Salina Cruz is a major seaport on the Pacific coast of the Mexican state of Oaxaca. It is the municipal seat of the municipality of the same name, it is part of the Tehuantepec District in the west of the Istmo Region. The city had a 2005 census population of 71,314, while its municipality, with an area of 113.55 km2 had a population of 76,219, the state's fourth-largest municipality in population. The port was developed in the late 19th century due to its location at the southern terminus of the Ferrocarril Transístmico, which carried freight across the Isthmus of Tehuantepec. Salina Cruz is situated near the mouth of the Río Tehuantepec, on the open coast of the Isthmus of Tehuantepec on the Gulf of Tehuantepec, has no natural harbour. There was only a small Native village before Salina Cruz was chosen as the Pacific terminus of the Tehuantepec National Railway, whereupon a modern town was laid out and built on adjacent higher ground and an artificial harbour was built by the Mexican government to accommodate the expected traffic.
The new port was opened to traffic in 1907 and in 1909 its population was composed of labourers. The harbour was formed by the construction of two breakwaters, the western 3,260 ft and the eastern 1,900 ft long, which curve toward each other at their outer extremities and leave an entrance 635 ft wide; the enclosed space is divided into an outer and inner harbour by a double line of quays wide enough to carry six great warehouses with electric cranes on both sides and a number of railway tracks. Connected with the new port works was one of the then-largest dry docks in the world 610 ft long and 89 ft wide, with a depth of 28 ft on its sill at low water; the works were planned to handle an immense volume of transcontinental freight, before they were finished four steamship lines had arranged regular calls at Salina Cruz. As municipal seat, Salina Cruz has governing jurisdiction over the following communities: Agua Blanca, Boca del Río, Colonia el Bosque, Colonia el Mirador, Colonia Estibadores, Colonia Granadillo, Colonia la Brecha, Colonia Miramar, Colonia Santita, Colonia Vista Hermosa, El Ciruelo, El Puentecito, Ensenada de la Ventosa, La Brecha, La Hacienda, Las Escolleras, Palo Grande, Playa Azul, Playa Brasil, Salinas del Marqués, San Antonio Monterrey, San José del Palmar Salina Cruz experiences a tropical savanna climate.
This is because from November to March the precipitation is much smaller concentrated in summer similar to Asian monsoons, although it is not categorized as such. The seasons of the year can not be well demarcated better defined by the rainy season in the central months of the year. Although precipitation is 1122.3 mm on average, it is concentrated in the summer, with August averaging 330.7 mm and February at only 1.6 mm. It is not uncommon for temperatures to rise from 35 ° C at some times of the year in its coastal location; the winter is unknown and at times there is just something like the end of fall to early spring, the lower averages are above 21 ° C, moreover no temperature below 10 ° C has been recorded as in the Gulf of Mexico. High temperatures are present for much of the year; the hours of sunshine are always well above 200 hours a month, totaling 2670.6 in annual average, which shows a pleasant beach climate. Salina Cruz features as the focus for the novel Last Stop Salina Cruz by British novelist David Lalé.
The novel tells the story of a young man following in the footpaths of modernist legend Arthur Cravan across France, Spain, USA, Mexico and Salina Cruz. American-Hawaiian Steamship Company This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Salina Cruz". Encyclopædia Britannica. 24. Cambridge University Press. P. 71. Link to tables of population data from Census of 2005 INEGI: Instituto Nacional de Estadística, Geografía e Informática Oaxaca Enciclopedia de los Municipios de México Municipio de Salina Cruz Official website Info about Salina Cruz Regional website Page related to Salina Cruz History and folklore General Information Port of Salina Cruz Review of Last Stop Salina Cruz on The Independent Last Stop Salina Cruz on Amazon
Pedro de Alvarado
Pedro de Alvarado y Contreras was a Spanish conquistador and governor of Guatemala. He participated in the conquest of Cuba, in Juan de Grijalva's exploration of the coasts of the Yucatán Peninsula and the Gulf of Mexico, in the conquest of Mexico led by Hernán Cortés, he is considered the conquistador of much of Central America, including Guatemala, Honduras and El Salvador. Although renowned for his skill as a soldier, Alvarado is known for the cruelty of his treatment of native populations, mass murders committed in the subjugation of the native peoples of Mexico. Historiography portrays that indigenous people, both Nahuatl-speakers and speakers of other languages, called him Tonatiuh, meaning "sun" in the Nahuatl language, yet he was called "Red Sun" in Nahuatl, which allows a variety of interpretations. Whether this epithet refers to Alvarado's red hair, some esoteric quality attributed to him, or both, is disputed. Pedro de Alvarado was flamboyant and charismatic, was both a brilliant military commander and a cruel, hardened man.
