Nguyễn Tấn Dũng
Nguyễn Tấn Dũng is a Vietnamese politician who served as the Prime Minister of Vietnam from 2006 to 2016. He was confirmed by the National Assembly on 27 June 2006, having been nominated by his predecessor, Phan Văn Khải, who retired from office. A party congress held in January 2011, Nguyễn Tấn Dũng was ranked 3rd in the hierarchy of the Communist Party of Vietnam, after State President Trương Tấn Sang. Following the 12th National Congress of the Communist Party of Vietnam, Nguyễn Tấn Dũng wasn't able to maintain his post in the party and stepped down from his position as Prime Minister on 7 April 2016. Nguyễn Tấn Dũng was born on 17 November 1949 in Cà Mau in southern Vietnam, he purportedly volunteered on his 12th birthday to join the Vietcong, doing first-aid, communication tasks. He was wounded four times during the Vietnam War, was ranked as a level 2/4 wounded veteran; as a Senior Lieutenant he was Chief Political Commissar of Infantry Battalion 207. As Major, Nguyễn Tấn Dũng headed the Personnel Board of Kien Giang Province's Military Command.
He attended the high-level Nguyen Ai Quoc Party School. He was admitted to the Communist Party of Vietnam on 10 June 1967. Nguyễn Tấn Dũng joined the People's Army of Vietnam in 1961, serving until 1984, he fought in the west during the Vietnam War. He cited his desire for "national independence" as his reasons for fighting on the battlefield. During this time, Nguyễn Tấn Dũng served in the Cambodian–Vietnamese War, which resulted in the Vietnamese occupation of Cambodia. During his service, he was wounded four times. Nguyễn Tấn Dũng was admitted to the Communist Party of Vietnam on 10 June 1967, he was a protégé of conservative Lê Đức Anh and reformist Võ Văn Kiệt, leaders from both major factions in the party, which enabled him to become the youngest member of the Politburo in 1996. Nguyễn Tấn Dũng served as permanent deputy prime minister from 1997-2006, he was the governor of the State Bank of Vietnam between 1998 and 1999. From October 1981 onwards, Nguyễn Tấn Dũng was a member of the Communist Party of Vietnam and was active in political affairs and activities of the Communist Party of Vietnam in the following positions: Kiên Giang Provincial Party Committee, Deputy Chief of Staff Committee Provincial Party Committee.
He is a native southerner and remained in the southern region throughout the Vietnam War (he was onrom government control of the media to personal career tips. One youth asked how he could be Prime Minister someday, to which Nguyễn Tấn Dũng replied: "Throughout my time following the Party and the Revolution, I always obeyed the assignments of the organization."It was reported that Vietnam's post-war generation "is wired, as the Communist Party attempts to foster economic growth and high-tech skills". The government blocks politically oriented sites. There has been talk of censoring blogs. On 26 July 2011, Nguyễn Tấn Dũng was re-elected prime minister by the 13th National Assembly, winning 470 out of 500 votes, he lost out to Trương Tấn Sang in the competition to lead the party's Politburo, or executive committee. In October 2011, it was reported that political dissidents in Vietnam were "facing a growing crackdown on their activities... ince the Communist party congress in January, the authorities have ratcheted up the pressure on dissidents".
Since 30 July, 15 religious activists had been imprisoned. One lawyer with deep family connections to the Communist party was sentenced to seven years' imprisonment "to the shock and outrage of large sections of the Vietnamese public". A Human Rights Watch report detailed forced labour and torture throughout the country's drug rehabilitation centres. Australian Vietnam expert Carlyle Thayer said "Nguyễn Tấn Dũng... is decidedly not a reformer." Although the U. S. and India are developing closer ties to Vietnam, neither "has seen fit to pressure Vietnam on its rights record with any conviction or consistency". In August 2012, the arrest of Nguyễn Đức Kiên, a local tycoon thought to be close to Nguyễn Tấn Dũng, sparked discussions about Nguyễn Tấn Dũng's ongoing political battle with President Trương Tấn Sang. Following these discussions, much of the anger about nepotism and poor economic management has been directed at Nguyễn Tấn Dũng. At Central Committee meeting in October 2012, general secretary Nguyễn Phú Trọng, the head of the Communist Party announced Politburo agreed to propose the committee impose a form of discipline on it and consider discipline on a Politburo member, but the Central Committee decided to not take any discipline on the Politburo and one of its members – from the prime minister's mistakes in economic management issues, anti-corruption...
