, producers and theatrical groups, fictional characters, others; the Walk of Fame is administered by the Hollywood Chamber of Commerce and maintained by the self-financing Hollywood Historic Trust. It is a popular tourist destination, with a reported 10 million visitors in 2003; the Hollywood Chamber of Commerce holds trademark rights to the Hollywood Walk of Fame. The Walk of Fame runs 1.3 miles east to west on Hollywood Boulevard from Gower Street to La Brea Avenue, plus a short segment of Marshfield Way that runs diagonally between Hollywood and La Brea. According to a 2003 report by the market research firm NPO Plog Research, the Walk attracts about 10 million visitors annually—more than Sunset Strip, TCL Chinese Theatre, the Queen Mary, the Los Angeles County Museum of Art—and has played an important role in making tourism the largest industry in Los Angeles County.
As of 2018, the Walk of Fame comprises over 2,600 stars, spaced at 6-foot intervals. The monuments are coral-pink terrazzo five-point stars rimmed with brass inlaid into a charcoal-colored terrazzo background. In the upper portion of each star field the name of the honoree is inlaid in brass block letters. Below the inscription, in the lower half of the star field, a round inlaid brass emblem indicates the category of the honoree's contributions; the emblems symbolize five categories within the entertainment industry: Of all the stars on the Walk to date, 47% have been awarded in the motion pictures category, 24% in television, 17% in audio recording, 10% in radio, fewer than 2% in the live performance category. 20 new stars are added to the Walk each year. Special category stars recognize various contributions by corporate entities, service organizations, special honorees, display emblems unique to those honorees. For example, former Los Angeles mayor Tom Bradley's star displays the Seal of the City of Los Angeles.
The "Friends of the Walk of Fame" monuments are charcoal terrazzo squares rimmed by miniature pink terrazzo stars displaying the five standard category emblems, along with the sponsor's corporate logo, with the sponsor's name and contribution in inlaid brass block lettering. Special stars and Friends monuments are granted by the Hollywood Chamber of Commerce or the Hollywood Historic Trust, but are not part of the Walk of Fame proper and are located nearby on private property; the monuments for the Apollo 11 mission to the Moon are uniquely shaped: Four identical circular moons, each bearing the names of the three astronauts the date of the first Moon landing, the words "Apollo XI", are set on each of the four corners of the intersection of Hollywood and Vine. The moons are silver and grey terrazzo circles rimmed in brass on a square pink terrazzo background, with the television emblem inlaid at the top of each circle; the Hollywood Chamber of Commerce credits E. M. Stuart, its volunteer president in 1953, with the original idea for creating a Walk of Fame.
Stuart proposed the Walk as a means to "maintain the glory of a community whose name means glamour and excitement in the four corners of the world." Harry Sugarman, another Chamber member and president of the Hollywood Improvement Association, receives credit in an independent account. A committee was formed to flesh out the idea, an architectural firm was retained to develop specific proposals. By 1955 the basic concept and general design had been agreed upon, plans were submitted to the Los Angeles City Council. Multiple accounts exist for the origin of the star concept. According to one, the historic Hollywood Hotel—which stood for more than 50 years on Hollywood Boulevard at the site now occupied by the Hollywood and Highland complex and the Dolby Theatre—displayed stars on its dining room ceiling above the tables favored by its most famous celebrity patrons, that may have served as an early inspiration. By another account, the stars were "inspired... by Sugarman's drinks menu, which featured celebrity photos framed in gold stars."In February 1956, a prototype was unveiled featuring a caricature of an example honoree inside a blue star on a brown background.
However, caricatures proved too expensive and difficult to execute in brass with the technology available at the time. By March 1956, the final design and coral-and-charcoal color scheme had been approved, between the spring of 1956 and the fall of 1957, 1,558 honorees were selected by committees representing the four major branches of the entertainment industry at that time: motion pictures, audio recording, radio; the committees met at the Brown Derby restaurant, included such prominent names as Cecil B. DeMille, Samuel Goldwyn, Jesse L. Lasky, Walt Disney, Hal Roach, Mack Sennett, Walter Lantz. A requirem
Paintsville is a home rule-class city along Paint Creek in Johnson County, Kentucky, in the United States. It is the seat of its county; the population was 3,459 during the 2010 U. S. Census. A Paint Lick Station was referred to in military dispatches as early as 1780; the site was named for Indian art painted on the debarked trees near a local salt lick when the first white settlers arrived and was part of a 19,050-acre tract belonging to George Lewis. The trading post was purchased by the Carolinian Rev. Dalton Ray Chandler II in 1812 and laid out as the town of Paint Lick Station in 1826; the town was formally established under that name in 1834, although the post office was named Paint Creek. It was incorporated as a city under its present name of Paintsville in 1843, the same year it became the seat of Johnson County; the Civil War found Johnson County Fiscal Court passing an ordinance barring both Union and Confederate flags from being flown in its jurisdiction. This was repealed when then-Col.
