Moscow is the capital and most populous city of Russia, with 13.2 million residents within the city limits, 17 million within the urban area and 20 million within the metropolitan area. Moscow is one of Russia's federal cities. Moscow is the major political, economic and scientific center of Russia and Eastern Europe, as well as the largest city on the European continent. By broader definitions, Moscow is among the world's largest cities, being the 14th largest metro area, the 18th largest agglomeration, the 14th largest urban area, the 11th largest by population within city limits worldwide. According to Forbes 2013, Moscow has been ranked as the ninth most expensive city in the world by Mercer and has one of the world's largest urban economies, being ranked as an alpha global city according to the Globalization and World Cities Research Network, is one of the fastest growing tourist destinations in the world according to the MasterCard Global Destination Cities Index. Moscow is the coldest megacity on Earth.
It is home to the Ostankino Tower, the tallest free standing structure in Europe. By its territorial expansion on July 1, 2012 southwest into the Moscow Oblast, the area of the capital more than doubled, going from 1,091 to 2,511 square kilometers, resulting in Moscow becoming the largest city on the European continent by area. Moscow is situated on the Moskva River in the Central Federal District of European Russia, making it Europe's most populated inland city; the city is well known for its architecture its historic buildings such as Saint Basil's Cathedral with its colorful architectural style. With over 40 percent of its territory covered by greenery, it is one of the greenest capitals and major cities in Europe and the world, having the largest forest in an urban area within its borders—more than any other major city—even before its expansion in 2012; the city has served as the capital of a progression of states, from the medieval Grand Duchy of Moscow and the subsequent Tsardom of Russia to the Russian Empire to the Soviet Union and the contemporary Russian Federation.
Moscow is a seat of power of the Government of Russia, being the site of the Moscow Kremlin, a medieval city-fortress, today the residence for work of the President of Russia. The Moscow Kremlin and Red Square are one of several World Heritage Sites in the city. Both chambers of the Russian parliament sit in the city. Moscow is considered the center of Russian culture, having served as the home of Russian artists and sports figures and because of the presence of museums and political institutions and theatres; the city is served by a transit network, which includes four international airports, nine railway terminals, numerous trams, a monorail system and one of the deepest underground rapid transit systems in the world, the Moscow Metro, the fourth-largest in the world and largest outside Asia in terms of passenger numbers, the busiest in Europe. It is recognized as one of the city's landmarks due to the rich architecture of its 200 stations. Moscow has acquired a number of epithets, most referring to its size and preeminent status within the nation: The Third Rome, the Whitestone One, the First Throne, the Forty Soroks.
Moscow is one of the twelve Hero Cities. The demonym for a Moscow resident is "москвич" for male or "москвичка" for female, rendered in English as Muscovite; the name "Moscow" is abbreviated "MSK". The name of the city is thought to be derived from the name of the Moskva River. There have been proposed several theories of the origin of the name of the river. Finno-Ugric Merya and Muroma people, who were among the several Early Eastern Slavic tribes which inhabited the area, called the river Mustajoki, it has been suggested. The most linguistically well grounded and accepted is from the Proto-Balto-Slavic root *mŭzg-/muzg- from the Proto-Indo-European *meu- "wet", so the name Moskva might signify a river at a wetland or a marsh, its cognates include Russian: музга, muzga "pool, puddle", Lithuanian: mazgoti and Latvian: mazgāt "to wash", Sanskrit: májjati "to drown", Latin: mergō "to dip, immerse". In many Slavic countries Moskov is a surname, most common in Bulgaria, Russia and North Macedonia. There exist as well similar place names in Poland like Mozgawa.
