Chalco de Díaz Covarrubias
Chalco de Díaz Covarrubias is a city, municipal seat of the surrounding municipality of Chalco. It lies in the eastern part of the State of Mexico just east of the Federal District of Mexico and is considered part of the Mexico City metropolitan area. Chalco name is Nahuatl, comes from Challi: "lake edge", Co: "place" therefore both words together mean "on the edge of the lake"; the municipal head, bears the surname of Diaz Covarrubias, in honor of Juan Díaz Covarrubias, one of the practitioners of medicine, heroically shot in Tacubaya in 1859. The first group of Native Americans to reach the region of Chalco was "the acxotecas" coming from Tula, the famous and ancient homeland of the Toltecs, the first town they settled was called Chalco. A second group of people arrived, this were the Mihuaques. By 1160 A. D arrived teotenancas and chichimecas through Tláhuac. Around the lake there were other groups, including cuixocas and ihuipanecas, which formed a congregation of tribes with Chalcas. By 1354 the entire region was known by the name of Tzacualtitlán-Tenanco Amaquemeca-Chalco".
For 1410 the territory of the Chalca a Confederate state, consisted in four domains: Acxotlan-Chalco, Tlalmanalco-Amaquemecan, Tenanco-Tepopollan and Xochimilco-Chimalhuacan, being Acxotlan-Chalco Header". War as a means of expansion and conquest becomes common, just we mention one of many: in 1376 the "flower war" that lasts eight years and is among Mexicans and Chalco, in this war only Chalca people died in battle and is because of this long struggle for survival and defense of the territory that the Chalco region didn't achieve the splendor of Texcoco or Tenochtitlan. There are two versions of the arrival of Hernán Cortés in the region of Chalco; the first one is about a Chalca who says to be aware of the presence of Cortes in Tlaxcala and Cholula, await the passage of volcanoes and bring gifts of gold, the other says Chalco were to receive Cortes Texmelucan and bought her jewelry, valuable stones, blankets, feather-rich foods among other things. Cortes in his 2nd letter tells relationship that started from an Amecameca town, the province of Chalco and along the way receives ambassadors of Moctezuma asking you to return or wait Moctezuma order to receive it.
Cortés remains two days in Amecameca where you given away good food and slaves. Meanwhile, Clavijero in his book Ancient History of Mexico says that "Cortes Amecameca Ayotzingo became, instead serving as places of hot earth. Cacamac gives them supplies and offers city Texcoco to go away. Ixtlixóchitl with Spanish helped Chalca to defend the people of Xochimilco and Tlahuac, once stayed as allies of the Spaniards, Cortes Chalca seeking protection against the constant threat of the Mexica formed so a coalition of different tribes against the Aztecs, with the defeat of the Aztecs, the Chalca again dominate their territory being committed and available to Spanish and forcing inhabitants to participate in expeditions Chalca; the colony starts from the moment. "Chalco, in 1533, becomes real Province for hearing decision" was of great importance as a production area of corn, barley, wood, fruits, construction materials such as wood, volcanic rock and stone for his Piers Aytozingo and Chalco that were favored by the heavy traffic and near the city of Mexico.
Besides the Commendation arises, Cortes himself assigned the Province of Chalco in 1520 Nuño de Guzmán takes over the province and its taxes. Tributes were assigned to the Dominican order to build a monastery and corn taxes were appointed to the Marquis. With the decline of the Knights comes in 1530 the village and in 1563 the village arises in Chalco whose boundaries are moving between Tlayacapan and Tlalmanalco; the judges continued in Chalco and elsewhere throughout the colonial period, large property of Chalco had its origins in the royal grants awarded between 1560 and 1642, the first land grant was awarded in 1565 to Juan Bautista Avendano, Anton Mendez in 1614 and 1641 Hernando de Aguilar, Alfonso Núñez Casillas and Diego Ruiz Lozano, asked permission to bring and pursue breeding cows to produce milk, butter, so on. Primogeniture and chiefdoms emerge. Lake Chalco was a major influence as Chalco in the sixteenth century was a lake port in four docks where docked trajineras carrying vegetables and seeds to Mexico City.