James A. Garfield marched his brigade into the city. During the early Twentieth Century, Paintsville began to transform into a modern American city. In 1902, the city's first bank – First National – opened for business. In 1906, the city received telephone service and, two years all of its streets were paved. In 1912, Paintsville received electricity and natural gas services. In 1926, Paintsville residents received the city's fire department was established. Library services were provided through the Pack Horse Library Project. Since the 1990s, Paintsville has seen a steady loss of population, in part due to a downturn in the economy, the loss of coal jobs. Despite this, there have been some business developments in the past few years, as well as growing tourist interest. Paintsville has been in the process of revitalizing the downtown area in order to rejuvenate its original business district. On June 9, 2009, Paintsville became a "wet" city for the first time since March 14, 1945, permitting stores located within the city limits to sell alcoholic beverages.
Paintsville is located at 37°48′41″N 82°48′24″W in the bottomland at the confluence of Paint Creek and the Levisa Fork of the Big Sandy River amid the foothills of the Appalachian Mountains in the Cumberland Plateau. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 5.3 square miles, all of it land. Beginning in 1976, Paintsville's main shopping district has moved from Main Street to Mayo Plaza, northwest of downtown. Stores such as Wal-Mart and Lowe's opened in the plaza during the early 1990s; this proved to be too much competition for the small family-owned businesses in downtown causing them to close. Today, downtown serves as Paintsville's financial district. In May 2009 Paintsville received a grant to redevelop Main Street in hopes of making it one of the city's popular shopping districts again. In recent years, Mayo Plaza has expanded. In the early 2000s, a new Wal-Mart Supercenter, a new Lowe's, multiple restaurants opened. Paintsville has a humid subtropical climate.
Summers are humid with frequent severe storms. July is the warmest month, with an average high 86 °F and an average low of 66 °F. Winters are cold with occasional mild periods. January is the coldest month with an average high of 44 °F and an average low of 24 °F; the highest recorded temperature was 105 °F in 1988 and the lowest recorded temperature was -26 °F in 1994. May has the highest average rainfall and October has the lowest average rainfall; as of the census of 2010, there were 3,459 people, 1,604 households, 856 families residing in the city. The population density was 1300.1 people per square mile. There were 1,844 housing units at an average density of 693.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 99.3% White, 0.3% African American, 0.8% Native American, 0.4% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 0.2% from other races. Hispanic or Latino people of any race were 0.4% of the population. In the city, the population was spread out with 20.5% under 19, 6.1% from 20 to 24, 11.0% from 25 to 34, 11.9% from 35 to 44, 15.1% from 45 to 54, 14.4% from 55 to 64, 21.1% who were 65 or older.
The median age is 41.9 years. There were 1,885 females; the median income for a household in the city was $25,259, the median income for a family was $30,575. Males had a median income of $30,478 versus $25,640 for females; the per capita income for the city was $15,876. About 21.0% of families and 29.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 39.9% of those under age 18 and 22.0% of those age 65 or over. In 2009, the following crime rate was reported to the Federal Bureau of Investigation by the city police department: Five people died in a 2018 shooting spree. Paintsville has a mayor-council form of government. Paintsville's current mayor/city executive is Bill Mike Runyon, appointed in 2016. Former mayors: The representative body of the city of Paintsville is the city council; the council members include Sara Blair, Tim Hall, Tommy Trimble, Jim Meek, David Trimble, Shawn Thompson. The city mayor oversees the following departments: Community Planning and Zoning Services Finance Human Resources Police Public Works Parks and Recreation Tourism Fire/EMS The Paintsville Independent School District includes Paintsville High School and Paintsville Elementary School.
