Winsford is a town and civil parish within the unitary authority of Cheshire West and Chester and the ceremonial county of Cheshire, England. It lies on the River Weaver south of Northwich and west of Middlewich, grew around the salt mining industry after the river was canalised in the 18th century, allowing freight to be conveyed northwards to the Port of Runcorn on the River Mersey; the town falls into the Winsford & Northwich Locality which has a 2017 Population estimate of 103,300, Winsford itself with its 3 wards make up around 32,610 of this figure. Winsford is split into three neighbourhoods: Over on the western side of the River Weaver, Wharton on the eastern side, Swanlow and Dene. Kings Henry III and Edward I held court at Darnhall near Winsford The latter king founded Vale Royal Abbey at Darnhall, but moved it in 1277 to near Whitegate. A charter to hold a Wednesday market and an annual fair at Over was granted on 24 November 1280 by Edward I to the Abbot and convent of Vale Royal Abbey.
From this charter can be traced the origins of the market, still held in the town. In 2012, the charter grant was used to revive an annual fair in Winsford, with the name of Winsford Salt Fair; the Government gave permission for artificial improvements to the River Weaver in 1721 to allow large barges to reach Winsford from the port of Liverpool. At first, this was the closest that barges carrying china clay from Cornwall could get to the Potteries district of north Staffordshire, rapidly developing as the major centre of ceramic production in Britain. Cornish china clay was used in the production of stoneware; the clay was taken overland from Winsford by pack horse to manufacturers in the Potteries, a distance of about 30 miles. Locally produced salt was transported to the Potteries, for use in the manufacture of salt-glazed stoneware. Finished ceramics from the Potteries were brought back to Winsford, for export through the Port of Liverpool; that trade ended in the 1780s when the Trent and Mersey Canal opened and carried the goods through Middlewich, bypassing Winsford.
The canalised River Weaver was the inspiration for the Duke of Bridgewater's canals, the engineer for the Weaver Navigation, Edwin Leader Williams and built the Manchester Ship Canal. From the 1830s, salt became important to Winsford because the salt mines under Northwich had begun to collapse and another source of salt near the River Weaver was needed. A new source was discovered in Winsford, leading to the development of a salt industry along the course of the River Weaver, where many factories were established; as a result, a new town developed within 1 mi of the old Borough of Over, focused on Delamere Street. Most of the early development took place on the other side of the river, with new housing, pubs, chapels and a new church being built in the former hamlet of Wharton; as the prevailing winds blew the smoke away from Over, it became the place for the wealthier inhabitants to live. However, barge workers and others working in Winsford started to develop the area along the old Over Lane, now the High Street.
The old borough had been connected by the 1860s. By the Second World War, employment in the salt trade had declined as one company took control of all the salt works and introduced methods of manufacture that needed much less labour. Slum clearance started in the 1930s and, by the 1950s three new housing estates had been built on both sides of the river to replace sub-standard homes; however in the 1960s, Winsford could be described as "one long line of terraced houses from the station to Salterswall". The town experienced a major expansion in the late 1960s and 1970s with its designation as an Expanded Town under the Town Development Act 1952 to take overspill from Liverpool; this saw the development of two new industrial areas on both sides of the town, new estates of council and private housing and a new shopping centre with a library, sports centre, civic hall and doctors' surgeries. But the town's population did not grow as much as planned, so the new civic buildings were too large for the population.
The expansion led to a mix of people in the town, comprising the original Cheshire residents and a large wave of migrants from Liverpool. There was some friction between "Old" and "New" Winsfordians; the term "Woolyback" for "Old" Winsfordians was a common term of abuse related to their supposed rural roots. These tensions have now subsided. Vale Royal Borough Council was formed in 1974, covering Winsford, Northwich and a large rural area of mid-Cheshire. In 1991, the council moved its main office from Northwich to a purpose-built headquarters in Winsford, which since April 2009 has been used by its successor authority Cheshire West and Chester Council; the same building houses Winsford Town Council. Since both Cheshire Fire Service and Cheshire Police have moved headquarters from the county town of Chester to Winsford; the local hamlets and villages of Moulton, Stanthorne, Wettenhall are all within the towns limits and use the towns resources Currently there are two layers of local government with responsibility for Winsford, Cheshire West and Chester Council, the town council.