During the nineteenth century, the most salient facts are: the consummation of Independence, the Constitution of 1824 was promulgated forming the Free and Sovereign State of Mexico with the districts of Acapulco, Huejutla, Apaxco, Toluca and Tulancingo. In 1861, the municipal head is appointed villa and imposed the names of "Diaz Covarrubias" in honor of Juan Diaz Covarrubias. Medical student killed by Leonardo Mark on April 11, 1859. Chalco hosted the meeting of Maximilian and Empress Carlota Amalia, who comes to receive when returning from Yucatán. "It stands out in the State of Mexico's indigenous peasant rebellion made by Julio Lopez Chavez that although it was short, had a great importance to regional and national level, is why some authors such as Gaston Garcia Cantu, Manuel Diaz Ramirez, John Hart and others have argued that this movement was precursor of the Zapatista movement. Julio Lopez Chavez began his agrarian
Calimaya is a town and municipality located just south of Toluca, the capital of the State of Mexico in central Mexico. The settlement was established around 800 BCE, when the city of Teotenango was in existence, it remained an important town through the colonial period, part of the vast lands held by a family which came to be known as the Counts of Calimaya. The town is home to one of the oldest examples of an open chapel in the State of Mexico. Today, the municipality is still agricultural but there has been rapid construction of housing divisions, changing parts of it from rural to suburban; the town of Calimaya is located south of the city of Toluca in the Valley of Toluca. It is divided into five neighborhoods: Los Angeles, El Calvario, San Martin and San Juan; the town centers on a square called the Plaza de Kiosko, flanked by the municipal palace, a set of arches that contains businesses and the Casa de Cultura. This “culture house” contains old documents and archeological pieces, as well as the municipal library, opened in 1986.
The plaza area is bordered on the east by Juárez Street. Directly across this street is the clock tower and the former Franciscan monastery and current parish church; the clock tower was built in 1910, as part of preparations for the Centennial of Mexico's Independence. The parish of San Pedro y San Pablo is part of a former Franciscan monastery complex constructed between 1529 and 1594, it is one of the most complete former monasteries to survive from the 16th century in the Valley of Toluca. The complex consists of a main church, an open chapel, a baptistery, a chapel called the Capillas de la Tercera Orden and an atrium with some remaining chapels; the main churche contains an altarpiece from the 16th century with an image called “El Señor del Cuerito”, an image painted on leather, considered miraculous a long time ago. It contains a painting called La Madre María de la Luz by Miguel Cabrera; the open chapel and baptistery area is the oldest surviving part of the complex. The chapel is believed to have been built in 1529 by the Franciscans that came to evangelize the area and one of the first of its kind in New Spain.
One unusual characteristic of the chapel is. It has been listed as a historic monument by INAH as it combines indigenous elements; the baptistery contains the 16th century font. Despite its importance the open chapel is the least visited monument in the State of Mexico; the main reason is. The municipal market was opened in 1998; the municipality of Calimaya consists of twenty nine other communities. Outside of the seat, the main communities are: Concepción Coatipac, San Bartolito Tlaltelolco, San Andrés Ocotlán, San Diego de la Huerta, San Lorenzo Cuauhtenco, San Marcos de la Cruz, Santa María Nativitas and Zaragoza de Guadalupe; the municipality is part of the metropolitan area of Toluca, located south of the city. It borders the municipalities of Toluca, Mexicalzingo, Tianguistenco, San Antonio la Isla, Tenango del Valle and Santa María Rayón. From 2008 to 2011, population and housing has increased significantly. Population rose from 38,770 in 2005 to 47,033 in 2010; the number of housing units have increased from 7,464 in 2005 to 10,589 in 2010.
