Cold-water geysers have eruptions similar to those of hot-water geysers, except that CO2-bubbles drive the eruption instead of steam from the proximity to magma. In cold-water geysers, CO2-laden water lies in a confined aquifer, in which water and CO2 are trapped by less permeable overlying strata; this water and CO2 can escape this strata only in weak regions like faults, joints, or drilled wells. A drilled borehole provides an escape for CO2 to reach the surface; the magnitude and frequency of such eruptions depend on various factors such as plumbing depth, CO2 concentrations, aquifer yield etc. The column of water exerts enough pressure on the gaseous CO2 so that it remains in the water in small bubbles; when the pressure decreases due to formation of a fissure, the CO2 bubbles expand. This expansion causes the eruption. Cold-water geysers may look quite similar to their steam-driven counterparts; the best known of these are Saratoga Springs, New York, or Crystal Geyser, near Green River, Utah.
There are three cold-water geysers in Germany, named Wallender Born, Wehr Geyser and Andernach Geyser. Glennon, J. A.. Carbon Dioxide-Driven, Cold Water Geysers, University of California, Santa Barbara. Posted February 12, 2004, last update 6 May 2005. Accessed 8 June 2007. Glennon, J. A. Pfaff, R. M.. The operation and geography of carbon-dioxide-driven, cold-water geysers, GOSA Transactions, vol. 9, pp. 184–192. Cold-Water Geysers by Alan Glennon
Soda Springs, Idaho
Soda Springs is a city in Caribou County, United States. Its population was 3,058 at the 2010 census; the city has been the county seat of Caribou County since the county was organized in 1919. In the 1860s, Soda Springs served as the seat of Oneida County; the city is named for the hundreds of natural springs of carbonated water that are located in and around the city. The springs were well known to Native Americans and were a famous landmark along the Oregon Trail in the middle 19th century. Today the city is known as the location of the Soda Springs Geyser, unleashed in 1934 when "town fathers" were looking for hot water for a "hot pool" bathing attraction. Instead they drilled into a chamber of pressurized carbon dioxide gas and cold water and the geyser was released. After running for weeks, flooding the downtown area, it was capped and manually released when requested as a tourist attraction. Now it is let loose every hour on the hour by a timed release valve, its height and volume have not decreased after many years.
There are viewing platforms at either end of the travertine mound. Interpretive signs are located on the platforms explaining this phenomenon. Soda Springs is the location of one of the Ground Observer Corps sites. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 4.59 square miles, of which, 4.54 square miles is land and 0.05 square miles is water. Soda Springs experiences a continental climate with long, snowy winters and warm summers; as of the census of 2010, there were 3,058 people, 1,204 households, 830 families residing in the city. The population density was 673.6 inhabitants per square mile. There were 1,393 housing units at an average density of 306.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 96.4% White, 0.1% African American, 0.3% Native American, 0.3% Asian, 0.4% Pacific Islander, 1.4% from other races, 1.2% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino people of any race were 3.4% of the population. There were 1,204 households of which 33.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 56.9% were married couples living together, 8.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 3.7% had a male householder with no wife present, 31.1% were non-families.
28.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.47 and the average family size was 3.03. The median age in the city was 37.8 years. 27.4% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 49.7% male and 50.3% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 3,381 people, 1,210 households, 905 families residing in the city; the population density was 747.1 people per square mile. There were 1,505 housing units at an average density of 332.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 96.63% White, 0.03% African American, 0.09% Native American, 0.15% Asian, 0.21% Pacific Islander, 1.18% from other races, 1.72% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino people of any race were 2.90% of the population. There were 1,210 households out of which 40.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 66.1% were married couples living together, 6.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 25.2% were non-families.
