A spin is a special category of stall resulting in autorotation about the vertical axis and a shallow, downward path. Spins can be entered intentionally or unintentionally, from any flight attitude if the aircraft has sufficient yaw while at the stall point, either situation causes the aircraft to autorotate toward the stalled wing due to its higher drag and loss of lift. Spins are characterized by high angle of attack, an airspeed below the stall on at least one wing, recovery may require a specific and counterintuitive set of actions in order to avoid a crash. A spin differs from a dive in which neither wing is stalled. A spiral dive is not a type of spin because neither wing is stalled, in the early years of flight, a spin was frequently referred to as a tailspin. A method used to control a spin before it develops is a maneuver called the falling leaf. Many types of airplane will only spin if the pilot simultaneously yaws, under these circumstances, one wing will stall, or stall more deeply than the other.
The wing that stalls first will drop, increasing its angle of attack, at least one wing must be stalled for a spin to occur. The other wing will rise, decreasing its angle of attack, the difference in lift between the two wings causes the aircraft to roll, and the difference in drag causes the aircraft to continue yawing. One common scenario that can lead to a spin is a skidding uncoordinated turn toward the runway during the landing sequence. A pilot who is overshooting the turn to final approach may be tempted to apply more rudder to increase the rate of turn, the result is twofold, the nose of the airplane drops below the horizon and the bank angle increases due to rudder roll. Reacting to these changes, the pilot begins to pull the elevator control aft while applying opposite aileron to decrease bank angle. Taken to its extreme, this can result in a turn with sufficient angle of attack to cause the aircraft to stall. This is called a stall, and is very dangerous if it happens at low altitude where the pilot has little time to recover.
In order to avoid this scenario, pilots are taught the importance of always making coordinated turns and they may simply choose to make the final turn earlier and shallower to prevent an overshoot of the runway center line and provide a larger margin of safety. Certificated, single-engine airplanes must meet criteria regarding stall. Spins are often entered intentionally for training, flight testing, or aerobatics, in aircraft that are capable of recovering from a spin, the spin has four phases. Some aircraft are difficult or impossible to recover from a spin, at low altitude spin recovery may be impossible before impacting terrain, making low and slow aircraft especially vulnerable to spin related accidents
Kirby Chambliss is an American commercial pilot and a renowned world champion in aerobatics. Chambliss was born in Corpus Christi, United States, as a youngster, he wanted to be a pilot. His father was a skydiver, and he loved the steep spiral in the sky the pilot put the plane into when racing the skydivers back to the ground, during his high school years, he fueled aircraft to earn money. By December 1975 at the age of 16, Chambliss debuted in solo flying after formal flight training, in the beginning, he earned his living as a certified flight instructor and as a night freight pilot. His job as a jet pilot enabled him in 1985 to take aerobatic flight training. Winning top honors in his very first contest, Chambliss worked the way up to the elite unlimited level, in 1997, he became member and captain of the US Aerobatic Team. He won five U. S. national championships and 13 medals at the world championships and he holds the title 2000 Mens Freestyle World Champion, and has logged over 27000 flying hours.
In 2013, Chambliss lost power performing a high Alpha pass at the Illopango El Salvador Airshow, Chambliss exited his aircraft with minor injuries after a forced landing on a rocky embankment. Chambliss enjoys performing in traditional airshows throughout the year when he is not training or competing, since 2003, he takes part at the international aerobatic competition Red Bull Air Race World Series as a member of the Red Bull Team along with his team mate Hungarian Péter Besenyei. The champion of 2004, Chambliss finished the 2006 Series as the champion again with four wins of eight rounds on his Zivko Edge 540 aircraft, to stay in shape for enormous g-forces and exact timing, he runs four miles five days a week. He lives with his wife and fellow pilot and their daughter Karly Nicole at the Flying Crown Ranch, Arizona, USA. Legend, CAN, Cancelled DNP, Did not participate DNS, Did not show DQ, Disqualified NC, Not classified Red Bull Air Race World Series official website Team Chambliss official website
International Miniature Aerobatic Club
International Miniature Aerobatic Club is a non-profit organization devoted to flying scale aerobatic model aircraft. IMAC is the governing body responsible for hosting precision aerobatic contests with hundreds of pilots across the United States. The organization was founded in 1974 with 97 chartered members, for safety reasons, IMAC competitions are hosted only at Academy of Model Aeronautics or Model Aeronautics Association of Canada sanctioned flying clubs. IMAC contests are segregated into five levels with an optional sixth class at some events. In addition to programs, a pilot is given unknown programs the day of the competition that can only be attempted once. If a contestant wins five contests in a season, they are required to advance to the higher class at the beginning of the new season. Open to all pilots with a monoplane or biplane aircraft, aircraft at this level do not require a model pilot or dashboard. Unknown programs are limited to one full roll on any line and one roll on any 45 degree line.