This increase is due to the construction of housing developments in the municipality from 2008 to 2011. In this time period, developers have added 11,373 units to the 7,151; the new developments are changing the municipality from rural to suburban, the municipality cannot keep up with services. From 2000 to 2010, the population has grown from 35,166 to 47,033 a 33% increase. There are no major indigenous communities in the municipality with only 108 people speaking any kind indigenous language Mazahua and Otomi. There are 41 schools in the municipality from preschool to high school level. There are thirteen preschools, seventeen primary schools, eight middle schools, two distance learning middle schools, one high school/preparatory school. There are two job training centers and a day care center; the municipality is considered to have a low level of socioeconomic marginalization. Over 95% of the population has basic services such as sewerage, running water and electricity. 93% of the surface area is used for agriculture and forestry, with the rest being residential areas or mining.
Just over thirty percent of the working population is dedicated to agriculture and forestry. The main crop is corn. There is only one location; the municipality, along with federal authorities, has been promoting fish farming operation with the aim of generating jobs in the rural areas. Much of this is for the pet market locally and for export to the United States; the water used to raise the fish is reused in greenhouse operations. Industry consists of one factory producing clothing. Workshops produce tubes, bathroom fixtures and food processing such as corn for tortillas. Mining of sand and other construction materials is more important. Just over thirty percent of the working population is dedicated to mining and manufacturing. Mineral resources consist of those used for construction such as gravel. According to the municipal president about half of the municipality's mines, which generate about four thousand jobs directly or indirectly, are not in compliance with environmental laws; this is true of those that extract tepojal, a volcanic s
The Franciscans are a group of related mendicant religious orders within the Catholic Church, founded in 1209 by Saint Francis of Assisi. These orders include the Order of Friars Minor, the Order of Saint Clare, the Third Order of Saint Francis, they adhere to the teachings and spiritual disciplines of the founder and of his main associates and followers, such as Clare of Assisi, Anthony of Padua, Elizabeth of Hungary, among many others. Francis began preaching around 1207 and traveled to Rome to seek approval from Pope Innocent III in 1209 to form a new religious order; the original Rule of Saint Francis approved by the Pope disallowed ownership of property, requiring members of the order to beg for food while preaching. The austerity was meant to emulate the ministry of Jesus Christ. Franciscans preached in the streets, while boarding in church properties. Saint Clare, under Francis's guidance, founded the Poor Clares in 1212, which remains a Second Order of the Franciscans; the extreme poverty required of members was relaxed in the final revision of the Rule in 1223.
The degree of observance required of members remained a major source of conflict within the order, resulting in numerous secessions. The Order of Friars Minor known as the "Observant" branch, is one of the three Franciscan First Orders within the Catholic Church, the others being the "Conventuals" and "Capuchins"; the Order of Friars Minor, in its current form, is the result of an amalgamation of several smaller orders completed in 1897 by Pope Leo XIII. The latter two, the Capuchin and Conventual, remain distinct religious institutes within the Catholic Church, observing the Rule of Saint Francis with different emphases. Conventual Franciscans are sometimes referred to as greyfriars because of their habit. In Poland and Lithuania they are known as Bernardines, after Bernardino of Siena, although the term elsewhere refers to Cistercians instead; the name of the original order, Ordo Fratrum Minorum stems from Francis of Assisi's rejection of extravagance. Francis was the son of a wealthy cloth merchant, but gave up his wealth to pursue his faith more fully.
He had cut all ties that remained with his family, pursued a life living in solidarity with his fellow brothers in Christ. Francis adopted the simple tunic worn by peasants as the religious habit for his order, had others who wished to join him do the same; those who joined him became the original Order of Friars Minor. The modern organization of the Friars Minor comprises three separate families or groups, each considered a religious order in its own right under its own minister General and particular type of governance, they all live according to a body of regulations known as the Rule of St Francis. First OrderThe First Order or the Order of Friars Minor are called the Franciscans; this order is a mendicant religious order of men, some of whom trace their origin to Francis of Assisi. Their official Latin name is the Ordo Fratrum Minorum. St. Francis thus referred to his followers as "Fraticelli", meaning "Little Brothers". Franciscan brothers are informally called the Minorites; the modern organization of the Friars Minor comprises three separate families or groups, each considered a religious order in its own right under its own minister General and particular type of governance.