His hair and beard were red, which earned him the name of Tonatiuh from the Aztecs, the name of one of their sun gods. He was handsome, presented an affable appearance, but was volatile and quick to anger, he was ruthless in his dealings with the indigenous peoples. Historians judge that his greed drove him to excessive cruelty, his Spanish contemporaries denounced his extreme brutality during his lifetime, he was a poor governor of territories he had conquered, restlessly sought out new adventures. His tactical brutality, such as the massacre in the Great Temple of Tenochtitlan undermined strategic considerations, he was accused of cruelty against fellow Spaniards. Alvarado was little suited to govern, his letters show no interest in civil matters, he only discussed exploration and war. Alvarado stubbornly resisted attempts by the Spanish Crown to establish ordered taxation in Guatemala, refused to acknowledge such attempts; as governor of Guatemala, Alvarado has been described by W. George Lovell et al. as "an insatiable despot who recognized no authority but his own and who regarded Guatemala as little more than his personal estate."American historian William H. Prescott described Alvarado's character in the following terms: Alvarado was a cavalier of high family and chivalrous, warm personal friend.
He had talents for action, was possessed of firmness and intrepidity, while his frank and dazzling manners made the Tonatiuh an especial favourite with the Mexicans. But, underneath this showy exterior, the future conqueror of Guatemala concealed a heart rash and cruel, he was altogether destitute of that moderation, which, in the delicate position he occupied, was a quality of more worth than all the rest. Spanish chronicler Antonio de Remesal commented that "Alvarado desired more to be feared than loved by his subjects, whether they were Indians or Spaniards." In his easy recourse to violence, Alvarado was a product of his time, Alvarado was not the only conquistador to have resorted to such actions. Hernán Cortés and Francisco Pizarro carried out deeds of similar cruelty, but have not attracted as much criticism as Alvarado. Pedro de Alvarado was born in 1485 in the town of Extremadura, his father was Gómez de Alvarado, his mother was Leonor de Contreras, Gómez's second wife. Pedro de Alvarado had a twin sister and four full-blood brothers, Gonzalo, Gómez, Juan.
Pedro had an illegitimate half brother named Juan, referred to in contemporary sources as Juan el Bastardo. Little is known of Pedro de Alvarado's early life before his arrival in the Americas. During the conquest of the Americas, tales of his youthful exploits in Spain became popular legends, but their veracity is doubtful. An example is the tale current that when he was a youth awaiting passage to the Americas, he climbed the church tower in Seville with some friends. A banner pole extended some 3.0 to 3.7 metres from an upper window. One of his companions walked out to the end of the pole after removing his cloak and sword, returned to the tower backwards. Alvarado, afraid of being mocked, walked out onto the pole with both sword and cloak, turned around at the end to return to the tower facing it. Alvarado's paternal grandfather was Juan Alvarado "el Viejo", comendador of Hornachos, his paternal grandmother was Catalina Messía. Pedro de Alvarado's uncle on his father's side was Diego de Alvarado y Messía, the comendador of Lobón, Montijo, alcalde of Montánchez, lord of Castellanos and of Cubillana.