Earlier the Central Committee decided to take the Central Steering Committee for Anti-Corruption away from Nguyễn Tấn Dũng's control, the committee is now controlled by the
Communist Party of Cuba
The Communist Party of Cuba is the ruling political party in the Republic of Cuba. It is a communist party of the Marxist–Leninist model; the Cuban constitution ascribes the role of the party to be the "leading force of society and of the state". Since April 2011, the First Secretary of the Central Committee has been Raúl Castro, younger brother of the previous First Secretary Fidel Castro, who died on 25 November 2016; the Second Secretary has been José Ramón Machado Ventura. Cuba had a number of communist and anarchist organizations from the early period of the Republic; the original "internationalised" Communist Party of Cuba formed in the 1920s. In 1944, it renamed itself as the Popular Socialist Party for electoral reasons. In July 1961, two years after the successful overthrow of Fulgencio Batista and the creation of a revolutionary government, the Integrated Revolutionary Organizations was formed from the merger of: Fidel Castro's 26th of July Movement The Popular Socialist Party led by Blas Roca The student-based Revolutionary Directory led by Faure ChomónOn 26 March 1962, the ORI became the United Party of the Cuban Socialist Revolution, which in turn became the Communist Party of Cuba on 3 October 1965.
In Article 5 of the Cuban constitution of 1976, the Communist Party is recognized as "the superior guiding force of society and of the State, that organizes and orients common efforts toward the high goals of the construction of socialism and the advancement toward communist society". All parties, including the Communist Party, are prohibited from publicly advertizing their organizations. For the first fifteen years of its formal existence, the Communist Party was completely inactive outside of the Politburo; the 100 person Central Committee met and it was ten years after its founding that the first regular party Congress was held. In 1969, membership of the party was only 55,000 or 0.7% of the population, making the PCC the smallest ruling communist party in the world. In the 1970s, the party's apparatus began to develop. By the time of the first party Congress in 1975, the party had grown to just over two hundred thousand members, the Central Committee was meeting and provided the organizational apparatus giving the party the leading role in society that ruling Communist parties hold.
By 1980, the party had grown to over 430,000 members and it grew further to 520,000 by 1985. Apparatuses of the party had grown to ensure that its leading cadres were appointed to key government positions; the Communist Party of Cuba held its first party Congress in 1975 and has had additional congresses in 1980, 1986, 1991, 1997 and 2011. The Seventh Congress took place from 19 April to 22 April 2016, around the 55th anniversary of the Bay of Pigs Invasion, concluding with remarks by Fidel Castro. See also: List of members of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Cuba The leading bodies of the party were the Politburo and the Secretariat until 1991 when the two bodies were merged into an expanded Politburo with over twenty members. However, the Secretariat was re-introduced in 2002. There is a Central Committee which meets between party congresses. At the Fifth Congress, the size of the Central Committee was reduced to 150 members from the previous membership of 225. Fidel Castro was the party's First Secretary since its inception while Raúl Castro was the Second Secretary.
Upon Fidel Castro's 2008 resignation from the party and Cuban government, Raúl Castro became First Secretary. The 7th Politburo of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Cuba was elected by the Central Committee on 19 April 2016 following the 7th Congress; the 6th Secretariat of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Cuba was elected by the Central Committee on 19 April 2011 following the 6th Congress. The Communist Party of Cuba has a youth wing, the Young Communist League, a member organization of the World Federation of Democratic Youth, it has a children's group, the José Martí Pioneer Organization. Compared with other ruling Communist Parties, such as in Vietnam and Laos, the Communist Party of Cuba retains a stricter adherence to the tradition of Marxism–Leninism and the traditional Soviet model; the party has been more reluctant in engaging in market reforms, though it has been forced to accept some market measures in its economy due to the dissolution of the Soviet Union and the resultant loss of economic subsidies.
The Communist Party of Cuba has favored supporting revolutions abroad and was active in assisting the ELN in Colombia, the FMLN in El Salvador, the Sandinistas in Nicaragua, Maurice Bishop's New Jewel Movement in Grenada. Their most significant international role was in the civil war in Angola, where there was Cuban direction of a joint Angolan/Soviet/Cuban force, involved in the Battle of Cuito Cuanavale; this led to the withdrawal of intervening forces and in the following peace agreement the independence of Namibia from South African rule. The party maintains a policy of sending thousands of Cuban doctors, agricultural technicians, other professionals to other countries throughout the developing world. More the party has sought to support left-wing leaders such as Hugo Chávez and Nicolás Maduro in Venezuela and Evo Morales in Bolivia. Raúl Castro is campaigning to "renew" Cuba's socialist economy through incorporating new exchange and distribution systems that have been traditionally seen as "market" oriented.