22.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.74 and the average family size was 3.24. In the city, the population was spread out with 30.8% under the age of 18, 9.5% from 18 to 24, 26.0% from 25 to 44, 20.1% from 45 to 64, 13.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females, there were 95.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 97.3 males. The median income for a household in the city was $40,690, the median income for a family was $46,152. Males had a median income of $41,979 versus $21,250 for females; the per capita income for the city was $15,729. About 7.0% of families and 9.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 8.5% of those under age 18 and 8.7% of those age 65 or over. Vic Baltzell, former National Football League fullback Reed Budge, Idaho legislator Crystal Geyser List of geysers Soda Springs Chamber of Commerce website City of Soda Springs portal
Geographic coordinate system
A geographic coordinate system is a coordinate system that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols. The coordinates are chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position and two or three of the numbers represent a horizontal position. A common choice of coordinates is latitude and elevation. To specify a location on a plane requires a map projection; the invention of a geographic coordinate system is credited to Eratosthenes of Cyrene, who composed his now-lost Geography at the Library of Alexandria in the 3rd century BC. A century Hipparchus of Nicaea improved on this system by determining latitude from stellar measurements rather than solar altitude and determining longitude by timings of lunar eclipses, rather than dead reckoning. In the 1st or 2nd century, Marinus of Tyre compiled an extensive gazetteer and mathematically-plotted world map using coordinates measured east from a prime meridian at the westernmost known land, designated the Fortunate Isles, off the coast of western Africa around the Canary or Cape Verde Islands, measured north or south of the island of Rhodes off Asia Minor.
Ptolemy credited him with the full adoption of longitude and latitude, rather than measuring latitude in terms of the length of the midsummer day. Ptolemy's 2nd-century Geography used the same prime meridian but measured latitude from the Equator instead. After their work was translated into Arabic in the 9th century, Al-Khwārizmī's Book of the Description of the Earth corrected Marinus' and Ptolemy's errors regarding the length of the Mediterranean Sea, causing medieval Arabic cartography to use a prime meridian around 10° east of Ptolemy's line. Mathematical cartography resumed in Europe following Maximus Planudes' recovery of Ptolemy's text a little before 1300. In 1884, the United States hosted the International Meridian Conference, attended by representatives from twenty-five nations. Twenty-two of them agreed to adopt the longitude of the Royal Observatory in Greenwich, England as the zero-reference line; the Dominican Republic voted against the motion, while Brazil abstained. France adopted Greenwich Mean Time in place of local determinations by the Paris Observatory in 1911.
In order to be unambiguous about the direction of "vertical" and the "horizontal" surface above which they are measuring, map-makers choose a reference ellipsoid with a given origin and orientation that best fits their need for the area they are mapping. They choose the most appropriate mapping of the spherical coordinate system onto that ellipsoid, called a terrestrial reference system or geodetic datum. Datums may be global, meaning that they represent the whole Earth, or they may be local, meaning that they represent an ellipsoid best-fit to only a portion of the Earth. Points on the Earth's surface move relative to each other due to continental plate motion and diurnal Earth tidal movement caused by the Moon and the Sun; this daily movement can be as much as a metre. Continental movement can be up to 10 m in a century. A weather system high-pressure area can cause a sinking of 5 mm. Scandinavia is rising by 1 cm a year as a result of the melting of the ice sheets of the last ice age, but neighbouring Scotland is rising by only 0.2 cm.
These changes are insignificant if a local datum is used, but are statistically significant if a global datum is used. Examples of global datums include World Geodetic System, the default datum used for the Global Positioning System, the International Terrestrial Reference Frame, used for estimating continental drift and crustal deformation; the distance to Earth's center can be used both for deep positions and for positions in space. Local datums chosen by a national cartographical organisation include the North American Datum, the European ED50, the British OSGB36. Given a location, the datum provides the latitude ϕ and longitude λ. In the United Kingdom there are three common latitude and height systems in use. WGS 84 differs at Greenwich from the one used on published maps OSGB36 by 112 m; the military system ED50, used by NATO, differs from about 120 m to 180 m. The latitude and longitude on a map made against a local datum may not be the same as one obtained from a GPS receiver. Coordinates from the mapping system can sometimes be changed into another datum using a simple translation.
For example, to convert from ETRF89 to the Irish Grid add 49 metres to the east, subtract 23.4 metres from the north. More one datum is changed into any other datum using a process called Helmert transformations; this involves converting the spherical coordinates into Cartesian coordinates and applying a seven parameter transformation, converting back. In popular GIS software, data projected in latitude/longitude is represented as a Geographic Coordinate System. For example, data in latitude/longitude if the datum is the North American Datum of 1983 is denoted by'GCS North American 1983'; the "latitude" of a point on Earth's surface is the angle between the equatorial plane and the straight line that passes through that point and through the center of the Earth. Lines joining points of the same latitude trace circles on the surface of Earth called parallels, as they are parallel to the Equator and to each other; the North Pole is 90° N. The 0° parallel of latitude is designated the Equator, the fun
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Powell Geographic Expedition of 1869
The Powell Geographic Expedition of 1869, led by American naturalist John Wesley Powell, was the first thorough cartographic and scientific investigation of long segments of the Green and Colorado rivers in the southwestern United States, including the first recorded passage of white men through the entirety of the Grand Canyon. The expedition, which lasted three months during the summer of 1869, embarked from Green River Station, Wyoming Territory and traveled downstream through parts of the present-day states of Colorado and Arizona before reaching the confluence of the Colorado and Virgin rivers in present-day Nevada. Despite a series of hardships, including losses of boats and supplies, near-drownings, the eventual departures of several crew members, the voyage produced the first detailed descriptions of much of the unexplored canyon country of the Colorado Plateau. Powell retraced part of the 1869 route on a second expedition in the winter of 1871–72. In 1875, he published a classic account of the first expedition called Report on the Exploration of the Colorado River of the West and Its Tributaries, revised and reissued in 1895 as The Exploration of the Colorado River and Its Canyons.