The original Old Russian form of the name is reconstructed as *Москы, *Mosky, hence it was one of a few Slavic ū-stem nouns. As with other nouns of that declension, it had been undergoing a morphological transformation at the early stage of the development of the language, as a result the first written mentions in the 12th century were Московь, Moskovĭ, Москви, Moskvi, Москвe/Москвѣ, Moskve/Moskvě. From the latter forms came the modern Russian name Москва, a result of morphological generalisation with the numerous Slavic ā-stem nouns. However, the form Moskovĭ has left some traces in many other languages, such as English: Moscow, German: Moskau, French: Moscou, Georgian: მოსკოვი, Latvian: Maskava, Ottoman Turkish: Moskov, Tatar: Мәскәү, Mäskäw, Kazakh: Мәскеу, Mäskew, Chuvash: Мускав, etc. In a similar manner the Latin name Moscovia has been formed it became a collo
Cuba at the 1900 Summer Olympics
Cuba competed at the 1900 Summer Olympics in Paris, France. Cuba had one fencer compete in the nation's debut, he won the amateur épée competition, in a special event that pitted the top four amateurs in 1900 against the top four professionals, he defeated all but one of his opponents, finishing 6-1 to take the silver medal
Alberto Juantorena is a Cuban former runner. He is the only athlete to win both the 400 and 800 m Olympic titles, which he achieved in 1976, he was ranked as world's best runner in the 400 m in 1974 and 1976–1978, in the 800 m in 1976–77, was chosen as the Track & Field News Athlete of the Year in 1976 and 1977. As a 188 cm 14-year-old, Juantorena was first considered a potential star at basketball. Meanwhile, he had been a regional high-school champion at 1500 meters, his running talent was discovered by a Polish track coach, Zygmunt Zabierzowski, who convinced him to start running seriously. Juantorena was ready for the change because as he states himself he was a'bad' basketball player and his idol was the Cuban sprinter Enrique Figuerola. Only a year Juantorena reached semifinals of the 400 m event at the 1972 Summer Olympics. Juantorena proceeded to win a gold medal at the 1973 World University Games and a silver at the 1975 Pan American Games, both in the 400 meters, he was unbeaten in 1973 and 1974, but underwent two operations on his foot in 1975.
He only took up running the 800 meters in 1976, so few thought he was a candidate for the Olympic gold that year. His coach, had tricked him in to trying an 800 m race by convincing him the other runners need a pacemaker. Juantorena made it to the 800m Olympic final, led the field for most of the race winning in a world record time of 1:43.50. He was the first non-English speaking athlete. Three days he won the 400 meter final, setting a low-altitude world record at 44.26. By winning the 400 meters, he became the first athlete since Paul Pilgrim at the 1906 Intercalated Games to do such a double at an Olympic sports event, was the only man to do so at an recognized Olympics. In 1977, he set another world record in the 800, running 1:43.44 in Sofia at the World University Games. He won both the 400 m and 800 m at the 1977 IAAF World Cup; the 400 m race was mired in controversy when the race was re-run a day after the initial race, in which Juantorena finished third, because Juantorena lodged a successful protest that his slow start had been due to not being able to hear the starter's gun.
The latter race featured an epic duel with his great rival Kenya's Mike Boit, a duel that did not happen at the previous year's Olympics because of the African countries boycott. Juantorena, now known at home as El Caballo, continued his career, although injuries meant he would never reach the same level as in Montreal. Juantorena had been born with flat feet that caused feet and back problems, he had to have corrective surgery in 1977. In 1978 he was unbeaten at the 400 m, but suffered his first defeat at 800 meters. Injuries hamstring injuries, hampered his training and racing leading up to the 1980 Moscow Olympics, where he just missed out on a medal in the 400 meters, placing fourth. At the 1983 World Championships, his last international appearance in a major event, he broke his foot and tore ligaments when he stepped on the inside of the track after qualifying in the first round of the 800 m, he returned to training with a view to competing in the 1984 Summer Olympics. However the 1984 Summer Olympics boycott ended his last chance for competing at Olympics.