There used to be three tiers, however Vale Royal Borough Council and Cheshire County Council were abolished on 31 March 2009. The town is represented by Member of Parliament for Eddisbury. Winsford is served by two Cheshire Police teams. Winsford Neighbourhood Policing Team covers the town centre and Wharton, the Western Rural Neighbourhood Policing Team covers St Chads and Darnhall. A small area in the south of the civil parish fall
Chester is a walled city in Cheshire, England, on the River Dee, close to the border with Wales. With a population of 118,200 in 2011, it is the most populous settlement of Cheshire West and Chester, which had a population of 332,200 in 2014. Chester was granted city status in 1541. Chester was founded as a "castrum" or Roman fort with the name Deva Victrix in the reign of the Emperor Vespasian in 79 AD. One of the main army camps in Roman Britain, Deva became a major civilian settlement. In 689, King Æthelred of Mercia founded the Minster Church of West Mercia, which became Chester's first cathedral, the Saxons extended and strengthened the walls to protect the city against the Danes. Chester was one of the last cities in England to fall to the Normans. William the Conqueror ordered the construction of a castle, to dominate the town and the nearby Welsh border. Chester is one of the best preserved walled cities in Britain, it has a number of medieval buildings, but some of the black-and-white buildings within the city centre are Victorian restorations.
Apart from a 100-metre section, the listed Grade I walls are complete. The Industrial Revolution brought railways and new roads to the city, which saw substantial expansion and development – Chester Town Hall and the Grosvenor Museum are examples of Victorian architecture from this period; the Roman Legio II Adiutrix during the reign of the Emperor Vespasian founded Chester in AD 79, as a "castrum" or Roman fort with the name Deva Victrix. It was established in the land of the Celtic Cornovii, according to ancient cartographer Ptolemy, as a fortress during the Roman expansion northward, was named Deva either after the goddess of the Dee, or directly from the British name for the river. The'victrix' part of the name was taken from the title of the Legio XX Valeria Victrix, based at Deva. Central Chester's four main roads, Northgate and Bridgegate, follow routes laid out at this time. A civilian settlement grew around the military base originating from trade with the fortress; the fortress was 20% larger than other fortresses in the Roman province of Britannia built around the same time at York and Caerleon.
The civilian amphitheatre, built in the 1st century, could seat between 8,000 and 10,000 people. It is the largest known military amphitheatre in Britain, is a Scheduled Monument; the Minerva Shrine in the Roman quarry is the only rock cut. The fortress was garrisoned by the legion until at least the late 4th century. Although the army had abandoned the fortress by 410 when the Romans retreated from Britannia, the Romano-British civilian settlement continued and its occupants continued to use the fortress and its defences as protection from raiders from the Irish Sea. After the Roman troops withdrew, the Romano-British established a number of petty kingdoms. Chester is thought to have become part of Powys. Deverdoeu was a Welsh name for Chester as late as the 12th century. Another, attested in the 9th-century History of the Britons traditionally attributed to Nennius, is Cair Legion. King Arthur is said to have fought his ninth battle at the "city of the legions" and St Augustine came to the city to try to unite the church, held his synod with the Welsh Bishops.
In 616, Æthelfrith of Northumbria defeated a Welsh army at the brutal and decisive Battle of Chester, established the Anglo-Saxon position in the area from on. The Northumbrian Anglo-Saxons used an Old English equivalent of the British name, Legacæstir, current until the 11th century, when, in a further parallel with Welsh usage, the first element fell out of use and the simple name Chester emerged. In 689, King Æthelred of Mercia founded the Minster Church of West Mercia on what is considered to be an early Christian site: it is known as the Minster of St John the Baptist, Chester which became the first cathedral. Much the body of Æthelred's niece, St Werburgh, was removed from Hanbury in Staffordshire in the 9th century and, to save it from desecration by Danish marauders, was reburied in the Church of SS Peter & Paul - to become the Abbey Church, her name is still remembered in St Werburgh's Street which passes alongside the cathedral, near the city walls. The Saxons extended and strengthened the walls of Chester to protect the city against the Danes, who occupied it for a short time until Alfred seized all the cattle and laid waste the surrounding land to drive them out.