They all live according to a body of regulations known as the Rule of St Francis. These are The Order of Friars Minor known as the Observants, are most simply called Franciscan friars, official name: Friars Minor; the Order of Friars Minor Capuchin or Capuchins, official name: Friars Minor Capuchin. The Conventual Franciscans or Minorites, official name: Friars Minor Conventual". Second OrderThe Second Order, most called Poor Clares in English-speaking countries, consists of religious sisters; the order is called the Order of St. Clare, but in the thirteenth century, prior to 1263, this order was referred to as "The Poor Ladies", "The Poor Enclosed Nuns", "The Order of San Damiano". Third OrderThe Franciscan third order, known as the Third Order of Saint Francis, has many men and women members, separated into two main branches: The Secular Franciscan Order, OFS known as the Brothers and Sisters of Penance or Third Order of Penance, try to live the ideals of the movement in their daily lives outside of religious institutes.
The members of the Third Order Regular live in religious communities under the traditional religious vows. They grew out of the Secular Franciscan Order; the 2013 Annuario Pontificio gave the following figures for the membership of the principal male Franciscan orders:. Order of Friars Minor: 2,212 communities. A sermon Francis heard in 1209 on Mt 10:9 made such an impression on him that he decided to devote himself wholly to a life of apostolic poverty. Clad in a rough garment, and, after the Evangelical precept, without staff or scrip, he began to preach repentance, he was soon joined by a prominent fellow townsman, Bernard of Quintavalle, who contributed all that he had to the work, by other companions, who are said to have reached the number of eleven within a yea
The Aztec Empire, or the Triple Alliance, began as an alliance of three Nahua altepetl city-states: Mexico-Tenochtitlan and Tlacopan. These three city-states ruled the area in and around the Valley of Mexico from 1428 until the combined forces of the Spanish conquistadores and their native allies under Hernán Cortés defeated them in 1521; the Triple Alliance was formed from the victorious factions in a civil war fought between the city of Azcapotzalco and its former tributary provinces. Despite the initial conception of the empire as an alliance of three self-governed city-states, Tenochtitlan became dominant militarily. By the time the Spanish arrived in 1519, the lands of the Alliance were ruled from Tenochtitlan, while the other partners in the alliance had taken subsidiary roles; the alliance waged wars of conquest and expanded after its formation. At its height, the alliance controlled most of central Mexico as well as some more distant territories within Mesoamerica, such as the Xoconochco province, an Aztec exclave near the present-day Guatemalan border.
Aztec rule has been described by scholars as "hegemonic" or "indirect". The Aztecs left rulers of conquered cities in power so long as they agreed to pay semi-annual tribute to the Alliance, as well as supply military forces when needed for the Aztec war efforts. In return, the imperial authority offered protection and political stability, facilitated an integrated economic network of diverse lands and peoples who had significant local autonomy; the state religion of the empire was polytheistic, worshiping a diverse pantheon that included dozens of deities. Many had recognized cults large enough so that the deity was represented in the central temple precinct of the capital Tenochtitlan; the imperial cult was that of Huitzilopochtli, the distinctive warlike patron god of the Mexica. Peoples in conquered provinces were allowed to retain and continue their own religious traditions, so long as they added the imperial god Huitzilopochtli to their local pantheons; the word "Aztec" in modern usage would not have been used by the people themselves.
It has variously been used to refer to the Triple Alliance empire, the Nahuatl-speaking people of central Mexico prior to the Spanish conquest, or the Mexica ethnicity of the Nahuatl-speaking peoples. The name comes from a Nahuatl word meaning "people from Aztlan," reflecting the mythical place of origin for Nahua peoples. For the purpose of this article, "Aztec" refers only to those cities that constituted or were subject to the Triple Alliance. For the broader use of the term, see the article on Aztec civilization. Nahua peoples descended from Chichimec peoples who migrated to central Mexico from the north in the early 13th century; the migration story of the Mexica is similar to those of other polities in central Mexico, with supernatural sites and events, joining earthly and divine history as they sought political legitimacy. According to the pictographic codices in which the Aztecs recorded their history, the place of origin was called Aztlán. Early migrants settled the Basin of Mexico and surrounding lands by establishing a series of independent city-states.