Diego was a veteran of the campaigns against the Moors. Alvarado and his brothers crossed the Atlantic Ocean before 1511 in 1510. By 1511 a system of licenses had been established in Spain to control the flow of colonists to the New World; the only one of the Alvarado brothers that appears in the registers is Juan de Alvarado, in 1511, leading to the assumption that the rest were in the Americas by the time the licensing system was established. The Alvarado brothers stopped off at Hispaniola, but there are few mentions of their stay there in historical documents. Soon after arriving in Santo Domingo, on Hispaniola, Pedro de Alvarado established a friendship with Hernán Cortés, who at the time was serving as public scribe. Alvarado joined Cortés to participate in the conquest of Cuba, under the command of Diego de Velázquez; the conquest of Cuba was launched in 1511, Pedro de Alvarado was accompanied by his brothers. Soon after the
Lent is a solemn religious observance in the Christian liturgical calendar that begins on Ash Wednesday and ends six weeks before Easter Sunday. The purpose of Lent is the preparation of the believer for Easter through prayer, doing penance, mortifying the flesh, repentance of sins and denial of ego; this event is observed in the Anglican, Eastern Orthodox, Methodist, Oriental Orthodox and Roman Catholic Churches. Some Anabaptist and evangelical churches observe the Lenten season; the last week of Lent is Holy Week, starting with Palm Sunday. Following the New Testament story, Jesus' crucifixion is commemorated on Good Friday, at the beginning of the next week the joyful celebration of Easter Sunday recalls the Resurrection of Jesus Christ. In Lent, many Christians commit to fasting, as well as giving up certain luxuries in order to replicate the account of the sacrifice of Jesus Christ's journey into the desert for 40 days. Many Christians add a Lenten spiritual discipline, such as reading a daily devotional or praying through a Lenten calendar, to draw themselves near to God.
The Stations of the Cross, a devotional commemoration of Christ's carrying the Cross and of his execution, are observed. Many Roman Catholic and some Protestant churches remove flowers from their altars, while crucifixes, religious statues, other elaborate religious symbols are veiled in violet fabrics in solemn observance of the event. Throughout Christendom, some adherents mark the season with the traditional abstention from the consumption of meat, most notably among Lutherans, Roman Catholics and Anglicans. Lent is traditionally described as lasting for 40 days, in commemoration of the 40 days Jesus spent fasting in the desert, according to the Gospels of Matthew and Luke, before beginning his public ministry, during which he endured temptation by Satan. Depending on the Christian denomination and local custom, Lent ends either on the evening of Maundy Thursday, or at sundown on Holy Saturday, when the Easter Vigil is celebrated. Regardless, Lenten practices are properly maintained until the evening of Holy Saturday.
The English word Lent is a shortened form of the Old English word lencten, meaning "spring season", as its Dutch language cognate lente still does today. A dated term in German, Lenz, is related. According to the Oxford English Dictionary,'the shorter form seems to be a derivative of *laŋgo- long... and may have reference to the lengthening of the days as characterizing the season of spring'. The origin of the -en element is less clear: it may be a suffix, or lencten may have been a compound of *laŋgo-'long' and an otherwise little-attested word *-tino, meaning'day'. In languages spoken where Christianity was earlier established, such as Greek and Latin, the term signifies the period dating from the 40th day before Easter. In modern Greek the term is Σαρακοστή, derived from the earlier Τεσσαρακοστή, meaning "fortieth"; the corresponding word in Latin, quadragesima, is the origin of the term used in Latin-derived languages and in some others: for example, Croatian korizma, French carême, Irish carghas, Italian quaresima, Portuguese quaresma, Albanian kreshma, Romanian păresimi, Spanish cuaresma, Basque garizuma, Galician coresma, Welsh crawys.
In other languages, the name used refers to the activity associated with the season. Thus it is called "fasting period" in Czech and Norwegian, it is called "great fast" in Polish and Russian; the terms used in Filipino are Mahál na Araw. Various Christian denominations calculate the 40 days of Lent differently; the way they observe Lent differs. In the Roman Rite since 1970, Lent finishes on Holy Thursday Evening; this comprises a period of 44 days. The Lenten fast excludes Sundays and continues through Good Friday and Holy Saturday, totaling 40 days. In the Ambrosian Rite, Lent begins on the Sunday that follows what is celebrated as Ash Wednesday in the rest of the Latin Catholic Church, ends as in the Roman Rite, thus being of 40 days, counting the Sundays but not Holy Thursday; the day for beginning the Lenten fast is the first weekday in Lent. The special Ash Wednesday fast is transferred to the first Friday of the Ambrosian Lent; until this rite was revised by Saint Charles Borromeo the liturgy of the First Sunday of Lent was festive, celebrated in white vestments with chanting of the Gloria in Excelsis and Alleluia, in line with the recommendation in Matthew 6:16, "When you fast, do not look gloomy".