It was Lady of the Mercians, that built the new Saxon burh. A new Church dedicated to St Peter alone was founded in AD 907 by the Lady Æthelfleda at what was to become the Cross. In 973, the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records that, two years after his coronation at Bath, King Edgar of England came to Chester where he held his court in a palace in a place now known as Edgar's Field near the old Dee bridge in Handbridge. Taking the helm of a barge, he was rowed the short distance up the River Dee from Edgar's Field to the great Minster Church of St John the Baptist by six (the monk Henry Bradshaw records he
United Kingdom census, 2001
A nationwide census, known as Census 2001, was conducted in the United Kingdom on Sunday, 29 April 2001. This was the 20th UK census and recorded a resident population of 58,789,194; the 2001 UK census was organised by the Office for National Statistics in England and Wales, the General Register Office for Scotland and the Northern Ireland Statistics and Research Agency. Detailed results by region, council area and output area are available from their respective websites. Similar to previous UK censuses, the 2001 census was organised by the three statistical agencies, ONS, GROS, NISRA, coordinated at the national level by the Office for National Statistics; the Orders in Council to conduct the census, specifying the people and information to be included in the census, were made under the authority of the Census Act 1920 in Great Britain, the Census Act 1969 in Northern Ireland. In England and Wales these regulations were made by the Census Order 2000, in Scotland by the Census Order 2000, in Northern Ireland by the Census Order 2000.
The census was administered through self-completion forms, in most cases delivered by enumerators to households and communal establishments in the three weeks before census night on 29 April. For the first time return by post was used as the main collection method, with enumerators following up in person where the forms were not returned; the postal response rate was 88% in England and Wales, 91% in Scotland, 92% in Northern Ireland. A total of 81,000 field staff were employed across the UK; the census was conducted at the height of the foot-and-mouth crisis, which led to extra precautions being adopted by the field staff, suggestions that the census may have to be postponed. However, it was reported that the disease outbreak did not affect the effectiveness of the collection process; the census was estimated to cost £259m over its 13-year cycle from the start of planning in 1993 to the delivery of final results in 2006. Printing of the 30 million census forms was subcontracted to Polestar Group, processing of the returned census forms was subcontracted to Lockheed Martin in a contract worth £54m.
The forms were scanned into digital format read with OMR and OCR, with manual entry where the automatic process could not read the forms. The forms were pulped and recycled, the digital copies printed onto microfilm for storage and release after 100 years. Once the data were returned to the statistics agencies it underwent further processing to ensure consistency and to impute missing values; the overall response rate for the census, the proportion of the population who were included on a census form, was estimated to be 94% in England and Wales, 96.1% in Scotland and 95.2% in Northern Ireland. This was due to a number of factors: households with no response, households excluding residents from their returns, addresses not included in the enumeration. In Manchester for example 25,000 people from 14,000 addresses were not enumerated because the address database was two years out of date; the Local Authority with the lowest response was Kensington and Chelsea with 64%. Hackney had the next lowest response at 72%.
Out of all local authorities, the ten lowest response rates were all in London. The results still represent 100 per cent of the population, because some individuals not completing their forms were instead identified by census enumerators, through the use of cross-matching with a follow-up survey; the results from the 2001 census were produced using a methodology known as the One Number Census. This was an attempt to adjust the census counts and impute answers to allow for estimated under-enumeration measured by the Census Coverage Survey, resulting in a single set of population estimates. Although the 1851 census had included a question about religion on a separate response sheet, whose completion was not compulsory, the 2001 census was the first in Great Britain to ask about the religion of respondents on the main census form. An amendment to the 1920 Census Act was passed by Parliament to allow the question to be asked, to allow the response to this question to be optional; the inclusion of the question enabled the Jedi census phenomenon to take place in the United Kingdom.