Instead, he took part in the Friendship Games, the alternative to the official Olympics for the Eastern block countries, where he shared the gold medal in the 800 m with Ryszard Ostrowski. After retirement from athletics in 1984, Juantorena has served in many official capacities, including as the Vice President of the National Institute for Sports, Physical Education and Recreation for Cuba, Vice Minister for Sport of Cuba, Vice-President Senior Vice-President of the Cuban Olympic Committee, he is a member of the IAAF Council, has served as an Athletes' Commission Chairman and Grand Prix Commission Member. Juantorena is married to a former gymnast, his nephew Osmany Juantorena is a professional volleyball player. Juantorena still participates in marathons. Juantorena was ranked among the best in the world in both the 400 and 800 m sprint events over the incredible spread of 10 seasons from 1973 to 1982, according to the votes of the experts of Track & Field News. A Step Away – Official Documentary of the 1979 Pan American Games.
Sandrock, Michael Running with the Legends. Human Kinetics. ISBN 0873224930. Alberto Juantorena at the International Olympic Committee Alberto Juantorena at IAAF Track and Field News Cover, September 1976. Track and Field News Cover, October 1977 Track and Field News Cover, January 1978
Teófilo Stevenson Lawrence was a Cuban amateur boxer and engineer. Stevenson is one of only three boxers to win three Olympic gold medals, alongside Hungarian László Papp and fellow Cuban Félix Savón; the BBC described Stevenson as "Cuba's greatest boxer, once its most famous figure after Fidel Castro". Stevenson was born in Cuba, his father, Teófilo Stevenson Patterson, was an immigrant from Saint Vincent. His mother Dolores Lawrence was a native Cuban, but her parents were immigrants from the Anglophone island of Saint Kitts. Teófilo senior arrived in Cuba in 1923, finding work wherever he could, before settling in Camagüey with Dolores, where he gave English lessons to top up his meagre earnings. Due to his large size, Teófilo senior was encouraged into boxing by local trainers, fighting seven times before becoming disillusioned by the corrupt payment structure on offer to young fighters. Teófilo junior was a shiftless but bright child who at nine years old soon found himself sparring at the makeshift open-air gym his father had frequented.
Under the tutelage of former national light heavyweight champion John Herrera, Teófilo junior began his career fighting far more experienced boxers, but according to Herrera, "had what it took". Despite his growing involvement in the sport, Stevenson had yet to tell his mother about his activities. Teófilo senior broke the news to his wife, furious; the young Stevenson continued to improve under Herrera in the mid 1960s, winning a junior title and gaining additional training in Havana. His victories drew the attention of Andrei Chervonenko, a leading coach in Cuba's newly implemented state sports system. Professional sport throughout the island had been outlawed since 1962 by government resolution 83-A, all boxing activity had come under the guidance of the government sponsored National Boxing Commission. Chernevenko, a former boxer from Moscow sent by the Soviet Union, who had created Cuba's Escuela de Boxeo in a derelict old gym in Havana, began to champion Stevenson's progress. Stevenson's senior boxing career began at age seventeen with a defeat in the national championships against the experienced heavyweight Gabriel Garcia.
Despite the setback, Stevenson went on to register convincing victories over Nancio Carrillo and Juan Perez, two of Cuba's finest boxers in the weight division, securing a place in the national team for the 1970 Central American and Caribbean Boxing Championships. Defeat in the final after three victories was considered no shame, Stevenson established himself as Cuba's premier heavyweight. Back in the gym Chervonenko and leading Cuban boxing coach Alcides Sagarra worked on Stevenson's jab, which paid dividends when the Cuban defeated East Germany's Bernd Anders in front of a surprised Berlin crowd; the victory made the entire amateur boxing world take notice of Stevenson as a serious heavyweight contender. Stevenson, now twenty, joined the Cuban boxing team for the Munich Olympics of 1972, his opening bout against experienced Polish fighter Ludwik Denderys began when Stevenson knocked the other man down within thirty seconds of the opening bell. The fight was stopped moments due to a large cut next to the Pole's eye.