The period of Lent observed in the Eastern Catholic Churches corresponds to that in other churches of Eastern Christianity that have similar traditions. In Protestant and Western Orthodox Churches, the season of Lent lasts from Ash Wednesday to the evening of Holy Saturday; this calculation makes Lent last 46 days if the 6 Sundays are included, but only 40 days if they are excluded. This definition is still that of the Anglican Church, Lutheran Church, Methodist Church, Western Rite Orthodox Church. In the Byzantine Rite, i.e. the Eastern Orthodox Great Lent is the most important fasting season in the church year. The 40 days of Great Lent includes Sundays, begins on Clean Monday and are immediatel
Manzanillo is a city, seat of Manzanillo Municipality, in the Mexican state of Colima. The city, located on the Pacific Ocean, contains Mexico's busiest port, responsible for handling Pacific cargo for the Mexico City area, it is the largest producing municipality for the business tourism in the state of Colima. The city is known as the "sailfish capital of the world". Since 1957, it has hosted important national and international fishing competitions, such as the Dorsey Tournament, making it a attractive fishing destination. Manzanillo has become one of the country's most important tourist resorts, its excellent hotels and restaurants continue to meet the demands of both national and international tourism. 16th centuryIn 1522, Gonzalo de Sandoval, under orders from conquistador Hernan Cortes, dropped anchor in the Bay of Salagua, looking for safe harbors and good shipbuilding sites. In the year before he left, Sandoval granted an audience to local Indian chieftains in a small cove, which today carries the name Playa de La Audiencia.
A great part of his fleet, which left to conquer the Philippines, was constructed in Salagua. Manzanillo Bay was discovered in 1527 by navigator Alvaro de Saavedra, naming it Santiago de la Buena Esperanza, or Santiago's Bay of Good Hope. Manzanillo was the third port created by the Spanish in the Viceroyalty of New Spain, it became a departure point for important expeditions. Cortes visited the bay twice to protect his galleons from Portuguese pirates. Over the next 300 years, the Pacific Coast’s history is filled with accounts of pirates from Portugal, England and Spain assaulting and burning ships for their rich cargos. 19th centuryIn 1825 the Port of Manzanillo opened, in independent Mexico, so named because of the abundant groves of native Manzanilla trees that were used extensively in the early days of shipbuilding. Manzanillo was raised to the status of a city on 15 June 1873; the railroad to Colima was completed in 1889. 20th centuryIn 1908, President Porfirio Diaz designated Manzanillo as an official port of entry to Mexico.
It was the state capital of Colima from 20 February to 1 March 1915, while Pancho Villa’s troops were threatening to capture the city of Colima. In the 2005 census, the city of Manzanillo had a population of 110,728 and in 2010 its municipality had 161,420, it is the second-largest community in the state, after the capital. The municipality covers an area of 1,578.4 km2, includes such outlying communities as El Colomo, in addition to many smaller communities. Manzanillo is a beach resort, is one of many locations to promote themselves as the "sailfish capital" of the world.. One way they promote; the Revillagigedo Islands, off the west coast of Mexico in the Pacific Ocean, are part of the municipality, but they are directly administered by the federal government. Manzanillo is a sister city of the U. S. cities of Flagstaff, Arizona. The city is well known internationally for deep-sea fishing and the green flash phenomenon during sunsets, as well as the warm waters of the ocean; the city is a destination resort and has many hotels and self-contained resorts built on the De Santiago peninsula which juts out into the Pacific north of the city centre.