In England and Wales 390,127 people stated their religion as Jedi. The percentages of religious affiliations were: Christian: 72.0% Muslim: 3% Hindu: 1% Sikh: 0.6% Jewish: 0.5% Buddhist: 0.3% Any other religion: 0.3%15% declared themselves of no religion and 8% did not respond to the question. After the 2001 census it became clear that the statistics for those adhering to the Neopagan group of religions were inaccurately recorded; this was caused by a dilution of statistics, with some adherents entering "Pagan" and others entering their individual religions such as "Wiccan" or "Druid", which fall under the umbrella term of "Pagan", leaving a significant number of people unaccounted for. The situation was worsened when the Heathenism statistics were grouped in with Atheism by the Office for National Statistics; the Pagan Federation and the "PaganDash" campaign lobbied for a separate tickbox for Paganism on the 2011 census, but were unsuccessful. The census ethnic groups included White, Asian or Asian British, Black or Black British (
Allostock is a village and civil parish in the unitary authority of Cheshire West and Chester and the ceremonial county of Cheshire, about five miles south of Knutsford and 20 miles south of Manchester. Allostock was in the borough of Vale Royal until it was abolished on 1 April 2009 to form Cheshire West and Chester. Allostock is located on an affluent of the river Weaver, it had a population of 816 according to the 2011 census data as well as 325 households. John Bartholemew wrote this in 1887 about Allostock: "Allostock, Great Budworth par. Mid. Cheshire, 5 miles S. of Knutsford, 3017 ac. pop. 501." Allostock's name was developed from the Old English word ` Lostock'. The first part of the name, added to distinguish it from Lostock Gralam, may be from'Hall', or from'Auld' or'Old Lostock' which led to the name Allostock. Despite it being overlooked in the Doomsday Book, the origin of the name implies that the piggery was a growing concern before the Norman invasion and even the Romans; the earliest recorded reference of'Alostocke' was in the 13th century in the Leycester of Tabley papers.
During the Saxon settlement in the 7th-century part of today's Allostock was named'Bradshaw'. The name still exists in Brook, with Bradshaw Brook Farm, Bradshaw Brook Methodist church and Bradshaw House. Shakerley Mere is a former sand quarry, filled with water when production was stopped in the 1960s, it is home to much wildlife, where dog walking are popular activities around the area. There are two churches in Allostock, one is part of the ecclesiastical parish of St Oswald's, Lower Peover. There is Bradshaw Brooks Methodist church on Middlewich road. Allostock has no school and younger children attend Byley School – some going to Lower Peover C. E. Primary School. Older children can go to Holmes Chapel Comprehensive and Knutsford and Middlewich have comprehensive schools. There are three pubs/restaurants in Allostock, The Drovers Arms, The Three Greyhounds on the junction between Middlewich road and Holmes Chapel road, The Cottage located on the A50. Hulme Hall with its moat and medieval bridge is Allostock's oldest and most archaeologically significant monument.
The site is an English Heritage Scheduled Ancient Monument and the Hall and bridge are Grade II* listed structures. Danes settled at Hulme Hall in the 10th and 11th century and there are records than an Anglo-Norse squire who lived here, perished in the Battle of Namptwiche in the Northern Rebellion of 1069. "Houlme" was an early version of the Norse word meaning "land above the water" or "island". The Shakerleys built the 15th-century bridge, one entrance to Hulme Hall across the moat, 20 yards wide; the other entrance is reputed to be the site of the old drawbridge. Recent renovations have found evidence of medieval and earlier occupation, a record of, with the Chester Records Office. Allostock has links dating back to the 7th century. With known records of Allostock dating to the 13th century. Allostock is known with strong connections to the Grosvenors and the Shakerleys; the manor of Allostock was conveyed to the Grosvenors in the reign of Edward I by John de Lostock. The Grosvenors had their chief seat at Hulme in this township, till the death of Robert Grosvenor Esq. in whom the male line of the elder line became extinct in 1465, when his estates were divided between his daughters.
A part of the manor was inherited by Sir John Leicester, who married one of the heiresses of the Grosvenors. Mr Shakerley inherited a fifth from his ancestor, of Booths. In 1234 Richard Grosvenor of Hulme took over Hulme Hall from another Norman family; this Richard Grosvenor was related to the first Norman Earl of Chester. In 1269 Richard built a Chapel of Ease at Lower Peover to save the long journey to Great Budworth. In 1464 Robert Grosvenor had a Chantry Chapel built at Lower Peover, pulled down in 1547 under Henry VIII; the Grosvenors established Hulme Mill and Bradshaw Brook was diverted about ¾ of a mile to obtain a better head of water. In 1453 the Shakerleys inherited Hulme Hall and about 1000 acres of Allostock's 3000 acres, through the female line. Several of the Shakerleys are buried in the Shakerley Chapel in the south aisle of Lower Peover Church where memorials may be seen including one to Sir Geoffrey Shakerley who fought for the King in the Civil War. At the Battle of Rowton Moor near Chester, Sir Geoffrey rowed across the Dee in an old tub with his horse swimming beside him.
