Havana is the capital city, largest city, major port, and leading commercial centre of Cuba. The city extends mostly westward and southward from the bay, which is entered through a narrow inlet, the sluggish Almendares River traverses the city from south to north, entering the Straits of Florida a few miles west of the bay. King Philip II of Spain granted Havana the title of City in 1592, walls as well as forts were built to protect the old city. The sinking of the U. S. battleship Maine in Havanas harbor in 1898 was the cause of the Spanish–American War. Contemporary Havana can essentially be described as three cities in one, Old Havana and the suburban districts. The city is the center of the Cuban government, and home to various ministries, headquarters of businesses, the current mayor is Marta Hernández of the Communist Party of Cuba. In 2009, the city/province had the third highest income in the country, the city attracts over a million tourists annually, the Official Census for Havana reports that in 2010 the city was visited by 1,176,627 international tourists, a 20% increase from 2005.
Old Havana was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1982, the city is noted for its history, culture and monuments. As typical of Cuba, Havana features a tropical climate, in May 2015, Havana was officially recognized as one of the New7Wonders Cities together with Vigan, Doha, La Paz, Durban and Kuala Lumpur. Most native settlements became the site of Spanish colonial cities retaining their original Taíno names, an alternate theory is that Habana is derived from the Middle Dutch word havene, referring to a harbour, etymologically related to the English word haven. All attempts to found a city on Cubas south coast failed, however, an early map of Cuba drawn in 1514 places the town at the mouth of this river. The town that became Havana finally originated adjacent to what was called Puerto de Carenas, the quality of this natural bay, which now hosts Havanas harbor, warranted this change of location. Pánfilo de Narváez gave Havana – the sixth town founded by the Spanish on Cuba – its name, the name combines San Cristóbal, patron saint of Havana.
Shortly after the founding of Cubas first cities, the served as little more than a base for the Conquista of other lands. Havana began as a port, and suffered regular attacks by buccaneers, pirates. The first attack and resultant burning of the city was by the French corsair Jacques de Sores in 1555, ships from all over the New World carried products first to Havana, in order to be taken by the fleet to Spain. The thousands of ships gathered in the bay fueled Havanas agriculture and manufacture, since they had to be supplied with food, water. On December 20,1592, King Philip II of Spain granted Havana the title of City, on, the city would be officially designated as Key to the New World and Rampart of the West Indies by the Spanish Crown
Bulgarian Academy of Sciences
The Bulgarian Academy of Sciences is the National Academy of Bulgaria, established in 1869. The Academy, located in Sofia, is autonomous and has a Society of Academicians, Correspondent Members and it publishes and circulates different scientific works, encyclopedias and journals, and runs its own publishing house. Stefan Vodenicharov has been president of the BAS since 2012 and its budget in 2009 was 84 million leva, or 42.7 million euro. The Bulgarian Space Agency, part of the BAS, has a budget of 1 million euro, as Bulgaria was part of the Ottoman Empire, Bulgarian émigrés founded the Bulgarian Literary Society on 26 September 1869, in Brăila in the Kingdom of Romania. Stoyanov – Secretary The following year, the Literary Society began issuing the Periodical Journal, its official publication, the BLS headquarters were completed in 1892. The building was designed by architect Hermann Mayer and was expanded during the 1920s, the Bulgarian Literary Society adopted its present-day name in 1911, and Ivan Geshov became the Academys first president.
The BAS became a member of the Union of Slavonic Academies and Scientific Communities in 1913, each consists of independent scientific institutes and other sections. D. Camp Academia Bulgarian Academy of Sciences official website Institute of Solid State Physics
Royal Danish Academy of Sciences and Letters
The Royal Danish Academy of Sciences and Letters is a Danish non-governmental science Academy, founded in 1742 for the advancement of science in Denmark. It is based in the Carlsberg Foundations building at the corner of H. C, andersens Boulevard and Dantes Plads in central Copenhagen. The Society was founded on 13 November 1742 by permission of King Christian VI and it was founded by secretary of state, Count Johan Ludvig Holstein and the history professor Hans Gram. Andersens Boulevard was designed by Vilhelm Petersen in a Neoclassical style, the Carlsberg Foundation is based in the ground floor while the Royal Academy has the three upper floors. First floor contains the Old Meeting Hall, where the Academy hold their meetings and it is decorated with a large oil painting by Peder Severin Krøyer depicting A meeting in the Royal Scientific Society. There is a library and rooms for researchers, second floor contain the Academys secretariate and archives as the Presidents, General Secretarys and Editors offices.