At the north end of Manzanillo bay is the resort Las Hadas, the most famous of the city's resorts, having been featured in the movie 10 starring Bo Derek and Dudley Moore. Beach scenes were filmed on La Audencia Bay, just over the hill from Las Hadas. Manzanillo is a popular cruise ship port of call. Many tourists go from their cruise ships on city tours. Excellent swimming and scuba diving is found in Santiago Bay, a few miles north of the city where a cargo ship sank in a hurricane in 1959. Other wrecks and reefs plentiful with fish are scattered throughout the bay. Manzanillo is known as the Sailfish Capital of the World. Since 1957, it has hosted important national and international fishing competitions, such as the Dorsey Tournament, making it a attractive fishing destination. Manzanillo consists of two bays with crescent-shaped beaches, each about 4 miles in length. Bahía de Manzanillo is the older tourist section. Bahía de Santiago, to the west, is the more upscale area; the two are separated by the Santiago Peninsula.
Ship channels are located at the southeast end of Bahía de Manzanillo where large cruise ships enter the port area. Manzanillo was once the scene of adventure. By 2011, its peaceful bays and sophisticated tourist and port infrastructure had made it one of the main tourist resorts and trading centers in the west of Mexico. On 6 July 2010, the Secretariat of Communications and Transportation opened a specialized dock for cruise ships at the port, which involved an investment of $100 million pesos in the first stage. A second phase foresees the construction of a shopping centre. Manzanillo has a tropical savanna climate; the dry season, from November to May, has low amounts of precipitation, temperatures tend to be cooler than in the wet season. The average temperature in March, the coolest month, is 24 °C; the wet season, which runs from June to October, has warmer temperatures, averaging 28.3 °C in July, humidity during this time is higher. In 2012, the port of Manzanillo initiated an ecological project consisting of dredged canals and creating islands in the Lagoon of the Valle de las Garzas, a protected wildlife area.
With this work, the port pla
A tamale is a traditional Mesoamerican dish made of masa or dough, steamed in a corn husk or banana leaf. The wrapping can either be discarded prior to eating, or be used as a plate, the tamale eaten from within. Tamales can be filled with meats, fruits, chilies or any preparation according to taste, both the filling and the cooking liquid may be seasoned. Tamales originated in Mesoamerica as early as 8000 to 5000 BC; the preparation of tamales is to have spread from the indigenous culture in Mexico and Guatemala to the rest of Latin America. According to archaeologists Karl Taube, William Saturn and David Stuart, tamales may date from the year 100 AD, they found pictorial references in Petén, Guatemala. The Aztec and Maya civilizations, as well as the Olmec and Toltec before them, used tamales as portable food, for hunting trips, for traveling large distances, as well as supporting their armies. Tamales were considered sacred as it is the food of the gods. Aztec, Maya and Tolteca all considered themselves to be people of corn and so tamales played a large part in their rituals and festivals.
"Tamale" comes from the Nahuatl word tamalli via Spanish where the singular is tamal and the plural tamales. The word "tamale" is a back-formation of tamales, with English speakers assuming the singular was "tamale" and the plural "tamales." In the pre-Columbian era, the Aztecs ate tamales with these ingredients: turkey, frog, pocket gopher, fish, turkey eggs, fruits and beans, as well as with no filling. Aztec tamales differed from modern tamales by not having added fat. One of the most significant rituals for the Aztecs was the feast of Atamalcualiztli; this ritual, held every eight years for a whole week, was done by eating tamales without any seasoning, spices, or filling which allowed the maize freedom from being overworked in the usual tamale cooking methods. In the pre-Columbian era, the Mayas ate tamales and served them at feasts and festivals; the Classic Maya hieroglyph for tamales has been identified on pots and other objects dating back to the Classic Era, although it is they were eaten much earlier.
While tortillas are the basis for the contemporary Maya diet, there is remarkably little evidence for tortilla production among the Classic period Maya. A lack of griddles in the archaeological record suggest that the primary foodstuff of the Mesoamerican diet may have been the tamale, a cooked, vegetal-wrapped mass of maize dough. Tamales are cooked without the use of ceramic technologies and are therefore the form of the tamale is thought to predate the tortilla. Similarities between the two maize products can be found in both the ingredients and preparation techniques and the linguistic ambiguity exhibited by the pan-Mayan term wa referring to a basic, daily consumed maize product that can refer to either tortillas or tamales. In Mexico, tamales begin with a dough made from nixtamalized corn, called masa, or a masa mix, such as Maseca, lard or vegetable shortening. Tamales are wrapped in corn husks or plantain leaves before being steamed, depending on the region from which they come, they have a sweet or savory filling and are steamed until firm.