Roundheads were blocking the roads and he needed to warn the King. The King hesitated with his orders. Sir Geoffrey rowed back but arrived too late and the battle was lost. In Lower Peover Church the Shakerley crest can still be seen on several of the box pew ends; the pews were reserved for the Shakerley tenants. In 1720 the Shakerleys built Somerford Hall as their main residence and Hulme Hall became a farm house. Listed buildings in Allostock
Neston is a small residential town and civil parish in the borough of Cheshire West and Chester. It is situated on the part of the Wirral Peninsula that remains in the ceremonial county of Cheshire, England. Parkgate is located to the north west and the villages of Little Neston and Ness to the south of the town. At the 2001 Census the population of Neston ward was recorded as 3,521, increasing to 4,329 at the 2011 Census; the town and civil parish includes Little Neston. The name is of Viking origin, deriving from the Old Norse Nes-tún, meaning'farmstead at/near the promontory'. Another Nesttun town can be found near Norway, it is mentioned in the Domesday Book as Nestone under the ownership of a William Fitznigel. A royal charter was granted to Neston in 1728 in support of its status as a market town; the current town was known as Great Neston, in order to be distinct from the smaller nearby hamlet of Little Neston. Before the rise of Birkenhead in the 1820s, it was the largest town in the Wirral Hundred.
Great Neston included the hamlets of Clayhill, Hinderton and part of Parkgate. The population of Great Neston was 1,486 in 1801 and 1,524 in 1851. In 1894, both Great Neston and Little Neston were combined to create Neston-cum-Parkgate and by 1901, the population had risen to 2,201. Neston was a major port before the River Dee silted up; the port was shifted further downstream to the nearby town of Parkgate, although by early nineteenth century, most traffic had transferred to Liverpool. Neston is a former mining town, with a colliery located at the nearby hamlet of Denhall. Opened in 1760 by Sir John Stanley, the coal mine consisted of numerous shafts, some of which were dug out underneath the river. Due to the silting up of the River Dee, coal shipments to Ireland and North Wales ended. Alternative custom was secured from the railways, brought about by the building of a link to the constructed Chester & Birkenhead Railway's branch to Parkgate; the Wirral Colliery at Neston was taken over by the British government during the First World War.
The pit subsequently returned to private ownership after the war, but increasing competition from larger mines precipitated in its closure in 1928. Suburban localities of Neston are: Ness Clayhill Burton Little Neston Hinderton ParkgatePrevious suburbs of Neston: Leighton Nessholt The A540 road links Neston to Heswall and West Kirby to the north, Cheshire and North Wales to the south. Neston is close to the M53 and M56 motorways, giving it access to Liverpool and the larger M6 motorway. Neston railway station is situated on the Borderlands Line, providing direct services southbound to Flintshire and Wrexham, northbound to Bidston in Birkenhead, with connecting services to the Merseyrail network. Merseytravel have been investigating the possibility of linking up the Bidston - Wrexham line to the electrified Merseyrail system. One of the main local attractions is Ness Botanic Gardens, opened in 1898 and administered by the University of Liverpool. On the first Thursday of June, Neston annually celebrates Ladies Day.
This is a unique marching day that has links to the Neston Female Friendly Society during the Napoleonic War. Neston has a Cricket Club located in Parkgate that plays in the Cheshire County Cricket ECB Premier League. Members of Neston Cricket Club can play bowls, squash and tennis. Neston High School serves the local secondary age students. Christianity: 82.6% No Religion: 10.7% Non Specified: 6.1% Muslim: 0.2% Jewish: 0.1% Buddhism: 0.2% Sikh: 0.1% Other: 0.1% Recently, Neston has undergone an assessment to attract more income and tourists, in the form of the Neston Market Town Initiative. The project included the launch of a new town website; the NMTI involved improving the'look' of the town centre and controversial plans regarding a new supermarket on the site of Brook Street car park. Work for the new supermarket began in March 2009 with a full archaeological dig being carried out on the car park site before construction work began. Work to excavate the site began in August 2009, a total of 28,000 cubic meters of earth was removed to allow for the construction of a multi story car park.