Powell had spent much of his youth rafting the Mississippi River and its tributaries in the Upper Midwest. A Union major during the American Civil War, he lost his right arm to amputation in 1862 after he was hit by an unspent mini ball at the Battle of Shiloh. Prior to coming west, Powell had been a professor of geology at the Illinois State Normal School and a curator of the Illinois Museum of Natural History; the expedition set out from Green River Station on May 24, 1869, with a company of ten men including Powell. Green River Station's convenient location on the Transcontinental Railroad, completed in Utah Territory just two weeks earlier, allowed Powell to ship the expedition's four boats directly from Chicago to the launching point; the company included Powell's brother Walter, as well as a group of seasoned mountain men and war veterans that Powell had recruited on his way to Wyoming. The complete roster included: John Wesley Powell Walter H. Powell, a captain in the Civil War and John's brother John C.
Sumner, a professional guide and outfitter who had guided Powell, his wife, his students through the Rocky Mountains on previous trips to the West Oramel G. Howland, a printer and hunter Seneca Howland, a mountain man and Oramel's brother William H. Dunn, a hunter and trapper from Colorado William "Billy" Robert Wesley Hawkins, a mountain man, possible ex-fugitive, the expedition's cook Frank Goodman, an Englishman and skilled boat handler who had come west looking for adventure Andrew Hall, a 19-year-old mule driver whose skills as an oarsman impressed Powell George Y. Bradley, a soldier at Fort Bridger who agreed to accompany Powell in exchange for a discharge from the United States Army that Powell arrangedAll of the expedition members had considerable wilderness know-how, seven were veterans of the Civil War, all of whom had fought for the Union. None of them, had any significant whitewater experience on the rivers of the West. Only four of the men were paid for their participation. Powell purchased four modified, round-bottomed Whitehall rowboats for the expedition.
The three "freight boats" - the Maid of the Cañon, the Kitty Clyde's Sister, the No Name - were identical in design: twenty-one feet long and four feet wide, built of sturdy but heavy oak, with a decked-over bulkhead at each end for storage space. Nearly seven thousand pounds of food and supplies, enough to last ten months, were divided between these three boats; the fourth boat, the Emma Dean, was lighter, only sixteen feet long and built of pine. This was Powell's personal boat, was rigged with a strap that Powell could clutch with his left hand to keep his balance while standing on deck; each boat would be rowed by two oarsmen, with only Powell and Oramel Howland, the expedition's official mapmaker, excused from rowing duties. Early on the Green River, the Powell Expedition lost one of their large freight boats, the No Name, at a rapids they named Disaster Falls, washing up on Disaster Island. No one was killed, but many crucial supplies were lost, including all of the expedition's barometers.
Powell and his men managed to recover some of the barometers - they were the only means Powell had at his disposal to determine altitude. Knowing the altitude was essential for producing good maps, it allowed Powell to estimate how much vertical drop remained before the journey's endpoint, which had a known elevation; the Powell expedition named many of the landmarks and geological features along the Green and Colorado rivers, including the Flaming Gorge, the Gates of Lodore, Glen Canyon. Of the ten men that started out from Green River Station, six completed the entire journey. Frank Goodman left the expedition on July 6 during the resupply at the Uinta River Indian Agency, claiming he’d had more than enough adventure, he lived for some years with the Paiutes of eastern Utah. He settled in Vernal, where he married and raised a family; the other three adventurers to leave the expedition fared worse. On August 28, just two days from the expedition's intended destination at the mouth of the Virgin River, Oramel Howland, his brother Seneca, Bill Dunn left the company, fearing they could not survive the dangers of the river much longer.