Unknown programs cannot contain combination roll elements, unknown programs cannot exceed 1½ rolls on combination or single roll elements, excluding spins. Unknown programs are limited to a roll with any looping maneuvers. Unknown programs cannot exceed 2 rolls on combination or single roll elements, unknown programs are limited to 1½ rolls with any looping maneuvers. Unknown programs cannot exceed 2 rolls on combination or single roll elements, unknown programs are limited to 2½ rolls for downline, and 3 rolls for up line, combination roll elements. Requires pilot to compete in one of the five classes to be eligible. Separate awards offered from main competition, pilots are judge on a combination of Technical Merit, Artistic Impression, and Positioning. Sequences within each class are described using Aresti notation and this provides a standard method of documenting aerobatic maneuvers permitted within each class level for both pilots and judges. Pilots are judged on the quality and precision of their flying skills, each year, an official IMAC committee reviews the flying sequences within each class to makes adjustments as well as to offer new challenges for pilots.
Contestant judging is used to score participating pilots and assign a ranking within each class. Those achieving the highest scores in their class are rewarded with trophies, contest events are regionalized by states and provinces
A falling leaf is an aerobatic maneuver in which an aircraft performs a wings-level stall which begins to induce a spin. This spin is countered with the rudder, which begins a spin in the direction that must be countered with rudder. A falling leaf is a controlled stall performed in a fixed-wing aircraft, the maneuver is performed by purposely stalling the airplane and carefully using the rudder to try to hold the aircraft on a steady course. The falling leaf consists of a constant rotation about the yaw axis while continually changing the direction and this is opposed to a flat spin, where the aircraft constantly rotates around its yaw axis in only one direction, similar to a Frisbee. The falling leaf is sometimes described as walking the aircraft while stalled. The maneuver is performed mostly with the rudder, trimming with the elevator. The rotation may be self-induced, called autorotation, or, in maneuvers like the falling leaf, the incipient spin begins when the aircraft first starts to rotate around the yaw axis.
The rotation causes one wing to move faster than the other, as the aircraft rolls it slips sideways. If the spin is not stopped, the plane continue to roll and slip until it is in an out-of-control. However, if rudder is used to stop the incipient spin before it becomes a full spin, in this case the incipient spin will begin in the opposite direction, so it must be stopped again, and the process is repeated throughout the maneuver. The falling leaf is used as a training maneuver, teaching the pilot to control the plane during a stall. It is generally performed from a low-speed, level stall, to avoid the buffeting, departure from the normal flightpath and it is used in aerobatic competitions and shows as a demonstration maneuver. As the speed drops, the pilot holds the plane as level as possible in both the direction and the lateral direction. When the stall speed is reached, the plane will lose lift, due to the low speed and high angle of attack, the aircraft loses its boundary layer, making the control surfaces barely responsive to pilot inputs.