Paintsville Independent has had college attendance rates between 95% to 100% since 2008. In 2012, the district had a composite ACT score of 22.7. It was the 4th highest composite ACT score out of
CMT (U.S. TV channel)
CMT launched as CMTV, is an American pay television channel, owned by Viacom. Its name is an initialism for "Country Music Television", it was the first nationally available channel devoted to country country music videos. Programming on the channel focused on country music. CMT's current programming now consists of original reality programs and scripted series, off-network syndicated shows, theatrically-released movies; as of January 2018 92 million U. S. homes receive CMT. The channel's headquarters are located in One Astor Plaza in New York City, has additional offices in Nashville, Tennessee. CMTV, an initialism of Country Music Television, was founded by Glenn D. Daniels, the owner of Video World Productions in Hendersonville, Tennessee. Daniels put together the ownership group of Telestar Corporation and the Blinder Robinson & Company investment bank in a three-way split. Daniels served as the program director and the first president of the network; the network launched on March 5, 1983, at 6:19 p.m. CT, beating its chief competitor, TNN, to air by two days.
The first video clip to air on CMT was Faron Young's 1971 hit "It's Four in the Morning". The following summer, MTV filed a trademark infringement lawsuit over the initials CMTV, the network changed its name to CMT. In 1991, Opryland USA and its owner Gaylord Entertainment Company acquired CMT in a $34 million deal; the network was sold by a group led by radio station owner Robert Sillerman, record producer James Guercio and Nyhl L Henson. Opryland USA and owner Gaylord owned CMT's competitor The Nashville Network. In October 1992, CMT launched its first international channel, CMT Europe, as part of the Sky Multichannels package. By 1998, Gaylord reported $10 million in losses from CMT Europe and decided to cease broadcasting the declining network on March 31, 1998. Gaylord had planned to emulate the successful model created by E!, by selling large programming blocks to other European channels, but these plans never occurred. In 1994, Gaylord made its first major format change for CMT by adding several new programs, including Big Ticket, Jammin' Country, CMT Signature Series, The CMT Delivery Room, CMT Saturday Nite Dance Ranch, CMT Top 12 Countdown.
All shows were cancelled by 2001. In 1995, CMT dropped all videos by Canadian artists without U. S. record contracts in response to the network being replaced in Canada by Calgary, Alberta-based New Country Network. By March 1996, CMT had returned the dropped videos to its playlist after reaching an agreement to acquire a 20% ownership of New Country Network, in addition to renaming it CMT. In 1997, both CMT and TNN were sold to then-owner of CBS for a reported $1.5 billion. The acquisition of the two country-themed networks, along with the formation of the ill-fated CBS Eye on People network, two regional sports networks formed the CBS Cable division, based in Nashville at the Grand Ole Opry and a Charlotte office at Lowe's Motor Speedway. In 1999, Viacom acquired CBS, assuming ownership of CMT and TNN and folding them into the MTV Networks stable; the resulting moves in 2000 led to the closing of the CBS Charlotte office, while Viacom moved TNN's operations from Nashville to its own headquarters in New York City and changed its format renaming it The National Network and reformatting it again as Spike.
CMT experienced a migration of its mainline operations from Nashville to New York, experienced a format change. Over time, the number of music videos on the network had decreased with the late May 2006 rebranding of VH1 Country to CMT Pure Country, with music video programming on CMT being relegated to the overnight and morning hours. On January 3, 2006, the original Viacom split into two different companies: One being the legal successor to Viacom, CBS Corporation, the other being the'new' Viacom, with CMT, Spike TV and the MTV family of networks being part of the latter company. Despite the decrease in music videos, CMT has experienced significant ratings gains since its acquisition by MTV Networks in 1999. By 2007, the channel was available in more than 83 million homes; as of 2009, the network now reaches 88 million homes. On April 4, 2012, CMT announced its first cartoon series, Bounty Hunters, featuring the voices of Jeff Foxworthy, Larry the Cable Guy and Bill Engvall who serve as executive producers.