Third floor now contains New Meeting Room. It was created in the attic and book storage in connection with an adaption of the building in 1976. Since 2009, it has access to a roof terrace, members of the Academy are researching and publishing in nearly all fields of science. The Academy has approximately 250 national and 260 foreign members, olaf Pedersen, Lovers of Learning - A History of the Royal Danish Academy of Sciences and Letters 1742-1992, Munksgaard,1992. Royal Danish Academy of Sciences and Letters Digital archive of Matematisk-fysiske meddelelser from the University of Southern Denmark Library
Latvian Academy of Sciences
The Academy of Sciences is the official science academy of Latvia and is an association of the countrys foremost scientists. The academy was founded as the Latvian SSR Academy of Sciences, the current President of the academy is Ojārs Spārītis. The building is decorated with hammer and sickle symbols as well as Latvian folk ornaments. The spire was decorated with a wreath and a five pointed star. The architecture of the skyscraper resembles many others built in the Soviet Union at the time, local nicknames include Stalins birthday cake and the Kremlin. The view of Riga cityscape is open for viewing from the 17th-floor balcony. The tower is located in the suburb of Maskavas Vorstadt
Lisbon Academy of Sciences
The Lisbon Academy of Sciences is a scholarly society dedicated to the advancement of science and learning, with the goal of promoting academic progress and prosperity in Portugal. It is the utmost scientific authority in Portugal and the regulator of the Portuguese language. The Academy was created on 24 December 1779 in Lisbon, Portugal as the Royal Academy of Sciences, domenico Vandelli was among its mentors and early organizers. The Academy has two classes, the Class of Sciences and the Class of Letters, and each has 30 full members and 60 corresponding members distributed in six sections and it has a number of foreign members. Lisbon Academy of Sciences, Class of Letters Culture of Portugal Science and technology in Portugal Official website
Academy of sciences
An academy of sciences is a type of learned society or academy dedicated to sciences that could be or not state funded. Some state funded academies are tuned into national or royal as a form of honor, the other types of academy is an academy of arts or combination of both. For example, the Australian Academy of Sciences is an organization of natural scientists, there are separate academies for Arts and Social Science. The Hungarian Academy of Science, has members from other areas of academia. Presumably, the Hungarian term tudomány has been translated as science in a sense, as it was used in English 200 years ago. Academies of science play an important role in science diplomacy efforts. S, National Academy of Sciences U. S. National Academy of Engineering U. S
Carlos Juan Finlay was a Cuban epidemiologist recognized as a pioneer in the research of yellow fever, determining that it was transmitted through mosquitoes. Finlay was born Juan Carlos Finlay y de Barrés in Puerto Príncipe, at that time Cuba was part of the Kingdom of Spain. He reversed the order of his names to Carlos Juan in his life. His father was a physician who had fought alongside Simón Bolívar, because the University of Havana would not recognize his European academic credits, he enrolled at Jefferson Medical College in Philadelphia, which did not require prerequisites. Here Finlay met John Kearsley Mitchell, a proponent of the theory of disease, and his son Silas Weir Mitchell. He graduated from Jefferson Medical College in 1855 and he returned to Havana and set up an ophthalmology practice in 1857, and studied in Paris from 1860 to 1861. In October 1865 he married Adela Shine, a native of the Island of Trinidad and they would have three sons, Charles and Frank. Finlays work, carried out during the 1870s, finally came to prominence in 1900 and he presented this theory at the 1881 International Sanitary Conference, where it was well received.
A year Finlay identified a mosquito of the genus Aedes as the organism transmitting yellow fever and his theory was followed by the recommendation to control the mosquito population as a way to control the spread of the disease. His hypothesis and exhaustive proofs were confirmed nearly twenty years by the Walter Reed Commission of 1900, Finlay went on to become the chief health officer of Cuba from 1902 to 1909. Dr. Reed often cited Finlays papers in his own articles, gorgas reduce the incidence and prevalence of mosquito-borne diseases in Panama during the American campaign, from 1903 onwards, to construct the Panama Canal. Prior to this, about 10% of the workforce had died each year from malaria, on Cuba Street in downtown Old Havana, the Revolutionary Government in 1962 founded a medical history museum in honor of Carlos J. Finlay. In the municipality of Marianao, now within the city of Havana, there is a monument in the shape of a syringe, honoring Dr. Finlay, Finlay was commemorated on a 1981 Cuban stamp.
A statue commemorating Dr. Finlay is located on the bayfront in Panama City, the UNESCO Carlos J. Finlay Prize for Microbiology is named in his honor. Finlay was a member of Havanas Royal Academy of Medical and Natural Sciences and he was fluent in French, German and English and could read Latin. His theory that an intermediary host was responsible for the spread of the disease was treated with ridicule for years, a humane man, he often took on patients who could not afford medical care. As a result of his work, Finlay was nominated seven times for the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine and he received the National Order of the Legion of Honour of France in 1908. Finlay died from a stroke, caused by severe brain seizures, in 1928, President Gerardo Machado established the National Order of Merit Carlos J. Finlay, rewarding contributions to healthcare and medicine
Lithuanian Academy of Sciences
Following the 1991 passage of the Law on Research and Higher Education of the Republic of Lithuania, it was reorganized. Its first president was Vincas Krėvė-Mickevičius, followed by Mykolas Biržiška, Vladas Jurgutis, Juozas Matulis, Juras Požela, Benediktas Juodka, the Academy represents the Republic of Lithuania in the following international organizations, ALLEA, ICSU, EASAC, and IAP. In addition to founding several scientific institutions and foundations, it issues publications and textbooks, sponsors symposia and it has established 15 memorial prizes and awards, encourages young scientists and students to engage in research by annually awarding 10 prizes to young scientists and 15 prizes to students. Since 2008 together with the Bank of Lithuania grants Vladas Jurgutis Award, the Academys headquarters are located in Vilnius. Lithuanian Academy of Sciences consist of five departments, sociologija Geografija Geologija Lituanistika Pheromones Menotyra Žemės ūkio mokslai Official website Interacademy Panel on International Issues