Proceeding to the quarter finals, Stevenson met fancied American boxer Duane Bobick. Bobick, a gold medalist at the 1971 Pan American Games, had beaten Stevenson and was considered favorite to continue the U. S. team's dominance of the weight division. After a close first round, Stevenson lost the second, but a ferocious display in the third round knocked Bobick to the canvas three times and the contest was stopped; the victory was viewed on television throughout Cuba, is still considered Stevenson's most memorable performance. Stevenson defeated German Peter Hussing in the semifinal by TKO in the 2nd round, received his gold medal after Romanian Ion Alexe failed to appear in the final due to injury; the Cuban boxing team won three gold medals, their first in Olympic boxing history, as well as one silver and one bronze. The Munich games established Cuba's dominance over the amateur sport, to last decades, it established Stevenson as the world's premier amateur heavyweight boxer. Stevenson did the same at the inaugural 1974 World Championships in Havana, in the 1976 Summer Olympics, held in Montreal, Stevenson repeated the feat once again.
By he had become a national hero in Cuba. This was the point where he was the closest to signing a professional contract, as American fight promoters offered him US $5 million to challenge world heavyweight champion Muhammad Ali. If he had accepted, it would have made Stevenson the second boxer to go straight from the Olympics into a professional debut with the world's Heavyweight crown on the line, after Pete Rademacher. Stevenson refused the offer, asking "What is one million dollars compared to the love of eight million Cubans?" Stevenson went to the 1980 Summer Olympics in Moscow and became the second boxer after Papp, to win three Olympic boxing gold medals. Stevenson participated at the 1982 World Amateur Boxing Championships in Munich, but lost to the eventual silver medalist and future professional world champion Francesco Damiani from Italy; this fight ended an eleven-year unbeaten run by Stevenson and was the only occasion that he did not win the gold medal at the World Championships when he entered the competition.
Stevenson might have won a fourth gold medal at the 1984 Summer Olympics, but the Soviet Union boycotted the games, which were hosted by Los Angeles, in retaliation for the American boycott
José Aguilar (boxer)
José Aguilar Pulsar was a Cuban boxer. He won the Light Welterweight bronze medal at the 1980 Summer Olympics, he died in Guantánamo on 4 April 2014 from a cerebral infarction. Defeated Martin Brerton TKO 1 Defeated Ryu Bun-Hwa 4-1 Defeated Farouk Jawad TKO 3 Lost to Serik Konakbayev 1-4 sports-reference
Ángel Herrera Vera
Ángel Herrera Vera is a Cuban boxer, who won two Olympic gold medals, the world title at the second World Championships in Belgrade. First competing in the featherweight category, he won the 1976 Olympics as well as the 1978 World Amateur Boxing Championships, he competed in lightweight to win another Olympic gold in 1980, his second World Title in Munich, West Germany. In 1983 he won a silver medal at the Pan American Games. 1976 Summer Olympics - Montreal Round of 64: bye Round of 32: Defeated Rai Sik KO 1 Round of 16: Defeated Angel Pacheco 5-0 Quarterfinal: Defeated Davey Lee Armstrong 3-2 Semifinal: Defeated Juan Paredes 5-0 Final: Defeated Richard Nowakowski KO 21978 World Amateur Championships Defeated Hirochi Ganobe RSC-3 Defeated Viorel Ioana walkover Defeated Roman Gotfryd by decision, 5-0 Defeated Bratislav Ristić by decision, 4-11980 Summer Olympics - Moscow Round of 32 Carlo Russolillo by decision, 5-0 Round of 16: Defeated Geza Tumbas by decision, 5-0 Quarterfinal: Defeated Galsandorj Batbileg by decision, 5-0 Semifinal: Defeated Kazimierz Adach by decision, 5-0 Final: Defeated Viktor Demyanenko TKO 31982 World Amateur Championships Defeated Juhito Arai 5:0 Defeated Kosem Barake KO-2 Defeated Lofti Belkhir RSC-1 Defeated Viorel Ioana 4:1 Defeated Pernell Whitaker 3:2 Angel Herrera at Olympics at Sports-Reference.com Angel Herrera Vera at the International Olympic Committee
The Soviet Union the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991. Nominally a union of multiple national Soviet republics, its government and economy were centralized; the country was a one-party state, governed by the Communist Party with Moscow as its capital in its largest republic, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic. Other major urban centres were Leningrad, Minsk, Alma-Ata, Novosibirsk, it spanned over 10,000 kilometres east to west across 11 time zones, over 7,200 kilometres north to south. It had five climate zones: tundra, steppes and mountains; the Soviet Union had its roots in the 1917 October Revolution, when the Bolsheviks, led by Vladimir Lenin, overthrew the Russian Provisional Government which had replaced Tsar Nicholas II during World War I. In 1922, the Soviet Union was formed by a treaty which legalized the unification of the Russian, Transcaucasian and Byelorussian republics that had occurred from 1918. Following Lenin's death in 1924 and a brief power struggle, Joseph Stalin came to power in the mid-1920s.