CMT announced that it would air Trinity 911, a 10-episode "workplace docu-comedy" that follows the police force in a small Texas town. Trinity 911 was renamed Big Texas Heat and removed from the schedule after airing four episodes. On June 10, 2016, CMT announced that they would pick up the primetime network series Nashville after ABC's cancellation of the series, renewed the series for a fifth full season of 22 episodes. In 2017, when the network announced a transition into an unscripted programming-oriented schedule, Nashville's sixth season would be its last; as part of its shift back to unscripted progra
Wabash is a city in Noble Township, Wabash County, in the U. S. state of Indiana. The population was 10,666 at the 2010 census; the city is the county seat of Wabash County. Wabash is notable as claiming to be the first electrically lighted city in the world, inaugurated on March 31, 1880. However, closer inspection of the reference shows only the court, it is home to the historic Eagles Theatre, Paradise Spring Treaty Grounds, the Wabash and Erie Canal, Presbyterian Church, Disciples of Christ Christian Church. A B&K Rootbeer franchise sits atop the man made geographic cut directly south of the Wabash river, attracts locals to its traditional car-side service. Wabash is located at 40°48′3″N 85°49′38″W. According to the 2010 census, Wabash has a total area of 9.128 square miles, of which 8.89 square miles is land and 0.238 square miles is water. The town of Wabash was platted in the spring of 1834 by Col. David Burr; the name Wabash derives from a Miami-Illinois term for "water over white stones."
The Wabash post office has been in operation since 1839. The Miami name reflected the clarity of the river in Huntington County, Indiana where the river bottom is limestone. Wabash used a new type of carbon arc light invented by Charles Brush in 1870. On March 31, 1880, four 3,000-candle power lamps were suspended from the top of the courthouse. Two telegraph wires ran from the lamps to the courthouse basement, where they were connected to a threshing machine to provide power The James M. Amoss Building, Downtown Wabash Historic District, East Wabash Historic District, First Christian Church, Honeywell Memorial Community Center, Honeywell Studio, McNamee-Ford House, North Wabash Historic District, West Wabash Historic District, Solomon Wilson Building are listed on the National Register of Historic Places; the Wabash Free Trader was published in Wabash from 1871-1876. The Wabash Weekly Courier was published from 1876 until 1887; as of the census of 2010, there were 10,666 people, 4,465 households, 2,805 families residing in the city.
The population density was 1,199.8 inhabitants per square mile. There were 5,068 housing units at an average density of 570.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 96.3% White, 0.4% African American, 1.0% Native American, 0.5% Asian, 0.6% from other races, 1.2% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.0% of the population. There were 4,465 households of which 29.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 45.7% were married couples living together, 12.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 4.7% had a male householder with no wife present, 37.2% were non-families. 32.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.31 and the average family size was 2.88. The median age in the city was 41.3 years. 22.5% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 47.2% male and 52.8% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 11,743 people, 4,799 households, 3,100 families residing in the city.
The population density was 1,319.0 people per square mile. There were 5,136 housing units at an average density of 576.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 96.85% White, 0.37% African American, 1.06% Native American, 0.51% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 0.41% from other races, 0.77% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.46% of the population. There were 4,799 households out of which 29.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 49.6% were married couples living together, 11.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 35.4% were non-families. 30.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.36 and the average family size was 2.95. In the city, the population was spread out with 24.3% under the age of 18, 9.0% from 18 to 24, 27.4% from 25 to 44, 22.9% from 45 to 64, 16.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females, there were 91.0 males.
For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 87.3 males. The median income for a household in the city was $12,000, the median income for a family was $14000. Males had a median income of $18000 versus $12,000 for females; the per capita income for the city was $18,210. About 7.9% of families and 9.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 12.5% of those under age 18 and 8.8% of those age 65 or over. The town has the Wabash Carnegie Public Library. Loren M. Berry – pioneer of Yellow Pages telephone directory Dr. Rick Brandenburg – entomologist John W. Corso – art director and production designer John P. Costas - telecommunications engineer, noted for Costas loop Jimmy Daywalt – race car driver Charles Dingle - actor Gus Dorais – football player and coach of football and baseball Charles Franklin Hildebrand – journalist Crystal Gayle - country singer Mark Honeywell – founder of Honeywell Corporation and Honeywell Center Howard A. Howe - polio researcher Bobby Jones – National Football League guard Joaquin Miller- poet and frontiersman George Mullin - Major League Baseball player, nicknamed "Wabash George" Keith O'Conner Murphy - Rockabilly Hall of Fame singer and songwriter Margie Stewart - U.