These early Nahua city-states or altepetl, were ruled by dynastic heads called tlahtohqueh. Most of the existing settlements had been established by other indigenous peoples before the Mexica migration; these early city-states fought various small-scale wars with each other, but due to shifting alliances, no individual city gained dominance. The Mexica were the last of the Nahua migrants to arrive in Central Mexico, they entered the Basin of Mexico around the year 1250 AD, by most of the good agricultural land had been claimed. The Mexica persuaded the king of Culhuacan, a small city-state but important as a refuge of the Toltecs, to allow them to settle in a infertile patch of land called Chapultepec; the Mexica served as mercenaries for Culhuacan. After the Mexica served Culhuacan in battle, the ruler appointed one of his daughters to rule over the Mexica. According to mythological native accounts, the Mexica instead sacrificed her by flaying her skin, on the command of their god Xipe Totec.
When the ruler of Culhuacan learned of this, he attacked and used his army to drive the Mexica from Tizaapan by force. The Mexica moved to an island in the middle of Lake Texcoco, where an eagle nested on a nopal cactus; the Mexica interpreted this as a sign from their gods and founded their new city, Tenochtitlan, on this island in the year ōme calli, or "Two House". The Mexica rose to prominence as fierce warriors and were able to establish themselves as a military power; the importance of warriors and the integral nature of warfare in Mexica political and religious life helped propel them to emerge as the dominant military power prior to the arrival of the Spanish in 1519. The new Mexica city-state allied with the city of Azcapotzalco and paid tribute to its ruler, Tezozomoc. With Mexica assistance, Azcopotzalco began to expand into a small tributary empire; until this point, the Mexica ruler was not recognized as a legitimate king. Mexica leaders petitioned one of the kings of Culhuacan to provide a daughter to marry into the Mexica line.
Their son, was enthroned as the first tlatoani of Tenochtitlan in the year 1372. While the Tepanecs of Azcapotzalco expanded their rule with help from the Mexica, the Acolhua city of Texcoco grew in power in the eastern portion of the lake basin. War erupted between the two states, the Mexica played a vital role in the conquest of Texcoco. By Tenochtitlan had grown into a m
State of Mexico
The State of Mexico is one of the 32 federal entities of Mexico. It is the most populous, as well as the most densely populated state, it is divided into 125 municipalities and its capital city is Toluca de Lerdo. The State of Mexico is abbreviated to "Edomex" from Estado de México in Spanish, to distinguish it from the name of the whole country, it is located in South-Central Mexico. It is bordered by the states of Querétaro and Hidalgo to the north and Guerrero to the south, Michoacán to the west and Puebla to the east, surrounds on three sides Mexico City; the state's origins are in the territory of the Aztec Empire, which remained a political division of New Spain during the Spanish colonial period. After gaining independence, Mexico City was chosen as the capital of the new nation. Years parts of the state were broken off to form the states of Hidalgo and Morelos; these territorial separations have left the state with the size and shape it has today, with the Toluca Valley to the west of Mexico City and a panhandle that extends around the north and east of this entity.
The state name is México according to the 1917 Constitution of the United Mexican States, but to distinguish it from both the city and the country it is most called Estado de México. The demonym used to refer to people and things from the state is mexiquense, distinct from mexicano, which describes the people or things from the country as a whole. Mēxihco was the Nahuatl name for the Valley of Mexico where the cities of the Mexica were located; as such, the district that became Mexico City was properly known as Mexico-Tenochtitlan in the years shortly before and after Spanish conquest. After the Spanish Conquest, the term México came to be used for Tenochtitlan/Mexico City and all the pre-conquest lands it controlled, including several other aforementioned Mexican states incorporated in the boundaries of the Mexico state. There are two possible origins for the name “Mexico.” The first is that it derives from xictla to mean from the navel of the moon. This comes from the old Aztec idea that the craters on the moon form a rabbit figure with one crater imitating a navel.