Therefore, the controls are usually pushed to their maximum limit to get the plane to respond, as the aircraft stalls, the nose will begin to drop. At this point the pilot applies full or nearly full elevator, while holding the ailerons neutral, the pilot applies full rudder in one direction, to induce a spin. When the spin begins, the pilot reverses the rudder direction, the aircraft will roll during the spin and will drop to the side in a slip before the rudder has a chance to take authority over the plane. As the rudder stops the spin, the wings will level, at this time, the pilot reverses the rudder, and this is repeated until the pilot decides to disengage from the maneuver
Marta Bohn-Meyer was an American pilot and engineer. Marta Bohn-Meyer served as engineer of the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center. She was manager in a study of advanced laminar flow wing design using the General Dynamics F-16XL aircraft. Bohn-Meyer was an accomplished Unlimited aerobatic pilot, and was twice a member of the United States Unlimited Aerobatic Team and she served as Team Manager in 2005. The cause of the crash was deemed to be the failure of the front hinge of the canopy - which apparently incapacitated her. She is survived by her husband Robert R. Meyer, Jr. a project manager, biography from NASA Official NASA press release
Julie E. Clark is an aerobatic air show pilot and former commercial airline pilot. She started her commercial flying career with Golden West Airlines as a first officer and she was one of the first female pilots to work for a major airline. She has been voted as Performer of the Year several times for her performance in air shows. Clark has 40 years of experience and 30,000 accident-free hours to her name and flies an average of 20 air shows a year in her Beechcraft T-34 Mentor. Clarks father, Captain Ernest Clark, was an airline pilot and he was murdered in 1964 by a suicidal passenger on Pacific Air Lines Flight 773. All crew and passengers were killed as a result of the passenger shooting both pilots, causing the plane to crash and her mothers death just a year earlier, and her fathers subsequent death, increased her determination to fly. News Profiles Display Julie Clarks website julieclarkairshows. com
World Gliding Championships
The World Gliding Championships is a gliding competition held every two years or so by the FAI Gliding Commission. The dates are not always exactly two years apart, often because the contests are held in the summer in the Southern Hemisphere. Gliding had been a sport at the 1936 Summer Olympics and was due to become an official Olympic sport in the Helsinki Games in 1940. However, since the Second World War, gliding has not featured in the Olympics, there are now contests for six classes of glider and so in recent years the Championships have been divided between two locations. The womens, grand prix and aerobatic events are held separately. Each of the entries give the year and location of the contest followed by the winner of each class, nationality. A list of events is available here Gliding Grand Prix. It has simpler rules and a spectacular appearance than conventional soaring competitions. The Womens World Gliding Championships is a gliding competition. From 1979 to 1999 womens gliding competitions were held as International European Womens Gliding Championships, the Junior World Gliding Championships is a competition for glider pilots under the age of 26.
From 1991 to 1997, international junior gliding competitions were held as European Junior Gliding Championships, World Glider Aerobatic Championships take place each year since 1985 under the auspices of the FAI. They are administrated by the FAI Aerobatics Commission Commission Internationale de Voltige Aerienne, the 2001 championships were part of the World Air Games. Since 1994, European Glider Aerobatic Championships are held in the years between the World Championships, since 2010, an additional event is organized in a slightly less demanding Advanced category - the World Advanced Glider Aerobatic Championships. WAGAC is organized yearly, usually accompanying the WGAC
Hannes Arch was an Austrian pilot who competed in the 2007 Red Bull Air Race World Series season following a round of qualification held in Phoenix, Arizona during October 2006. He joined 13 other pilots,2 of them receiving entry after the Arizona qualifying, Arch won the World Championship in the 2008 season. Hannes Arch was born in Leoben, Austria in 1967, hannes Arch died on 8 September 2016 during a helicopter crash in the Austrian Alps during a helicopter delivery of goods to a remote mountain cabin, the Elberfelder Hütte. Shortly after takeoff at about 9, 15pm, the struck the side of a mountain. Arch died of a neck, a passenger survived the crash. Arch was accompanied in the helicopter by the Mountain Huts Owner Reinhard B. a 62-year-old German who runs an Alpine hut which Arch had delivered supplies to, the German was seriously injured in the crash but survived. Hannes Arch was buried in the company of his closest relatives in Troifaiach on 13 September 2016 and he is survived by his girlfriend, Miriam
Gerhard Fieseler was a German World War I flying ace, aerobatics champion, and aircraft designer and manufacturer. He joined the Air Service of the German Army in 1915, despite a crash during training hospitalizing him until February 1916, he was assigned as an observation pilot by October 1916, flying first with FFA243, with FFA41. In 1917, he qualified as a pilot and was posted on 12 July to the Macedonian front. Fieseler scored his first aerial victory on 20 August 1917, a serious illness removed him from active duty from 21 September until 5 November 1917. Fieseler would not score his second success until 30 January 1918 and he was eventually credited with nineteen confirmed aerial victories, with three others unconfirmed. Commissioned in October 1918, he was the highest-scoring German ace on the Eastern Front to survive World War I and he was awarded the Golden Military Merit Cross and the Iron Cross and second class. Following the war, he returned to printing, but yearned to return to flying, in 1927, he performed a particularly daring routine in Zürich and started to command increasingly high fees for appearances.
