World War II
World War II, known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although related conflicts began earlier. It involved the vast majority of the worlds countries—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing alliances, the Allies and the Axis. It was the most widespread war in history, and directly involved more than 100 million people from over 30 countries. Marked by mass deaths of civilians, including the Holocaust and the bombing of industrial and population centres. These made World War II the deadliest conflict in human history, from late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, and formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. In December 1941, Japan attacked the United States and European colonies in the Pacific Ocean, and quickly conquered much of the Western Pacific.
The Axis advance halted in 1942 when Japan lost the critical Battle of Midway, near Hawaii, in 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained all of its territorial losses and invaded Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in South Central China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy, thus ended the war in Asia, cementing the total victory of the Allies. World War II altered the political alignment and social structure of the world, the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The victorious great powers—the United States, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union and the United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the Cold War, which lasted for the next 46 years. Meanwhile, the influence of European great powers waned, while the decolonisation of Asia, most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic recovery.
Political integration, especially in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities, the start of the war in Europe is generally held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland and France declared war on Germany two days later. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or even the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred simultaneously and this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935. The British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the forces of Mongolia and the Soviet Union from May to September 1939, the exact date of the wars end is not universally agreed upon.
It was generally accepted at the time that the war ended with the armistice of 14 August 1945, rather than the formal surrender of Japan
Japanese School in London
The Japanese School in London is a Japanese international school in Acton, London Borough of Ealing. The school is incorporated as The Japanese School Limited, the Japanese Saturday School in London, a Japanese supplementary school, is a part of the institution. In 1999 the Saturday school programme had three divisions, elementary school for ages 6–12, junior school for ages 13–15, and senior high school. The school, operated by the Japanese Ministry of Education, was established with the involvement of Japanese companies. It first opened as a school, with four teachers and 20 students. It was upgraded to a supplementary school in 1974 when the Japanese Ministry of Education sent its first teacher. The day school was established on 18 June 1976, the Japanese Ministry of Education had sent Katsuya Tanaka, the first headmaster, to London the previous April. In October 1976 the school had 79 students, with 54 in primary school and 25 in junior high school and that month it moved to several buildings on the property of the Japan Club and the Japan Embassy Information Service Centre.
At the time of the move, the Japanese community had a position of relative expansion, in 1987 the day school had 657 students. In 1991 the school had 980 students, in 1999 the Saturday school had 1,602 students and 82 teachers at three sites, making made it the largest of the eight Japanese Saturday schools in the United Kingdom. At the time the Saturday school had three sites, Acton and Croydon and it was a site of filming for the 2009 film An Education. In 2001 the day school had 583 students, in 2012 most Japanese living in London sent their children to either the Japanese school or to local schools. In 2003 Paul White, author of The Japanese in London, From transience to settlement. That year, the average Saturday school class sizes were 24 pupils per class in school,21.5 pupils per class in junior high school. In 1999 within the Saturday school there were 98 children of mixed British, the Saturday school provided basic classes for these pupils, with those students divided into five classes.
In 1991 teachers of the day school were sent by the Ministry of Education of Japan for secondments of three years, in 1999 the Saturday school had 82 teachers, the majority of whom were women. The Saturday school uses approved textbooks from the Japanese Ministry of Education, the school has a system of buses that picks up and drops off Japanese students living in various areas in London. The school is funded by tuition fees, though it receives a subsidy from the Japanese Ministry of Education
St Benedict's School, Ealing
St Benedicts School, usually referred to as St Benedicts, is a British co-educational independent Roman Catholic day school situated in the Greater London suburb of Ealing, West London. Although a Catholic school it accepts pupils of all faiths, St Benedict’s School, Ealing was established following the arrival of Benedictine monks from Downside Abbey into Ealing in 1897 to found the first Benedictine Abbey in London since the Reformation. Under the leadership of Dom Sebastian Cave, Ealing Priory School, as the School was known, opened on 2 October 1902, the School was founded upon a £5 donation, which was published in the first issue of the Schools Priorian magazine. In 190615 acres, about a mile from the school grounds. By the 1920s Orchard Dene was used for boarders and the school was located in two houses on Eaton Rise, a purpose built school building linking these houses was in use by 1936. During the Second World War pupils were evacuated into the now Junior School – boarding ceased –, the Junior School was spun off as a separate entity with its own headmaster, in 1946.