This has led to some speculation that Cuba may transition towards a model more similar to that of China. List of political parties in Cuba Citations Barry Carr. Tim Rees and Andrew Thorpe. "From Caribbean Backwater to Revolutionary Opportunity: Cuba's Evolving Relationship with the Comintern, 1
Havana is the capital city, largest city, major port, leading commercial center of Cuba. The city has a population of 2.1 million inhabitants, it spans a total of 781.58 km2 – making it the largest city by area, the most populous city, the fourth largest metropolitan area in the Caribbean region. The city of Havana was founded by the Spanish in the 16th century and due to its strategic location it served as a springboard for the Spanish conquest of the Americas, becoming a stopping point for treasure-laden Spanish galleons returning to Spain; the King Philip II of Spain granted Havana the title of City in 1592. Walls as well as forts were built to protect the old city; the sinking of the U. S. battleship Maine in Havana's harbor in 1898 was the immediate cause of the Spanish–American War. The city is the center of the Cuban government, home to various ministries, headquarters of businesses and over 90 diplomatic offices; the current mayor is Marta Hernández of the Communist Party of Cuba. In 2009, the city/province had the third highest income in the country.
Contemporary Havana can be described as three cities in one: Old Havana and the newer suburban districts. The city extends westward and southward from the bay, entered through a narrow inlet and which divides into three main harbors: Mari melena and Antares; the sluggish Almendares River traverses the city from south to north, entering the Straits of Florida a few miles west of the bay. The city attracts over a million tourists annually. Old Havana was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1982; the city is noted for its history, culture and monuments. As typical of Cuba, Havana experiences a tropical climate. Most native settlements became the site of Spanish colonial cities retaining their original Taíno names. Conquistador Diego Velázquez de Cuéllar founded Havana on August 25, 1515, on the southern coast of the island, near the present town of Surgidero de Batabanó, or more on the banks of the Mayabeque River close to Playa Mayabeque. All attempts to found. However, an early map of Cuba drawn in 1514 places the town at the mouth of this river.
Between 1514 and 1519 the Spanish established at least two different settlements on the north coast, one of them in La Chorrera, today in the neighborhoods of Vedado and Miramar, next to the Almendares River. The town that became Havana originated adjacent to what was called Puerto de Carenas, in 1519; the quality of this natural bay, which now hosts Havana's harbor, warranted this change of location. Pánfilo de Narváez gave Havana – the sixth town founded by the Spanish on Cuba – its name: San Cristóbal de la Habana; the name combines patron saint of Havana. Shortly after the founding of Cuba's first cities, the island served as little more than a base for the Conquista of other lands. Havana began as a trading port, suffered regular attacks by buccaneers and French corsairs; the first attack and resultant burning of the city was by the French corsair Jacques de Sores in 1555. Such attacks convinced the Spanish Crown to fund the construction of the first fortresses in the main cities – not only to counteract the pirates and corsairs, but to exert more control over commerce with the West Indies, to limit the extensive contrabando that had arisen due to the trade restrictions imposed by the Casa de Contratación of Seville.
Ships from all over the New World carried products first to Havana, in order to be taken by the fleet to Spain. The thousands of ships gathered in the city's bay fueled Havana's agriculture and manufacture, since they had to be supplied with food and other products needed to traverse the ocean. On December 20, 1592, King Philip II of Spain granted Havana the title of City. On, the city would be designated as "Key to the New World and Rampart of the West Indies" by the Spanish Crown. In the meantime, efforts to build or improve the defensive infrastructures of the city continued. Havana expanded in the 17th century. New buildings were constructed from the most abundant materials of the island wood, combining various Iberian architectural styles, as well as borrowing profusely from Canarian characteristics. In 1649, an epidemic of the fatal Yellow fever brought from Cartagena in Colombia affected a third of the European population of Havana. By the middle of the 18th century Havana had more than seventy thousand inhabitants, was the third-largest city in the Americas, ranking behind Lima and Mexico City but ahead of Boston and New York.