S. Army poster girl during World War II The Ford Meter Box Company, prominent manufacturer headquartered in Wabash City of Wabash, Indiana website
Jazz is a music genre that originated in the African-American communities of New Orleans, United States, in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, developed from roots in blues and ragtime. Jazz is seen by many as "America's classical music". Since the 1920s Jazz Age, jazz has become recognized as a major form of musical expression, it emerged in the form of independent traditional and popular musical styles, all linked by the common bonds of African-American and European-American musical parentage with a performance orientation. Jazz is characterized by swing and blue notes and response vocals and improvisation. Jazz has roots in West African cultural and musical expression, in African-American music traditions including blues and ragtime, as well as European military band music. Intellectuals around the world have hailed jazz as "one of America's original art forms"; as jazz spread around the world, it drew on national and local musical cultures, which gave rise to different styles. New Orleans jazz began in the early 1910s, combining earlier brass-band marches, French quadrilles, biguine and blues with collective polyphonic improvisation.
In the 1930s arranged dance-oriented swing big bands, Kansas City jazz, a hard-swinging, improvisational style and Gypsy jazz were the prominent styles. Bebop emerged in the 1940s, shifting jazz from danceable popular music toward a more challenging "musician's music", played at faster tempos and used more chord-based improvisation. Cool jazz developed near the end of the 1940s, introducing calmer, smoother sounds and long, linear melodic lines; the 1950s saw the emergence of free jazz, which explored playing without regular meter and formal structures, in the mid-1950s, hard bop emerged, which introduced influences from rhythm and blues and blues in the saxophone and piano playing. Modal jazz developed in the late 1950s, using the mode, or musical scale, as the basis of musical structure and improvisation. Jazz-rock fusion appeared in the late 1960s and early 1970s, combining jazz improvisation with rock music's rhythms, electric instruments, amplified stage sound. In the early 1980s, a commercial form of jazz fusion called smooth jazz became successful, garnering significant radio airplay.
Other styles and genres abound in the 2000s, such as Afro-Cuban jazz. The origin of the word "jazz" has resulted in considerable research, its history is well documented, it is believed to be related to "jasm", a slang term dating back to 1860 meaning "pep, energy". The earliest written record of the word is in a 1912 article in the Los Angeles Times in which a minor league baseball pitcher described a pitch which he called a "jazz ball" "because it wobbles and you can't do anything with it"; the use of the word in a musical context was documented as early as 1915 in the Chicago Daily Tribune. Its first documented use in a musical context in New Orleans was in a November 14, 1916 Times-Picayune article about "jas bands". In an interview with NPR, musician Eubie Blake offered his recollections of the slang connotations of the term, saying, "When Broadway picked it up, they called it'J-A-Z-Z', it wasn't called that. It was spelled'J-A-S-S'; that was dirty, if you knew what it was, you wouldn't say it in front of ladies."
The American Dialect Society named it the Word of the Twentieth Century. Jazz is difficult to define because it encompasses a wide range of music spanning a period of over 100 years, from ragtime to the rock-infused fusion. Attempts have been made to define jazz from the perspective of other musical traditions, such as European music history or African music, but critic Joachim-Ernst Berendt argues that its terms of reference and its definition should be broader, defining jazz as a "form of art music which originated in the United States through the confrontation of the Negro with European music" and arguing that it differs from European music in that jazz has a "special relationship to time defined as'swing'". Jazz involves "a spontaneity and vitality of musical production in which improvisation plays a role" and contains a "sonority and manner of phrasing which mirror the individuality of the performing jazz musician". In the opinion of Robert Christgau, "most of us would say that inventing meaning while letting loose is the essence and promise of jazz".
A broader definition that encompasses different eras of jazz has been proposed by Travis Jackson: "it is music that includes qualities such as swing, group interaction, developing an'individual voice', being open to different musical possibilities". Krin Gibbard argued that "jazz is a construct" which designates "a number of musics with enough in common to be understood as part of a coherent tradition". In contrast to commentators who have argued for excluding types of jazz, musicians are sometimes reluctant to define the music they play. Duke Ellington, one of jazz's most famous figures, said, "It's all music." Although jazz is considered difficult to define, in part because it contains many subgenres, improvisation is one of its defining elements. The centrality of improvisation is attributed to the influence of earlier forms of music such as blues, a form of folk music which arose in part from the work songs and field hollers of African-American slaves on plantations; these work songs were structured around a repetitive call-and-response pattern, but early blues was improvisational.
Classical music performance is evaluated more by its fidelity to the musical score, with less attention given to interpretation and accompaniment. The classical performer's goal is to play the composition. In contrast, jazz is characterized by the product of i