The other possible origin is that it is derived from “Mextictli” an alternate name for the god Huitzilopochtli. Anáhuac was the proper term for all territories dominated by the Aztec Empire, from Cem Anáhuac, "the entire earth" or "surrounded by waters" e.g. the waters of Lake Texcoco which were considered to be the center of the Aztec world, as such was proposed as an early name for the entire nation of Mexico prior to independence, to distinguish it from the administrative division of New Spain that became the State of Mexico. The earliest evidence of human habitation in current territory of the state is a quartz scraper and obsidian blade found in the Tlapacoya area, an island in the former Lake Chalco, they are dated to the Pleistocene era. The first people were hunter-gatherers. Stone age implements have been found all over the territory from mammoth bones, to stone tools to human remains. Most have been found in the areas of Los Reyes Acozac, Tepexpan, San Francisco Mazapa, El Risco and Tequixquiac.
Between 20,000 and 5000 BCE, the people here went from hunting and gathering to sedentary villages with farming and domesticated animals. The main crop was corn, stone tools for the grinding of this grain become common. Crops include beans, chili peppers and squash grown near established villages. Evidence of ceramics appears around 2500 BCE with the earliest artifacts of these appearing in Tlapacoya, Malinalco and Tlatilco. In prehistoric State of Mexico, the Tepexpan Man is an important finding for Mexican and foreign anthropologists; some scholars attribute an age of 11 thousand years, others 8 thousand, some have suggested 5 thousand years old. This individual was identified as a male, but recent research confirms a female identity, although this is still a subject of discussion. Sacrum bone found in Tequixquiac is considered a work of prehistoric art; these people were thought to be nomadic, hunting large animals such as mammoths and gathering fruits as evidenced by archaeological evidence found at the site.
One of the most salient discoveries of primitive art in America was found in here, called the Tequixquiac Bone, which had no known purpose, but reflected the ideological sense of the artist who carved the piece of bone from a camelid around 22,000 years BCE. The first native settlers of Tequixquiac were the Aztecs and Otomi, who decided to settle here permanently for the abundance of rivers and springs, they were engaged in agriculture and the breeding of domestic animals. The earliest major civilization of the state is Teotihuacan, with the Pyramids of the Sun and Moon being built between 100 BCE and 100 CE. Between 800 and 900 CE, the Matlatzincas established their dominion with Teotenango as capital; this city is walled with plazas, temples, living quarters and a Mesoamerican ball game court. In the 15th century, the Aztecs conquered the Toluca and Chalco valleys to the west and east of the Valley of Mexico respectively. Part of the Toluca Valley was held by the Purépechas as well. Other dominions during the pre-Hispanic period include that of the Chichimecas in Tenayuca and of the Acolhuas in Huexotla
Huixquilucan de Degollado
Huixquilucan Municipality is one of the municipalities in State of Mexico, Mexico. It lies adjacent to the west side of the Federal District and is part of Greater Mexico City but independent of; the name "Huixquilucan" comes from Nahuatl meaning, "place full of edible thistles." The municipal seat of government is in the small town of Huixquilucan de Degollado with a population 9,554 in 2010, although the largest community is the adjoining city of Naucalpan de Juárez which extends into Huixquilucan. Besides Naucalpan, there are three other localities that are larger than the municipal seat. Huixquilucan had 242,167 inhabitants at the time of the 2010 Census in Mexico. Jesuits founded a school of indigenous languages here in 1580 in the village, called San Antonio Huixquilucan, taking advantage of a parish left vacant by the death of its former priest; the Jesuits were able to preach in the Otomi and Matlatzinca languages. However, the school was moved to Tepotzotlán; the town was declared in 1875, by a decree approved on April 15 of that year with the name "Villa de Degollado" and declared the seat of the municipality of Huixquilucan in the District of Lerma on the following day.