Stalin committed the state's ideology to Marxism–Leninism and constructed a command economy which led to a period of rapid industrialization and collectivization. During his rule, political paranoia fermented and the Great Purge removed Stalin's opponents within and outside of the party via arbitrary arrests and persecutions of many people, resulting in at least 600,000 deaths. In 1933, a major famine struck the country. Before the start of World War II in 1939, the Soviets signed the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, agreeing to non-aggression with Nazi Germany, after which the USSR invaded Poland on 17 September 1939. In June 1941, Germany broke the pact and invaded the Soviet Union, opening the largest and bloodiest theatre of war in history. Soviet war casualties accounted for the highest proportion of the conflict in the effort of acquiring the upper hand over Axis forces at intense battles such as Stalingrad and Kursk; the territories overtaken by the Red Army became satellite states of the Soviet Union.
The post-war division of Europe into capitalist and communist halves would lead to increased tensions with the United States-led Western Bloc, known as the Cold War. Stalin died in 1953 and was succeeded by Nikita Khrushchev, who in 1956 denounced Stalin and began the de-Stalinization; the Cuban Missile Crisis occurred during Khrushchev's rule, among the many factors that led to his downfall in 1964. In the early 1970s, there was a brief détente of relations with the United States, but tensions resumed with the Soviet–Afghan War in 1979. In 1985, the last Soviet premier, Mikhail Gorbachev, sought to reform and liberalize the economy through his policies of glasnost and perestroika, which caused political instability. In 1989, Soviet satellite states in Eastern Europe overthrew their respective communist governments; as part of an attempt to prevent the country's dissolution due to rising nationalist and separatist movements, a referendum was held in March 1991, boycotted by some republics, that resulted in a majority of participating citizens voting in favor of preserving the union as a renewed federation.
Gorbachev's power was diminished after Russian President Boris Yeltsin's high-profile role in facing down a coup d'état attempted by Communist Party hardliners. In late 1991, Gorbachev resigned and the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union met and formally dissolved the Soviet Union; the remaining 12 constituent republics emerged as independent post-Soviet states, with the Russian Federation—formerly the Russian SFSR—assuming the Soviet Union's rights and obligations and being recognized as the successor state. The Soviet Union was a powerhouse of many significant technological achievements and innovations of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite, the first humans in space and the first probe to land on another planet, Venus; the country had the largest standing military in the world. The Soviet Union was recognized as one of the five nuclear weapons states and possessed the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction, it was a founding permanent member of the United Nations Security Council as well as a member of the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the World Federation of Trade Unions and the leading member of the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance and the Warsaw Pact.
The word "Soviet" is derived from a Russian word сове́т meaning council, advice, harmony and all deriving from the proto-Slavic verbal stem of vět-iti, related to Slavic věst, English "wise", the root in "ad-vis-or", or the Dutch weten. The word sovietnik means "councillor". A number of organizations in Russian history were called "council". For example, in the Russian Empire the State Council, which functioned from 1810 to 1917, was referred to as a Council of Ministers after the revolt of 1905. During the Georgian Affair, Vladimir Lenin envisioned an expression of Great Russian ethnic chauvinism by Joseph Stalin and his supporters, calling for these nation-states to join Russia as semi-independent parts of a greater union, which he named as the Union of Soviet Republics of Europe and Asia. Stalin resisted the proposal, but accepted it, although with Lenin's agreement changed the name of the newly proposed sta