They were never seen again. H
Utah is a state in the western United States. It became the 45th state admitted to the U. S. on January 4, 1896. Utah is the 13th-largest by area, 31st-most-populous, 10th-least-densely populated of the 50 United States. Utah has a population of more than 3 million according to the Census estimate for July 1, 2016. Urban development is concentrated in two areas: the Wasatch Front in the north-central part of the state, which contains 2.5 million people. Utah is bordered by Colorado to the east, Wyoming to the northeast, Idaho to the north, Arizona to the south, Nevada to the west, it touches a corner of New Mexico in the southeast. 62% of Utahns are reported to be members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, making Utah the only state with a majority population belonging to a single church. This influences Utahn culture and daily life; the LDS Church's world headquarters is located in Salt Lake City. The state is a center of transportation, information technology and research, government services, a major tourist destination for outdoor recreation.
In 2013, the U. S. Census Bureau estimated. St. George was the fastest-growing metropolitan area in the United States from 2000 to 2005. Utah has the 14th highest median average income and the least income inequality of any U. S. state. A 2012 Gallup national survey found Utah overall to be the "best state to live in" based on 13 forward-looking measurements including various economic and health-related outlook metrics. A common folk etymology is that the name "Utah" is derived from the name of the Ute tribe, purported to mean "people of the mountains" in the Ute language. However, the word for people in Ute is'núuchiu' while the word for mountain is'káav', offering no linguistic connection to the words'Ute' or'Utah'. According to other sources "Utah" is derived from the Apache name "yuttahih" which means "One, Higher up" or "Those that are higher up". In the Spanish language it was said as "Yuta", subsequently the English-speaking people adapted the word "Utah". Thousands of years before the arrival of European explorers, the Ancestral Puebloans and the Fremont people lived in what is now known as Utah, some of which spoke languages of the Uto-Aztecan group.
Ancestral Pueblo peoples built their homes through excavations in mountains, the Fremont people built houses of straw before disappearing from the region around the 15th century. Another group of Native Americans, the Navajo, settled in the region around the 18th century. In the mid-18th century, other Uto-Aztecan tribes, including the Goshute, the Paiute, the Shoshone, the Ute people settled in the region; these five groups were present. The southern Utah region was explored by the Spanish in 1540, led by Francisco Vásquez de Coronado, while looking for the legendary Cíbola. A group led by two Catholic priests—sometimes called the Dominguez-Escalante Expedition—left Santa Fe in 1776, hoping to find a route to the coast of California; the expedition encountered the native residents. The Spanish made further explorations in the region, but were not interested in colonizing the area because of its desert nature. In 1821, the year Mexico achieved its independence from Spain, the region became known as part of its territory of Alta California.
European trappers and fur traders explored some areas of Utah in the early 19th century from Canada and the United States. The city of Provo, Utah was named for one, Étienne Provost, who visited the area in 1825; the city of Ogden, Utah was named after Peter Skene Ogden, a Canadian explorer who traded furs in the Weber Valley. In late 1824, Jim Bridger became the first known English-speaking person to sight the Great Salt Lake. Due to the high salinity of its waters, He thought. After the discovery of the lake, hundreds of American and Canadian traders and trappers established trading posts in the region. In the 1830s, thousands of migrants traveling from the Eastern United States to the American West began to make stops in the region of the Great Salt Lake known as Lake Youta. Following the death of Joseph Smith in 1844, Brigham Young, as president of the Quorum of the Twelve, became the effective leader of the LDS Church in Nauvoo, Illinois. To address the growing conflicts between his people and their neighbors, Young agreed with Illinois Governor Thomas Ford in October 1845 that the Mormons would leave by the following year.
Young and the first band of Mormon pioneers reached the Salt Lake Valley on July 24, 1847. Over the next 22 years, more than 70,000 pioneers settled in Utah. For the first few years, Brigham Young and the thousands of early settlers of Salt Lake City struggled to survive; the arid desert land was deemed by the Mormons as desirable as a place where they could practice their religion without harassment. The Mormon settlements provided pioneers for other settlements in the West. Salt Lake City became the hub of a "far-flung commonwealth" of Mormon settlements. With new church converts coming from the East and around the world, Church leaders assigned groups of church members as missionaries to establish other settlements throughout the West, they developed irrigation to support large pioneer populations along Utah's Wasatch front. Throughout the remainder of the 19th century, Mormon pioneers established hundreds of other settlements in Utah, Id
Well drilling is the process of drilling a hole in the ground for the extraction of a natural resource such as ground water, natural gas, or petroleum, for the injection of a fluid from surface to a subsurface reservoir or for subsurface formations evaluation or monitoring. Drilling for the exploration of the nature of the material underground is best described as borehole drilling; the earliest wells were water wells, shallow pits dug by hand in regions where the water table approached the surface with masonry or wooden walls lining the interior to prevent collapse. Modern drilling techniques utilize long drill shafts, producing holes much narrower and deeper than could be produced by digging. Well drilling can be done either manually or mechanically and the nature of required equipment varies from simple and cheap to sophisticated. Managed Pressure Drilling is defined by the International Association of Drilling Contractors as “an adaptive drilling process used to more control the annular pressure profile throughout the wellbore."