Notable people born in this town include: Dr. Fernando Quiroz Gutiérrez, who wrote the classic book, “HUMAN ANATOMY”, Father Jesús García Gutiérrez, the author of many religious works; as municipal seat, Huixquilucan de Degollado has governing jurisdiction over the following other communities: Agua Bendita, Agua Blanca, Agua de Santo, Barrio de Canales, Barrio de San Ramón, Barrio del Río, Barrio la Manzana, Bosque Real Segunda Sección, Bosques del Torreón, Cerro de San Francisco, Dos Ríos, Ejido Magdalena Chichicaspa, El Cerrito, El Escobal, El Guarda, El Hielo, El Laurel, El Manzano, El Mirasol, El Obraje, El Palacio, El Retiro, El Vivero, El Xiguiro, Ignacio Allende, Jesús del Monte, La Cañada, La Capilla, La Cima, La Cumbre, La Glorieta, Llanito del Tejocote, Llano Grande, Lomas de Zacamulpa, Magdalena Chichicaspa, Naucalpan de Juárez, Paraje el Mirador, Paraje el Rayo, Paraje la Cañada, Paraje la Carabina, Paraje la Pera, Paraje San Miguel, Paraje Toshte, Paraje Trejo, Piedra Grande, Piedra Larga, Rancho los Pavorreales, Rancho Luis, Rancho Santa María, San Bartolomé Coatepec, San Cristóbal Texcalucan, San Francisco Ayotuzco, San Jacinto, San Juan Yautepec, Santa Cruz Ayotuzco, Santiago Yancuitlalpan, Santuario el Cerrito and Zacamulpa.
The municipality has an area of 143.52 km² with a total population of 242,167 people at the 2010 census. It borders the municipalities of Naucalpan, Lerma and the boroughs of Cuajimalpa and Miguel Hidalgo of the Distrito Federal; as of 2005 2.5% of the municipality's population speaks an indigenous language. The largest localities are: Before the Spanish Conquest, the area was known as Cuautlalpan or Sierra de Las Cruces, was inhabited by the Otomis, they lived in the highlands, gathering the abundant vegetation and hunting rabbits, armadillos and raccoons. Several crude templos have been found which were dedicated to the gods Makame. Adoratorios dedicated to a god called Otontecutli are found in the caves and sacred rocks of the upper elevations; these people were conquered a number of times, including by the Olmecs, the Nahuatlacs and by the region of Tlacopan before being conquered by the Aztec Triple Alliance and of course, the Spaniards. Tradition states that the emperor Moctezuma Xocoyotzin liked the area so much that he had a palace constructed in what is now the neighborhood of Tecpan.
After the Spanish Conquest, the history of the area at first was tied with Hernán Cortés. Cortés exerted his authority indirectly through the caciques of the area and through the Encomienda Tacuba, to which Huixquilucan belonged; the area would be under the control of various Spaniards like Primer Viceroy Antonio de Mendoza and indigenous rulers like Totoquiahuatzin, the governor of Tlacopan. During this time, the area was being evangelized and the traditional tribute was being paid while the area was being redistributed with new names of Christian saints; the municipality was established on October 21, 1846. In ancient times its territory had been inhabited by Otomi, Tepanec and Acolhua populations. Since 1960, the municipality of Huixquilucan has experienced explosive growth in population and infrastructure because of its proximity to Mexico City. One of the first expansions was the construction of the "Fraccionamiento" of La Herradura, which has subsequently grown. During Alfredo del Mazo's administration, the town increased its public debt.
Private schools include: The main facility of the Campus Poniente/Campus West of the Colegio Alemán Alexander von Humboldt Escuela Sierra Nevada Interlomas Campus Colegio Anglo Americano Lomas Colegio El Roble Interlomas The Wingate School Huixquilucan campus The Irish Institute is in nearby Naucalpan. The private Universidad Anahuac Mexico Norte is located within Huixquilucan. Gobierno de Huixquilucan Official website
Ayapango is a small town and municipality located in the southeast portion of the State of Mexico, southeast of Mexico City. Despite the fact that this municipality is distinctly rural, it falls within the Mexico City Metropolitan Area; the town is known for its "French style" houses built early in the last century which have names which reflect something of their characteristics. The name Ayapango is derived from "eyapanco" which translates to "place where three irrigation ditches meet." This town has been designated as a "Pueblo con Encanto" by the government of the State of Mexico. The Chichimecas and Teotenancas came into the Valley of Chalco, including what is now Ayapango, in the 12th and 13th centuries, they settled and formed alliances with tribes that were here. These alliances coalesced into the kingdom of Itztlacozauhcan Amecamecan under a lord named Atonaltzin; the earliest recorded data concerning Ayapango itself goes back to 1430. It relates to a noble from here by the name of Aquiauhtzin Cuauhquiyahuacatzintli, who authored a song called "The Female Enemy" and made himself famous by singing it at the palace of Axayacatl in Tenochtitlan, the capital of the Aztecs.