During the 18th century Havana was the most important of the Spanish ports because it had facilities where ships could be refitted and, by 1740, it had become Spain's largest and most active shipyard and only drydock in the New World. The city was captured by the British during the Seven Years' War; the episode began on June 6, 1762, when at dawn, a British fleet, comprising more than 50 ships and a combined force of over 11,000 men of the Royal Navy and Army, sailed into Cuban waters and made an amphibious landing east of Havana. The British opened up trade with their North American and Caribbean colonies, causing a rapid transformation of Cuban society. Less than a year after Havana was seized, the Peace of Paris was signed by the three warring powers thus ending the Seven Years' War; the treaty gave
Prime Minister of Vietnam
The Prime Minister of Vietnam styled Prime Minister of the Government of the Socialist Republic, is the head of government of Vietnam who presides over the meetings of the Central Government. The prime minister directs the work of government members, may propose deputy prime ministers to the National Assembly; the head of government is responsible to the National Assembly and serves as the Deputy Chairman of the Council for Defence and Security. Moreover, prime minister is Chairman of the Council for National Education, Standing Member of the Central Military Commission and the Central Police Party Committee; the tenure of a prime minister is five years, the term is renewable once. The current prime minister Nguyễn Xuân Phúc has served since 2016. In case of incapacity, a deputy prime minister assumes the office of acting prime minister until the prime minister resumes duty, or until the appointment of a new prime minister; the powers and prestige of the prime minister have varied through the years.
Pham Van Dong, Vietnam's second prime minister lamented that in practice he had little power. Since the death of Pham Hung in 1988, the prime minister has been ranked 3rd in the order of precedence of the Communist Party's Politburo, the highest decision-making body in Vietnam. Ho Chi Minh, who served as the country's President, was appointed Vietnam's first prime minister in 1946 by the National Assembly, after having served months as Acting Chairman of the Provisional Government and foreign minister in the aftermath of the 1945 August Revolution. Both the 1946 and 1959 Constitutions state that the National Assembly had the power to appoint and relieve the prime minister of his duties; the prime minister presided over the Council of Ministers, the highest executive body of state, from 1981 until it was renamed to Government in the 1992 constitution. The office of prime minister was renamed in the 1980 constitution to that of Chairman of the Council of Ministers. Pham Van Dong, the second Prime Minister of Vietnam, served as North Vietnamese Prime Minister from 1955 until 1976, when he became prime minister of a unified Vietnam, until 1987, when he resigned.
At his resignation, he was the longest-serving prime minister in Vietnamese history, the oldest serving prime minister in the world. He lamented that he was one of the world's weakest prime ministers, on one occasion saying; when I say something, nobody listens. If I propose changing a deputy minister, it turns out to be impossible. I cannot choose my own ministers." Since the death of Pham Hung in 1988, the prime minister has been ranked Number 3 in the order of precedence of the Communist Party's Politburo. The National Assembly by a proposal of the President of Vietnam elects the prime minister; the prime minister is responsible to the National Assembly, the Assembly elects all ministers to government. Activity reports by the prime minister must be given to the National Assembly, while the Standing Committee of the National Assembly supervises the activities of the Central Government and the prime minister; the deputies of the National Assembly have the right to question the prime minister and other members of government.
The prime minister is the only member of government. This is because the prime minister is accountable to the National Assembly, he reports to it, or to its Standing Committee, to the president; the prime minister issues directives and supervises the implementation of formal orders given by the president, the National Assembly or the Standing Committee. Cabinet members and members of the Central Government in general are responsible to the prime minister and the National Assembly for the fields they specialise in. According to the Constitution of Vietnam, the following are the duties and responsibilities of the prime minister: To head the Central Government, direct the works of members of the Central Government, the People's Councils at all levels and to chair the meetings of the Cabinet; when the prime minister is absent, he must choose one of his deputy prime ministers to direct the work of the government. The prime minister serves concurrently as the secretary of the CPV Government Caucus Commission.