The objectives of MPD are “to ascertain the downhole pressure environment limits and to manage the annular hydraulic pressure profile accordingly." The earliest record of well drilling dates from 347 AD in China. Petroleum was used in ancient China for "lighting, as a lubricant for cart axles and the bearings of water-powered drop hammers, as a source of carbon for inksticks, as a medical remedy for sores on humans and mange in animals." In ancient China, deep well drilling machines were in the forefront of brine well production by the 1st century BC. The ancient Chinese developed advanced sinking wells and were the first civilization to use a well-drilling machine and to use bamboo well casings to keep the holes open. In the modern era, the first roller cone patent was for the rotary rock bit and was issued to American businessman and inventor Howard Hughes Sr. in 1909. It consisted of two interlocking cones. American businessman Walter Benona Sharp worked closely with Hughes in developing the rock bit.
The success of this bit led to the founding of the Sharp-Hughes Tool Company. In 1933 two Hughes engineers, one of whom was Ralph Neuhaus, invented the tricone bit, which has three cones; the Hughes patent for the tricone bit lasted until 1951, after which other companies made similar bits. However, Hughes still held 40% of the world's drill bit market in 2000; the superior wear performance of PDC bits eroded the dominance of roller cone bits and early in this century PDC drill bit revenues overtook those of roller cone bits. The technology of both bit types has advanced to provide improved durability and rate of penetration of the rock; this has been driven by the economics of the industry, by the change from the empirical approach of Hughes in the 1930s, to modern day domain Finite Element codes for both the hydraulic and cutter placement software. The factors effecting drill bit selection include the type of geology and the capabilities of the rig. Due to the high number of wells that have been drilled, information from an adjacent well is most used to make the appropriate selection.
Two different types of drill bits exist: roller cone. A fixed cutter bit is one where there are no moving parts, but drilling occurs due to shearing, scraping or abrasion of the rock. Fixed cutter bits can be either polycrystalline diamond compact or grit hotpressed inserts or natural diamond. Roller cone bits can be either tungsten carbide inserts for harder formations or milled tooth for softer rock; the manufacturing process and composites used in each type of drill bit make them ideal for specific drilling situations. Additional enhancements can be made to any bit to increase the effectiveness for any drilling situation. A major factor in drill bit selection is the type of formation to be drilled; the effectiveness of a drill bit varies by formation type. There are three types of formations: soft and hard. A soft formation includes unconsolidated sands, soft limestones, red beds and shale. Medium formations include calcites, dolomites and hard shale. Hard formations include hard shale, mudstones, cherty lime stones and hard and abrasive formations.
Until 2006, market share was divided among Hughes Christensen, Security-DBS, Smith Bits, REEDHycalog. By 2014, Ulterra and Varel International had together gained nearly 30% of the U. S. bit market and eroded the historical dominance of the Smith and Baker Hughes. Evaluation of the dull bit grading is done by a uniform system promoted by the International Association of Drilling Contractors. See Society of Petroleum Engineers / IADC Papers SPE 23938 & 23940. See PDC Bits Blowout Borehole Deep well drilling Driller Drilling mud Drilling rig Underbalanced drilling Water wellManual well drilling methods Baptist well drilling Sludging Australian Drilling Industry Training Committee Ltd. Drilling: the manual of methods and management. ISBN 978-1-56670-242-3. Drilling Equipment Drilling a Well by Automobile, Popular Science monthly, February 1919, Page 115-116, Scanned by Google Books: https://books.google.com/books?id=7igDAAAAMBAJ&pg=PT33 Schlumberger Oilfield Glossary Oil and gas well drilling, US Department of Labor Water Well Drilling Ireland "Mechanical Mole Bores Crooked Wells."
Popular Science, June 1942, pp. 94–95 Engineering a new approach to fixed cutter bits