The Junior Schools first lay headmaster, Dennis McSweeny, was appointed in 2000, the present headmaster, appointed in 2005, is Mr Robert Simmons, himself a former pupil of St Benedicts School. Visits to many places of interest in London, and further afield, extend pupils’ knowledge, in Year 5, pupils visit Normandy and in year 6 they visit the Lake District on a PGL style activity. The school has links with the local and wider community through supporting local and international charities, concern for the environment is demonstrated, for example by the purchase of a piece of land in Central America which has been planted with trees. Each year on the official feast of St Benedict, a school charity day takes place at the end of March to support a charity of the pupils choosing. A co-educational Nursery was founded in 2002, in the building on Montpelier Avenue which formerly housed the Middle School, the Governors have approved plans for a three storey development to replace the existing ‘Ark’ in the Junior School.
Work on this is scheduled to start in summer 2016 and, when complete, this new building will house the Pre-Preps and the Nursery, which will be re-located to the main site. Although St Benedicts was founded as a school, girls have been admitted to the Sixth Form of the Senior School since the 1970s. In June 2006 the Monastic Chapter voted to extend co-education across the whole school, the Senior School became fully co-educational in Michaelmas 2008. As of 2014 girls formed 34% of pupils in the School, in 2016, he was arrested in Kosovo and extradited to the UK to face trial. As a result of the made the Independent Schools Inspectorate said in its 2013 inspection report that the pastoral care at St Benedicts was excellent. In October 2011 the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith ordered its own enquiry into the same matters, to be conducted by Bishop John Arnold. However, it was reiterated by the CPS that there was no evidence that Allott had abused his position of trust within the school, and no offensive material was found within the school
Hanwell is a town in the London Borough of Ealing, west London, England. Hanwell is about 2.5 km west of Ealing Broadway and it is the westernmost location of the LONDON post town. The earliest surviving reference is AD959 when it is recorded as Hanewelle in pledge, the origin of the name is uncertain, various suggestions have been put forward. Near to the old Rectory and close to Hanwell spring is a stone of about a ton in weight. In Anglo-Saxon the word Han denoted a boundary stone and this juxtaposition of these two natural features could have given rise to the name Han-well which dates back to before the Domesday Book. The original borders of the parish stretched from the bend of the River Brent at Greenford and its geography, before the draining of the marshes, formed a natural boundary between the different tribes of the south east of England. This gives some support to the suggestion that Han came from the Saxon han for cockerel, if so, the name is derived from Han-créd-welle. Han-créd or cock-crow meant the border between night and day, and is neither one nor the other, so Hanwell would mean well upon the boundary.
For more see, River Brent, the only other Hanwell in Britain is a small parish in Oxfordshire on the boundary with Warwickshire. The Uxbridge Road was turnpiked between Uxbridge and Tyburn in 1714, the revenue from tolls enabled an all-weather metaled road surface of compacted gravel to be laid down. This constant movement of people along the road, brought about the establishment of coaching inns along the road as it crossed the River Brent and passed through the parish of Hanwell. In these inns, travellers could stable their horses, place their carts or goods in storage and secure board. The first inn on crossing the River Brent is The Viaduct which is on the north side, named after the Wharncliffe Viaduct, its original name was the Coach and Horses. At the back of the pub, some of the stable building can be seen. Early in the 20th century, The Viaduct received a new faïence façade which Nikolaus Pevsner succinctly described as a jolly tiled Edwardian pub, today the profusion of street furniture detracts somewhat from the original impact that these rich mid-browns and mid-cream glazed tiles gave the building.