The National Assembly chairman serves as the commission's deputy
Nguyễn Thiện Nhân
Nguyễn Thiện Nhân is a Vietnamese politician and the current Secretary of Ho Chi Minh City's Central Party Committee since May 10, 2017. His previous post was the Chairman of the Central Committee of the Vietnamese Fatherland Front, he was a Deputy Prime Minister of Vietnam between 2007 and 2013, was Minister of Education and Training of Vietnam between 2006 and 2010. He is a member of the 11th Politburo of the Communist Party of Vietnam, he had been the 1st vice mayor of Ho Chi Minh City before being appointed Minister of Education on June 28, 2006, by Prime Minister Nguyễn Tấn Dũng. He was appointed by the National Assembly, upon recommendation of Nguyễn Tấn Dũng, Deputy Prime Minister of Vietnam, he got a PhD in cybernetics at the Otto-von-Guericke University Magdeburg in East Germany in 1979. Nguyễn Thiện Nhân was born on June 12, 1953 in Cà Mau in Chau Thanh, Tra Vinh province, his father Nguyễn Thiện Thành was a Doctor. His father was an active intellectual for the Vietnamese independence movement.
After the Geneva Accords, 1954, his father brought his family to the North under the Government of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam. Influenced by father, after high school, in June 1970, he enlisted and served in the Vietnam People's Army as a cadet in the field of engineering. In 1972 he was sent to study abroad at the Technical University of Magdeburg, East Germany He was promoted to Lieutenant in 1976. In 1979, he defended his PhD thesis in Cybernetics, his doctoral dissertation is Untersuchungen zur automatischen Steuerung der optimalen Fahrweise von Fernwärmeversorgungssystemen. After returning home in 1980, he worked as a researcher at the Controlled Arms Institute of the Military Institute of Technology under the Ministry of Defense until 1983. [Also in 1980, he was admitted to the Communist Party of Vietnam. He was promoted to Lieutenant in 1980, Lieutenant in 1982. In 1993, he studied and earned an MPA of governance at the University of Oregon and a course of Investment Project Assessment at Harvard University, USA.
He has been the professor at Ho Chi Minh City University of Technology. Nguyễn Thiện Nhân is known for some efforts in reform of Vietnamese education system supported by the Vietnamese public, he is one of the high senior officials in Vietnamese government who has a good command of English along with Hoàng Trung Hải, another vice prime minister. He is fluent in German. Nguyễn Thiện Nhân's father is a professor, he replaced Đinh La Thăng as the Secretary of Communist Party of Vietnam of Ho Chi Minh City from May 10, 2017. Media related to Nguyen Thien Nhan at Wikimedia Commons
Raúl Modesto Castro Ruz is a Cuban politician, serving as the First Secretary of the Communist Party of Cuba, the most senior position in the socialist state, succeeding his brother Fidel Castro in April 2011. He has been a member of the Politburo of the Communist Party of Cuba, the highest decision-making body since 1975. In February 2008, he was appointed the President of the Council of State and President of the Council of Ministers, he stepped down as President on 19 April 2018, but remains the first secretary of the Communist Party, holding ultimate power and authority over state and government. Previous to being appointed acting President of Cuba in July 2006, he served as the commander-in-chief of the Armed Forces from 1959 to 2008, his ministerial tenure made him the longest serving minister of the armed forces. Because of his predecessor's illness, Castro was designated the President of the Council of State in a temporary transfer of power. Castro was made President by the National Assembly on 24 February 2008, after Fidel Castro, still ailing, announced on 19 February 2008 that he would not stand for President again.
Castro was re-elected President on 24 February 2013. Shortly thereafter, Castro announced that his second term would be his final term, that he would not seek re-election in 2018, he announced on state television on 21 December 2017 that he would step down as Cuban president on 19 April 2018 after his successor is elected by the National Assembly following parliamentary elections. However, he retains his position as First Secretary of the Communist Party, Cuba's ruling party, is head of the constitutional reform commission, continues to have a seat representing Santiago de Cuba's Segundo Frente municipality in the National Assembly. Raúl Modesto Castro Ruz was born in Birán, the son of a Spanish immigrant father, Ángel Castro, a Cuban-born mother of Canarian parentage, Lina Ruz. Raúl is the youngest of three brothers: Fidel and himself, he has four sisters: Angela, Juanita and Agustina. Ángel Castro's first wife, Maria Argota raised five half-siblings of Raúl: Pedro Emilio, Maria Lidia, Manuel and Georgina.