Tamale-making is a ritual, part of Mexican life since pre-Hispanic times, when special fillings and forms were designated for each specific festival or life event. Today, tamales are filled with meats, cheese or vegetables chilies. Preparation is complex, time-consuming and an excellent example of Mexican communal cooking, where this task falls to the women. Tamales are a favorite comfort food in Mexico, eaten as both breakfast and dinner, accompanied by hot atole or champurrado and arroz con leche or maize-based beverages of indigenous origin. Street vendors can be seen serving them from huge, covered pots or ollas; the most common fillings are chicken, in either red or green salsa or mole. Another traditional variation is to add pink-colored sugar to the corn mix and fill it with raisins or other dried fruit and make a sweet tamal de dulce. A few "deaf", or fillingless, might be served with refried beans and coffee. Most the roasted pepper and Monterey Jack cheese tamales have become a favorite recipe.
The cooking of tamales is traditionally done in batches of tens or sometimes hundreds, the ratio of filling to dough is a matter of preference. In the North, after boiling, tamales are sometimes fried before serving, to give them a crunchy crust. In Michoacán, a corunda is a tamale served bathed in sauce and salty cheese. Instead of corn husks, banana or plantain leaves are used in tropical parts of the country, such as Oaxaca, Chiapas and the Yucatán Peninsula; these tamales are rather square in shape very large—15 inches —and these larger tamales are known as "pibs" in the Yucatán Peninsula. Another large type of tamale is zacahuil, made in the Huasteca region of Mexico. Depending on the size, zacahuil can feed anywhere between 200 people. Another less-common variation is to use chard or avocado leaves, which can be eaten along with the filling. Tamales became one of the representatives of Mexican culinary tradition in Europe, being one of the first samples of the culture the Spanish conquistadors took back to Spain as proof o
Barbacoa is a form of cooking meat that originated in the Caribbean with the Taíno people, from which the term “barbecue” derives. In contemporary Mexico, it refers to meats or whole sheep or whole goats slow-cooked over an open fire, or more traditionally, in a hole dug in the ground covered with maguey leaves, although the interpretation is loose, in the present day may refer to meat steamed until tender; this meat is known for its high fat content and strong flavor accompanied with onions and cilantro. In the U. S. barbacoa is prepared with parts from the heads of cattle, such as the cheeks. In northern Mexico, it is sometimes made from beef head, but more it is prepared from goat meat. In central Mexico, the meat of choice is lamb, in the Yucatan, their traditional version, cochinita pibil, is prepared with pork. Barbacoa was adopted into the cuisine of the southwestern United States by way of Texas; the word transformed in time to "barbecue", as well as many other words related to ranching and Tex-Mex cowboy or vaquero life.
Considered a specialty meat, barbacoa is only sold on weekends or holidays in certain parts of South Texas and in all of Mexico. Barbacoa is popular in Florida, as many Mexican immigrants living there have introduced this dish. Barbacoa is well known in Honduras. A traditional Mexican way of eating barbacoa is having it served on warm corn tortillas with salsa for added flavor; the word barbacoa is believed to have come from the mainland Taino Indians, as in this source: Birria Carne asada Pozole Mandi List of meat dishes List of Mexican dishes
Costa Chica of Guerrero
The Costa Chica of Guerrero is an area along the south coast of the state of Guerrero, extending from just south of Acapulco to the Oaxaca border. Geographically, it consists of part of the Sierra Madre del Sur, a strip of rolling hills that lowers to coastal plains to the Pacific Ocean. Various rivers here form large lagoons that host various species of commercial fish; this area is paired with the Costa Chica of Oaxaca as both have significant populations of Afro-Mexicans, who settled in the area as escaped slaves. The Afro-Mexican presence in Guerrero is strongest in this region in the coastal municipalities from Marquelia to Cuajinicuilapa. Another important ethnic group is the Amuzgo, who are by far the largest indigenous ethnicity in the region, in the municipalities of Xochistlahuaca, Tlacoachistlahuaca and Ometepec; the Amuzgo in Xochistlahuca, still wear traditional clothing and speak the Amuzgo language. Many women still weave; the region is one of the poorest in Mexico, with an economy based on subsistence agriculture and fishing, with some commerce along Highway 200, which parallels the coast.