Next was the Duke of Wellington which lay approximately 400 m closer to London on the side of the road. However, this had been demolished by the 1920s and was not rebuilt, established in the 18th century, it has been subsequently rebuilt in the Tudorbethan style. The next pub occupies the site of what was probably the very first inn to be established on the Oxford Road as it ran through Hanwell and it lies on the south side of the road
Sir Charles Spencer Charlie Chaplin, KBE was an English comic actor and composer who rose to fame during the era of silent film. Chaplin became an icon through his screen persona the Tramp and is considered one of the most important figures in the history of the film industry. His career spanned more than 75 years, from childhood in the Victorian era until a year before his death in 1977, Chaplins childhood in London was one of poverty and hardship. As his father was absent and his mother struggled financially, he was sent to a workhouse twice before the age of nine, when he was 14, his mother was committed to a mental asylum. Chaplin began performing at an age, touring music halls and working as a stage actor. At 19 he was signed to the prestigious Fred Karno company, Chaplin was scouted for the film industry, and began appearing in 1914 for Keystone Studios. He soon developed the Tramp persona and formed a fan base. Chaplin directed his own films from a stage, and continued to hone his craft as he moved to the Essanay, Mutual.
By 1918, he was one of the best known figures in the world, in 1919, Chaplin co-founded the distribution company United Artists, which gave him complete control over his films. His first feature-length was The Kid, followed by A Woman of Paris, The Gold Rush and he refused to move to sound films in the 1930s, instead producing City Lights and Modern Times without dialogue. Chaplin became increasingly political, and his film, The Great Dictator. The 1940s were a decade marked with controversy for Chaplin, and he was accused of communist sympathies, while his involvement in a paternity suit and marriages to much younger women caused scandal. An FBI investigation was opened, and Chaplin was forced to leave the United States and he abandoned the Tramp in his films, which include Monsieur Verdoux, Limelight, A King in New York, and A Countess from Hong Kong. Chaplin wrote, produced, starred in and he was a perfectionist, and his financial independence enabled him to spend years on the development and production of a picture.
His films are characterised by slapstick combined with pathos, typified in the Tramps struggles against adversity, many contain social and political themes, as well as autobiographical elements. In 1972, as part of an appreciation for his work. He continues to be held in regard, with The Gold Rush, City Lights, Modern Times. Charles Spencer Chaplin was born on 16 April 1889 to Hannah Chaplin, there is no official record of his birth, although Chaplin believed he was born at East Street, Walworth, in South London
City of London
The City of London is a city and county within London. It constituted most of London from its settlement by the Romans in the 1st century AD to the Middle Ages, the City is now only a tiny part of the metropolis of London, though it remains a notable part of central London. Administratively, it one of the 33 local authority districts of Greater London, the City of London is not a London borough. The City of London is widely referred to simply as the City and is colloquially known as the Square Mile. Both of these terms are often used as metonyms for the United Kingdoms trading and financial services industries. The name London is now used for a far wider area than just the City. London most often denotes the sprawling London metropolis, or the 32 London boroughs and this wider usage of London is documented as far back as 1888, when the County of London was created. The local authority for the City, namely the City of London Corporation, is unique in the UK and has some unusual responsibilities for a local council and it is unusual in having responsibilities and ownerships beyond its boundaries.
The Corporation is headed by the Lord Mayor of the City of London, the current Lord Mayor, as of November 2016, is Andrew Parmley. The City is a business and financial centre. Throughout the 19th century, the City was the primary business centre. London came top in the Worldwide Centres of Commerce Index, published in 2008, the insurance industry is focused around the eastern side of the City, around Lloyds building. A secondary financial district exists outside of the City, at Canary Wharf,2.5 miles to the east, the City has a resident population of about 7,000 but over 300,000 people commute to and work there, mainly in the financial services sector. It used to be held that Londinium was first established by merchants as a trading port on the tidal Thames in around 47 AD. However, this date is only supposition, many historians now believe London was founded some time before the Roman conquest of Britain in 43 AD. They base this notion on evidence provided by both archaeology and Welsh literary legend, archaeologists have claimed that as much as half of the best British Iron Age art and metalwork discovered in Britain has been found in the London area.
One of the most prominent examples is the famously horned Waterloo Helmet dredged from the Thames in the early 1860s and now exhibited at the British Museum. Also, according to an ancient Welsh legend, a king named Lud son of Heli substantially enlarged and improved a pre-existing settlement at London which afterwards came to be renamed after him, the same tradition relates how this Lud son of Heli was buried at Ludgate