As children, the Castro brothers were expelled from the first school. Like Fidel, Raúl attended the Jesuit School of Colegio Dolores in Santiago and Belen Jesuit Preparatory School in Havana. Raúl, as an undergraduate, studied social sciences. Whereas Fidel excelled as a student, Raúl turned in mediocre performances. Raúl became a committed socialist and joined the Socialist Youth, an affiliate of the Soviet-oriented Cuban Communist Party, Partido Socialista Popular; the brothers participated in sometimes violent student actions. Raúl Castro's travels and contact with Soviet KGB agent Nikolai Leonov — whom he met in 1953 during a trip to the Soviet-bloc nations and again in 1955 during his exile in Mexico City — facilitated Cuba's close ties with the Soviets after the triumph of the Cuban Revolution. Leonov would become the USSR's KGB agent in Havana. In 1953, Raúl served as a member of the 26th of July Movement group that attacked the Moncada Barracks. During his exile in Mexico, he participated in the preparations for the expedition of the boat Granma to Cuba.
When the Granma landing failed and the 82 expeditionaries were detected by government troops soon after, Raúl was one of only 12 fighters who managed to reach a safe haven in the Sierra Maestra mountains, forming the core of the nascent rebel army. As Fidel's brother and trusted right-hand man, given his proven leadership abilities during and after the Moncada attack, he was given progressively bigger commands. On 27 February 1958 Raúl was made comandante and assigned the mission to cross the old province of Oriente leading a column of guerrillas to open, to the northeast of that territory, the "Frank País Eastern Front"; as a result of Raúl's "Eastern Front" operations, he was not involved in the pivotal Operation Verano, but Raúl's forces remained active and grew over time. On 26 June 1958, Raúl Castro's rebels kidnapped ten Americans and two Canadians from the property of Moa Bay Mining Company on the north coast of Oriente Province; the next day rebels took hostage 24 US servicemen on leave from the United States naval base at Guantanamo Bay.
This incident brought total kidnapped hostages to 36. US Ambassador Smith and his staff determined the kidnappings had the following objectives: Obtain worldwide publicity, regain M-26-7 prestige lost by general strike call failure, force Batista's Air Force to stop bombing rebel holds, gain public recognition from the US. Two tactical objectives the kidnapping achieved for Castro forces can be discerned from contemporaneous reporting in Time: Batista declaring a ceasefire for negotiations, forcing a reduction in Operation Verano air raids; the hostage-taking caused significant US backlash, including unfavorable public reaction, US consideration to re-establishing military support to Batista and deploying US forces to free the hostages. The hostages were released in small groups, extracting the maximum press attention. After their release, the hostages said they were treated well with some claiming to support the rebel cause. By October 1958, after reinforcement by Fidel, the brothers had about 2,000 fighters and were operating throughout Oriente province.
In December, while Che Guevara and Camilo Cien
Rodrigo Malmierca Díaz
Rodrigo Malmierca Díaz is a Cuban diplomat and politician. Mr. Malmierca is the Cuban Minister of Foreign Trade and Foreign Investment as a result of the 2009 shake-up by Raúl Castro, he was the Permanent Representative of Cuba to the United Nations from 2005-2009. He is married to Grisell Guadalupe Castano-Rey and they have two children. Ambassador Malmierca Díaz graduated in economics at the University of Havana in 1980, he followed with several postgraduate courses, including at the Higher Institute of International Relations in Havana in international relations and negotiation techniques. He speaks four languages: Spanish, English and Portuguese. Prior to his appointment to the UN, from 2002 to 2005 was Cuba's Ambassador to Belgium, the European Union and Luxembourg. From 1998 to 2002, he served as Deputy Minister in his country's Ministry of Foreign Investment and Economic Cooperation in Havana. In that same Ministry, he served as Director of the European and North American Division from 1997 to 1998.
Prior to this, he was Counsellor in charge of economic and trade affairs at the Cuban Embassy in Brasília, from 1992 to 1997. From 1982 to 1992 he was Specialist of Cooperation in the Division of Economic International Institutions of the State Committee for Economic Cooperation in Havana, he started his career in 1981 in Project Management of the ECIMETAL Enterprise in Havana. The Miami Herald, Cuban Economy: Purge Aims to Halt Cuba's Economic Free Fall, Sunday March 8, 2009, Page 1A. Https://web.archive.org/web/20090306080555/http://www.granma.cubaweb.cu/pdf/martes/pagina5.pdf http://www.wtopnews.com/?nid=105&sid=1614566 http://abcnews.go.com/International/wireStory?id=6992631 https://www.reuters.com/article/worldNews/idUSTRE52868R20090309 https://web.archive.org/web/20090401152243/http://www.periodico26.cu/english/news_cuba/mar2009/official-note030209.html http://www.embacubalebanon.com/cur_min1.html