The Costa Chica of Guerrero is a coastal region beginning just southeast of Acapulco, ending at the Oaxaca state border to the south. It is culturally paired with the Costa Chica of Oaxaca as both have significant populations of Afro-Mexicans, who also have indigenous ancestry; the Costa Chica is one of the seven regions of the state along with Zona Norte, Tierra Caliente, Centro, La Montaña, Acapulco and Costa Grande. The largest metropolitan area of the region is San Marcos. There are fifteen municipalities in the region:Ayutla, Azoyú, Cuautepec, Florencio Villarreal, Ometepec, San Luis Acatlán, San Marcos, Tlacoachistlahuaca, Cuajinicuilapa and Juchitán. Most of the terrain is dominated by the Sierra Madre del Sur. Between the mountains and the ocean is a narrow strip of hilly land called the Lomérios de la Vertiente del Pacífico and coastal plains called the Planicies Costeras; the region is filled with winding rivers. The vegetation is deciduous low height tropical forest that loses most of its leaves during the dry season from November to May.
Oceanside municipalities include San Marcos, Florencio Villarreal, Copala and Cuajinicuilapa. The three main lagoons are Tecomate and Tres Palos; the largest bay is the Bay of Puerto Marques next to Acapulco. The area has a hot climate that reaches an average high temperature of 32C; the dry season extends from a rainy season from June to October. The area is prone to cyclones from June to October. In 1997, Hurricane Pauline devastated the Costa Chica in both Guerrero and Oaxaca with winds reaching between 166 and 200km /hr; the toll was 120 dead, 8,700 other victims. The region was left with destroyed roads with left a number of communities physically isolated for days; the Costa Chica is one of two zones in Mexico with significant Afro-Mexican populations, with the other being in the state of Veracruz. While Afro-Mexicans are found in most parts of the Costa Chica, the highest concentrations in Guerrero are found between Marquelia and Cuajicuilapa. Members of this group in the region are identified by skin color.
Some consider the classification to be racism, while others identify as Afro-Mexican. Many have indigenous or mestizo ancestry. While Africans are described as the “third root,” along with indigenous and Spanish people as part of Mexico heritage, this has been "forgotten” in the description of the “mestizaje” identity of Mexico, which stresses the mixture of European and indigenous peoples. After the Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire, disease and overwork killed part of the native population. In a number of areas, the Spanish brought in African slaves to replace the lost labor. Juan Garrido, one of numerous African conquistadors, accompanied Hernán Cortés in Mexico in 1519. During the colonial period, there was a significant African slave population. Large quantities of slaves were imported starting by 16th and 17th centuries; the first Africans brought to the Pacific coast arrived to Acapulco brought by Spanish galleons. Many arrivals included escaped black slaves, called “cimarrones” who found refuge in the area.
However, most local stories about how Africans arrived to the area have to do with local shipwrecks, whether it was a slave ship or not. All end with the idea that they found refuge in the communities along the coast. Due to the isolation of the area and their desire to keep their freedom, little was written about their history; the historic Afro-Mexican communities were known for building round mud huts with thatched roofs, the design of which can be traced back to what are now Ghana and the Ivory Coast. Few of these traditional structures remain. Today, Afro-Mexican culture does not dress, it is sometimes distinguished by body vocabulary, as well as a shared heritage. The culture was featured in a documentary called Santa Negritud by La Maga Films sponsored by Susana Harp; the history and culture of these people is the focus of a museum in Cuajinicuilapa, called the Museo de las Culturas Afromestizas. Indigenous peoples of the area include the Amuzgo, Mixtec and Chatino; the Amuzgo are the most numerous by far, followed by the Mixtec, who are found in Tlacoachistlahuaca.
The indigenous peoples associated the African slaves with the Spanish. The colonists sometimes used the slaves to execute indigenous p