The new Sainsbury's store was opened on 1 December 2010. On 31 March 2008 the Market Town Initiative project was completed; the community regeneration work will be continued by a new local community association, ch64inc, by the establishment of a Town Council in 2009. Thomas Wilson Bishop of Sodor and Man between 1697 and 1755. Emma, Lady Hamilton an English model and actress, mistress of Lord Nelson and muse of the portrait artist, George Romney Sir Wilfred Grenfell KCMG a medical missionary to Newfoundland Lieutenant Colonel Christopher Bushell VC DSO an English recipient of the Victoria Cross Billy Congreve VC, DSO, MC an English recipient of the Victoria Cross Rosalind Hill, historian George Ward Gunn VC MC an English recipient of the Victoria Cross Ralph Millington an English footballer who played 357 games for Tranmere Rovers F. C. Sir Tim Hunt FRS FMedSci FRSE MAE a British biochemist and molecular physiologist, jointly awarded the 2001 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for discoveries about protein molecules Patrick Wormald a British historian and acade
Wales is a country, part of the United Kingdom and the island of Great Britain. It is bordered by England to the east, the Irish Sea to the north and west, the Bristol Channel to the south, it had a population in 2011 of 3,063,456 and has a total area of 20,779 km2. Wales has over 1,680 miles of coastline and is mountainous, with its higher peaks in the north and central areas, including Snowdon, its highest summit; the country has a changeable, maritime climate. Welsh national identity emerged among the Britons after the Roman withdrawal from Britain in the 5th century, Wales is regarded as one of the modern Celtic nations. Llywelyn ap Gruffudd's death in 1282 marked the completion of Edward I of England's conquest of Wales, though Owain Glyndŵr restored independence to Wales in the early 15th century; the whole of Wales was annexed by England and incorporated within the English legal system under the Laws in Wales Acts 1535 and 1542. Distinctive Welsh politics developed in the 19th century. Welsh liberalism, exemplified in the early 20th century by Lloyd George, was displaced by the growth of socialism and the Labour Party.
Welsh national feeling grew over the century. Established under the Government of Wales Act 1998, the National Assembly for Wales holds responsibility for a range of devolved policy matters. At the dawn of the Industrial Revolution, development of the mining and metallurgical industries transformed the country from an agricultural society into an industrial nation. Two-thirds of the population live in South Wales, including Cardiff, Swansea and the nearby valleys. Now that the country's traditional extractive and heavy industries have gone or are in decline, Wales' economy depends on the public sector and service industries and tourism. Although Wales shares its political and social history with the rest of Great Britain, a majority of the population in most areas speaks English as a first language, the country has retained a distinct cultural identity and is bilingual. Over 560,000 Welsh language speakers live in Wales, the language is spoken by a majority of the population in parts of the north and west.
From the late 19th century onwards, Wales acquired its popular image as the "land of song", in part due to the eisteddfod tradition. At many international sporting events, such as the FIFA World Cup, Rugby World Cup and the Commonwealth Games, Wales has its own national teams, though at the Olympic Games, Welsh athletes compete as part of a Great Britain team. Rugby union is seen as an expression of national consciousness; the English words "Wales" and "Welsh" derive from the same Germanic root, itself derived from the name of the Gaulish people known to the Romans as Volcae and which came to refer indiscriminately to all non-Germanic peoples. The Old English-speaking Anglo-Saxons came to use the term Wælisc when referring to the Britons in particular, Wēalas when referring to their lands; the modern names for some Continental European lands and peoples have a similar etymology. In Britain, the words were not restricted to modern Wales or to the Welsh but were used to refer to anything that the Anglo-Saxons associated with the Britons, including other non-Germanic territories in Britain and places in Anglo-Saxon territory associated with Britons, as well as items associated with non-Germanic Europeans, such as the walnut.