Axayacatl was so impressed with the song, he adopted Aquiauhtzin as his own son and gave him inheritance rights. Sometime after this, records indicate that because of four-year drought, many here sold themselves to the Aztecs as slaves in order to survive. In 1479, winds caused crop damage and earthquakes caused a large number of homes to collapse and a number of landslides in the surrounding mountains; when Tenochtitlan fell to the Spanish in 1521, Ayapango was under the Aztec jurisdiction of Tenango. After the Conquest, the territory was reorganized so that Ayapango fell under the jurisdiction of Amecameca, part of the Chalco region. Ecclesiastically, it was under the Franciscan jurisdiction of Tlalmanalco. Ayapango was evangelized under the direction of Friar Martin de Valencia. In 1563, the town of Ayapango was begun to be built. By 1673, what is now the municipality of Ayapango was a small collection of communities, with most of the land owned by a few wealthy landholders such as the widow of Lorenzo de San Pedro and Nicolás de Galicia, the chief of the town of Ayapango.
The economy of Ayapango has been based on the cultivation of corn and wheat, selling the harvests in Mexico City, either by land or via what was Lake Chalco. These trips were hazardous. Natives were not permitted to carry weapons but in the mid-18th century, Manuel de Santiago, head of the town of Ayapango, managed to get such permission for this purpose. Up through most of the 19th century, life continued here much as it did all through the colonial period subsistence farming; the Mexican War of Independence had no effect on life here. Ayapango gained municipality status in 1868; the municipality was larger, but in 1875, Ayapango lost the towns of Zentlalpan and Santa Isabel Chalma to Amecameca. At the end of the 19th century, the state government considered disbanding the municipality and merging the entire territory to Amecameca because Ayapango's economic situation was precarious, making it difficult to maintain its own government. While Ayapango stayed out of the Mexican Revolution, peasant sympathies for the rebels were strong due to poor treatment of farm workers by hacienda owners.
While the Diaz government tried to recruit here for the federal army, most managed to avoid service. After the Revolution, two of the main haciendas, Retana and De Bautista were expropriated and converted into five ejidos, San Bartolomé Mihuacán, San Martín Pahuacán, San Cristóbal Poxtla and Tlamapa. Ayapango's official named changed to Ayapango de Gabriel Ramos Millan in 1950; this was in honor of Ramos Millan, born here and who created the National Commission of Corn, working to introduce new seeds and farming techniques during the first half of the century. Ramos Millan died in a plane crash on Pico del Fraile, an elevation next to Popocatépetl and in front of his hometown. In the last half of the 20th century, life began to change here; because of the building of new roads and rehabilitation of existing ones, interaction with the outside world has increased. Secondary and preparatory schools have been built, eliminating the need to travel outside the municipality for this education. However, life still remains difficult here, with many going to other towns or countries in order to find work.
The town has a population of only 3,072. The town's most distinctive feature are the older houses that conserve a kind of a "French" style as much for their form as for the materials they are construction with; the walls are thick adobe and their roofs have two peaks covered with flat clay tile shingles. In this attic space grain is kept. Many of these homes have large patios. Another notable fact is; this comes from a pre-Hispanic custom of naming a building based on its characteristics. Many of these older homes have plaques indicating. Two of the most prominent of these homes are known as the "Casa Grande" and the "Casa Afrancesada"; the church here, Parish of Santiago Apostol, is dedicated to Saint James. The church was part of a larger monastery complex; some of the remains are still visible, esp. between the church and the priest's residence, part of the old convent, rebuilt. Its layout is in the form of a Latin cross; the simple façade and the tower have Baroque elements that seem to be from the transitional period from the sober and salmonic eras as the elements show aspects from both.