In 1928, he designed his own stunt plane, the Fieseler F1, in 1930, Raab-Katzenstien was bankrupt, and Fieseler decided to strike out on his own. Using money he had been saving from his aerobatics, he bought the Segelflugzeugbau Kassel sailplane factory, although he continued with some sailplane manufacturing, from 1932, he set up to start manufacturing sports planes of his own design. In one of aircraft, he went on to win the inaugural World Aerobatic Championship in Paris in 1934, taking home a FF100,000 prize. A NSDAP member, Fieseler won contracts to military aircraft for the new Luftwaffe in 1935. Real success would come the year, when he won a design contest for an STOL observation plane that he went on to produce as the Fieseler Fi 156 Storch. Gerhard Fieseler Werke produced aircraft for the German military throughout World War II, following the war, Fieseler spent some time in US custody. When he was released, he re-opened part of this factory and he published an autobiography, Meine Bahn am Himmel.
Fieseler died in Kassel, aged 91, the aerobatic manoeuvre Fieseler is named after him. Franks, Bailey, Frank W. Guest, above the Lines, The Aces and Fighter Units of the German Air Service, Naval Air Service and Flanders Marine Corps, 1914–1918
Aerobatics is the practice of flying maneuvers involving aircraft altitudes that are not used in normal flight. Aerobatics are performed in airplanes and gliders for training, entertainment, some helicopters, such as the MBB Bo 105, are capable of limited aerobatic maneuvers. An example of a fully aerobatic helicopter, capable of performing loops, the term is sometimes referred to as acrobatics, especially when translated. Most aerobatic maneuvers involve rotation of the aircraft about its longitudinal axis or lateral axis, other maneuvers, such as a spin, displace the aircraft about its vertical axis. Maneuvers are often combined to form a complete sequence for entertainment or competition. Aerobatic flying requires a set of piloting skills and exposes the aircraft to greater structural stress than for normal flight. In some countries, the pilot must wear a parachute when performing aerobatics, aerobatic training enhances a pilots ability to recover from unusual flight conditions, and thus is an element of many flight safety training programs for pilots.
While many pilots fly aerobatics for recreation, some choose to fly in aerobatic competitions, in the early days of flying, some pilots used their aircraft as part of a flying circus to entertain. Among the earliest innovators in aerobatics the Frenchman Euclids name is foremost, maneuvers were flown for artistic reasons or to draw gasps from onlookers. In due course some of these maneuvers were found to allow aircraft to gain tactical advantage during combat or dogfights between fighter aircraft. Aerobatic aircraft fall into two categories—specialist aerobatic, and aerobatic capable, specialist designs such as the Pitts Special, the Extra 200 and 300, and the Sukhoi Su-26M and Sukhoi Su-29 aim for ultimate aerobatic performance. This comes at the expense of general use such as touring. Flight formation aerobatics are flown by teams of up to sixteen aircraft, some are state funded to reflect pride in the armed forces while others are commercially sponsored. Coloured smoke trails may be emitted to emphasise the patterns flown and/or the colours of a national flag, usually each team will use aircraft similar to one another finished in a special and dramatic colour scheme, thus emphasising their entertainment function.
Teams often fly V-formations — they will not fly directly behind another aircraft because of danger from wake vortices or engine exhaust, aircraft will always fly slightly below the aircraft in front, if they have to follow in line. Aerobatic maneuvers flown in an aircraft are limited in scope as they cannot take advantage of the gyroscopic forces that a propeller driven aircraft can exploit. Jet-powered aircraft tend to fly faster, which increases the size of the figures. Jet aerobatic teams often fly in formations, which restricts the maneuvers that can be safely flown
Matthias Dolderer is a German professional race pilot. He is the 2016 champion of the Red Bull Air Race and he was raised at his parent’s flight school and at the early age of five became hooked on machines and fast cars making his first solo flight at 14. His life has revolved around aviation ever since, “Flying was my passion from the very first moment and my inspiration. I’ve spent my life in hangars, on airfields and in cockpits. He gained a glider and ultralight license at the age of 17, just a few days he finished 3rd in the German Championships. From 1988 until 1991, Matthias Dolderer took part in four German and he ended his ultralight aviator career as the German Champion. At 21 he became the youngest flight teacher in Germany, in 2002 he became an official pilot of the Flying Bulls, where he still performs with different aircraft. In 2006, Matthias Dolderer intensified his activities to become a Red Bull Air Race pilot in the near future. Just one year later, he took part at the World Aerobatic Championship, in 2008, Dolderer made his breakthrough after hard training.
He won the German Aerobatic Championship and achieved top standings at international competitions such as the World Aerobatics Cup, Matthias Dolderers achievements opened him the way for an invitation to attend the Red Bull Air Race qualification camp in Casarrubios, Spain, at the end of September 2008. Of the six candidates, five qualified for the super license required to compete in the world championship, Matthias Dolderer was one of four rookies selected for active race status