The modern Welsh name for themselves is Cymry, Cymru is the Welsh name for Wales. These words are descended from the Brythonic word combrogi, meaning "fellow-countrymen"; the use of the word Cymry as a self-designation derives from the location in the post-Roman Era of the Welsh people in modern Wales as well as in northern England and southern Scotland. It emphasised that the Welsh in modern Wales and in the Hen Ogledd were one people, different from other peoples. In particular, the term was not applied to the Cornish or the Breton peoples, who are of similar heritage and language to the Welsh; the word came into use as a self-description before the 7th century. It is attested in a praise poem to Cadwallon ap Cadfan c. 633. In Welsh literature, the word Cymry was used throughout the Middle Ages to describe the Welsh, though the older, more generic term Brythoniaid continued to be used to describe any of the Britonnic peoples and was the more common literary term until c. 1200. Thereafter Cymry prevailed as a reference to the Welsh.
Until c. 1560 the word was spelt Kymry or Cymry, regardless of whether it referred to the people or their homeland. The Latinised forms of these names, Cambrian and Cambria, survive as lesser-used alternative names for Wales and the Welsh people. Examples include the Cambrian Mountains, the newspaper Cambrian News, the organisations Cambrian Airways, Cambrian Railways, Cambrian Archaeological Association and the Royal Cambrian Academy of Art. Outside Wales, a related form survives as the name Cumbria in North West England, once a part of Yr Hen Ogledd; the Cumbric language, thought to
England is a country, part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to Scotland to the north-northwest; the Irish Sea lies west of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south; the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight. The area now called England was first inhabited by modern humans during the Upper Palaeolithic period, but takes its name from the Angles, a Germanic tribe deriving its name from the Anglia peninsula, who settled during the 5th and 6th centuries. England became a unified state in the 10th century, since the Age of Discovery, which began during the 15th century, has had a significant cultural and legal impact on the wider world; the English language, the Anglican Church, English law – the basis for the common law legal systems of many other countries around the world – developed in England, the country's parliamentary system of government has been adopted by other nations.
The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the world's first industrialised nation. England's terrain is chiefly low hills and plains in central and southern England. However, there is upland and mountainous terrain in the west; the capital is London, which has the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. England's population of over 55 million comprises 84% of the population of the United Kingdom concentrated around London, the South East, conurbations in the Midlands, the North West, the North East, Yorkshire, which each developed as major industrial regions during the 19th century; the Kingdom of England – which after 1535 included Wales – ceased being a separate sovereign state on 1 May 1707, when the Acts of Union put into effect the terms agreed in the Treaty of Union the previous year, resulting in a political union with the Kingdom of Scotland to create the Kingdom of Great Britain. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The name "England" is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means "land of the Angles"; the Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages. The Angles came from the Anglia peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea; the earliest recorded use of the term, as "Engla londe", is in the late-ninth-century translation into Old English of Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People. The term was used in a different sense to the modern one, meaning "the land inhabited by the English", it included English people in what is now south-east Scotland but was part of the English kingdom of Northumbria; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle recorded that the Domesday Book of 1086 covered the whole of England, meaning the English kingdom, but a few years the Chronicle stated that King Malcolm III went "out of Scotlande into Lothian in Englaland", thus using it in the more ancient sense.
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its modern spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, Germania, in which the Latin word Anglii is used; the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars. How and why a term derived from the name of a tribe, less significant than others, such as the Saxons, came to be used for the entire country and its people is not known, but it seems this is related to the custom of calling the Germanic people in Britain Angli Saxones or English Saxons to distinguish them from continental Saxons of Old Saxony between the Weser and Eider rivers in Northern Germany. In Scottish Gaelic, another language which developed on the island of Great Britain, the Saxon tribe gave their name to the word for England. An alternative name for England is Albion; the name Albion referred to the entire island of Great Britain. The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus the 4th-century BC De Mundo: "Beyond the Pillars of Hercules is the ocean that flows round the earth.
In it are two large islands called Britannia. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, i.e. it was written in the Graeco-Roman period or afterwards. The word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins, it either derives from a cognate of the Latin albus meaning white, a reference to the white cliffs of Dover or from the phrase the "island of the Albiones" in the now lost Massaliote Periplus, attested through Avienus' Ora Maritima to which the former served as a source. Albion is now applied to England in a more poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England and made popular by its use in Arthurian legend; the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximate