The Mac Pro is a series of workstation and server computer cases designed and sold by Apple Inc. since 2006. The Mac Pro, in most configurations and in terms of speed and performance, is the most powerful computer that Apple offers, it is a high-end model of the four desktop computers in the current Mac lineup, the other three being the iMac, iMac Pro, Mac Mini. The first-generation Mac Pro has a rectangular tower case which outwardly resembles the last version of the Power Mac G5, has similar expansion capabilities; the first Mac Pro offered a dual Dual-core Xeon Woodcrest processor. It was replaced by a dual Quad-core Xeon Clovertown model on April 4, 2007, again on January 8, 2008 by a dual Quad-core Xeon Harpertown model; the 2012 Mac Pro is nearly identical to a model, announced on July 27, 2010. It features Nehalem/Westmere architecture Intel Xeon processors; these CPUs offer optionally twelve processing cores. The machine itself at its most evolved is able to accommodate up to four 2 TB hard disk drives or 512 GB solid state drives, as well as the ATI Radeon HD 5770/5870 GPU units, one per slot.
The second-generation design of Mac Pro was announced at the 2013 Apple Worldwide Developers Conference opening keynote on June 10, 2013. Apple states; the redesigned Mac Pro takes up less than one eighth the volume of previous model, being shorter and lighter. The machine supports one central processing unit, four 1866 MHz DDR3 slots, dual AMD FirePro D series GPUs, PCIe-based flash storage. There is updated wireless communication and support for six Thunderbolt displays through the Thunderbolt 2 ports. Reviews have been positive, with caveats. Apple stated that an Intel-based replacement for the PowerPC-based Power Mac G5 machines had been expected for some time before the Mac Pro was formally announced on August 7, 2006 at the annual Apple Worldwide Developers Conference; the iMac, Mac Mini, MacBook, MacBook Pro had moved to an Intel-based architecture starting in January 2006, leaving the Power Mac G5 as the only machine in the Mac lineup still based on the PowerPC processor architecture Apple had used since 1993.
Apple had dropped the term "Power" from the other machines in their lineup, started using "Pro" on their higher-end laptop offerings. As such, the name "Mac Pro" was used before the machine was announced; the Mac Pro is in the Unix workstation market. Although the high-end technical market has not traditionally been an area of strength for Apple, the company has been positioning itself as a leader in non-linear digital editing for high-definition video, which demands storage and memory far in excess of a general desktop machine. Additionally, the codecs used in these applications are processor intensive and threadable, which Apple's ProRes white paper describes as scaling linearly with additional processor cores. Apple's previous machine aimed at this market, the Power Mac G5, has up to two dual-core processors, but lacks the storage expansion capabilities of the newer design. Original marketing materials for the Mac Pro referred to the middle-of-the-line model with 2 × dual-core 2.66 GHz processors.
Apple featured the base model with the words "starting at" or "from" when describing the pricing, but the online US Apple Store listed the "Mac Pro at $2499", the price for the mid-range model. The system could be configured at US$2299, much more comparable with the former base-model dual-core G5 at US$1999, although offering more processing power. Post revision, the default configurations for the Mac Pro includes one quad-core Xeon 3500 at 2.66 GHz or two quad-core Xeon 5500s at 2.26 GHz each. Like its predecessor, the Power Mac G5, the pre-2013 Mac Pro was Apple's only desktop with standard expansion slots for graphics adapters and other expansion cards. Apple received criticism after an incremental upgrade to the Mac Pro line following the 2012 WWDC; the line received more default memory and increased processor speed but still used Intel's older Westmere-EP processors instead of the newer E5 series. The line lacked then-current technologies like SATA III, USB 3, Thunderbolt, the last of, added to every other Macintosh at that point.
An email from Apple CEO Tim Cook promised a more significant update to the line in 2013. Apple stopped shipping the first-generation Mac Pro in Europe on March 1, 2013 after an amendment to a safety regulation left the professional Mac non-compliant; the last day to order was February 18, 2013. The first generation Mac Pro was removed from Apple's online store following unveiling of the redesigned second generation Mac Pro at a media event on October 22, 2013; the 2009 and Mac Pro systems were available with one or two central processing units with options giving four, eight, or twelve cores. As an example, the eight core standard configuration Mac Pro uses two Quad core ×8 Intel E5620 Xeon CPUs at 2.4 GHz, but could be configured with two Hexa Core Intel Xeon X5670 CPUs at 2.93 GHz. The 2008-2009 model CPUs use the LGA 771 socket, while the 2010 and use the LGA 1366 socket, meaning either can be removed and replaced with compatible 64-bit Intel Xeon CPUs; the newer LGA 1366 sockets utilize Intel's QuickPath Interconnect integrated into the CPU in lieu of an independent system bus.
History of Apple Inc.
Apple Inc. Apple Computer, Inc. is a multinational corporation that creates consumer electronics, personal computers and computer software, is a digital distributor of media content. The company has a chain of retail stores known as Apple Stores. Apple's core product lines are the iPhone smartphone, iPad tablet computer, iPod portable media players, Macintosh computer line. Founders Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak created Apple Computer on April 1, 1976, incorporated the company on January 3, 1977, in Cupertino, California. For more than three decades, Apple Computer was predominantly a manufacturer of personal computers, including the Apple II, Power Mac lines, but it faced rocky sales and low market share during the 1990s. Jobs, ousted from the company in 1985, returned to Apple in 1996 after his company NeXT was bought by Apple; the following year he became the company's interim CEO, which became permanent. Jobs subsequently instilled a new corporate philosophy of recognizable products and simple design, starting with the original iMac in 1998.
With the introduction of the successful iPod music player in 2001 and iTunes Music Store in 2003, Apple established itself as a leader in the consumer electronics and media sales industries, leading it to drop "Computer" from the company's name in 2007. The company is now known for its iOS range of smart phone, media player, tablet computer products that began with the iPhone, followed by the iPod Touch and iPad; as of 30 June 2015, Apple was the largest publicly traded corporation in the world by market capitalization, with an estimated value of US$1 trillion as of August 2, 2018. Apple's worldwide annual revenue in 2010 totaled US$65 billion, growing to US$127.8 billion in 2011 and $156 billion in 2012. Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak had withdrawn from Reed College and UC Berkeley by 1975. Wozniak designed a video terminal. Alex Kamradt sold a small number of them through his firm. Aside from their interest in up-to-date technology, the impetus for Jobs and Wozniak referred to collectively as "the two Steves", seems to have had another source.
In his essay From Satori to Silicon Valley, cultural historian Theodore Roszak made the point that the Apple Computer emerged from within the West Coast counterculture and the need to produce print-outs, letter labels, databases. Roszak offers a bit of background on the development of the two Steves' prototype models. In 1975, Wozniak started attending meetings of the Homebrew Computer Club. New microcomputers such as the Altair 8800 and the IMSAI inspired him to build a microprocessor into his video terminal and have a complete computer. At the time the only microcomputer CPUs available were the $179 Intel 8080, the $170 Motorola 6800. Wozniak preferred the 6800. So he watched, learned, designed computers on paper, waiting for the day he could afford a CPU; when MOS Technology released its $20 6502 chip in 1976, Wozniak wrote a version of BASIC for it began to design a computer for it to run on. The 6502 was designed by the same people who designed the 6800, as many in Silicon Valley left employers to form their own companies.
Wozniak's earlier 6800 paper-computer needed only minor changes to run on the new chip. Wozniak took it to Homebrew Computer Club meetings to show it off. At the meeting, Wozniak met his old friend Jobs, interested in the commercial potential of the small hobby machines; the two Steves had been friends for some time, having met in 1971, when their mutual friend, Bill Fernandez, introduced 21-year-old Wozniak to 16-year-old Jobs. They began their partnership when Wozniak, a talented, self-educated electronics engineer, began constructing boxes which enabled one to make long-distance phone calls at no cost, sold several hundred models. Jobs managed to interest Wozniak in assembling a computer machine and selling it. Jobs approached a local computer store, The Byte Shop, who said they would be interested in the machine, but only if it came assembled; the owner, Paul Terrell, went further, saying he would order 50 of the machines and pay US $500 each on delivery. Jobs took the purchase order that he had been given from the Byte Shop to Cramer Electronics, a national electronic parts distributor, ordered the components he needed to assemble the Apple I Computer.
The local credit manager asked Jobs how he was going to pay for the parts and he replied, "I have this purchase order from the Byte Shop chain of computer stores for 50 of my computers and the payment terms are COD. If you give me the parts on a net 30-day terms I can build and deliver the computers in that time frame, collect my money from Terrell at the Byte Shop and pay you."The credit manager called Paul Terrell, attending an IEEE computer conference at Asilomar in Pacific Grove, verified the validity of the purchase order. Amazed at the tenacity of Jobs, Terrell assured the credit manager if the computers showed up in his stores, Jobs would be paid and would have more than enough money to pay for the parts order; the two Steves and their small crew spent day and night building and testing the computers, delivered to Terrell on time to pay his suppliers and have a tidy profit left over for their celebration and next order. Steve Jobs had found a way to finance his soon-to-be multimillion-dollar company without giving away one share of stock or ownership.
The machine had only a few notable features. One was the use of a TV as the display system, whereas
YouTube is an American video-sharing website headquartered in San Bruno, California. Three former PayPal employees—Chad Hurley, Steve Chen, Jawed Karim—created the service in February 2005. Google bought the site in November 2006 for US$1.65 billion. YouTube allows users to upload, rate, add to playlists, comment on videos, subscribe to other users, it offers a wide variety of corporate media videos. Available content includes video clips, TV show clips, music videos and documentary films, audio recordings, movie trailers, live streams, other content such as video blogging, short original videos, educational videos. Most of the content on YouTube is uploaded by individuals, but media corporations including CBS, the BBC, Hulu offer some of their material via YouTube as part of the YouTube partnership program. Unregistered users can only watch videos on the site, while registered users are permitted to upload an unlimited number of videos and add comments to videos. Videos deemed inappropriate are available only to registered users affirming themselves to be at least 18 years old.
YouTube and its creators earn advertising revenue from Google AdSense, a program which targets ads according to site content and audience. The vast majority of its videos are free to view, but there are exceptions, including subscription-based premium channels, film rentals, as well as YouTube Music and YouTube Premium, subscription services offering premium and ad-free music streaming, ad-free access to all content, including exclusive content commissioned from notable personalities; as of February 2017, there were more than 400 hours of content uploaded to YouTube each minute, one billion hours of content being watched on YouTube every day. As of August 2018, the website is ranked as the second-most popular site in the world, according to Alexa Internet. YouTube has faced criticism over aspects of its operations, including its handling of copyrighted content contained within uploaded videos, its recommendation algorithms perpetuating videos that promote conspiracy theories and falsehoods, hosting videos ostensibly targeting children but containing violent and/or sexually suggestive content involving popular characters, videos of minors attracting pedophilic activities in their comment sections, fluctuating policies on the types of content, eligible to be monetized with advertising.
YouTube was founded by Chad Hurley, Steve Chen, Jawed Karim, who were all early employees of PayPal. Hurley had studied design at Indiana University of Pennsylvania, Chen and Karim studied computer science together at the University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign. According to a story, repeated in the media and Chen developed the idea for YouTube during the early months of 2005, after they had experienced difficulty sharing videos, shot at a dinner party at Chen's apartment in San Francisco. Karim did not attend the party and denied that it had occurred, but Chen commented that the idea that YouTube was founded after a dinner party "was very strengthened by marketing ideas around creating a story, digestible". Karim said the inspiration for YouTube first came from Janet Jackson's role in the 2004 Super Bowl incident, when her breast was exposed during her performance, from the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami. Karim could not find video clips of either event online, which led to the idea of a video sharing site.
Hurley and Chen said that the original idea for YouTube was a video version of an online dating service, had been influenced by the website Hot or Not. Difficulty in finding enough dating videos led to a change of plans, with the site's founders deciding to accept uploads of any type of video. YouTube began as a venture capital-funded technology startup from an $11.5 million investment by Sequoia Capital and an $8 million investment from Artis Capital Management between November 2005 and April 2006. YouTube's early headquarters were situated above a pizzeria and Japanese restaurant in San Mateo, California; the domain name www.youtube.com was activated on February 14, 2005, the website was developed over the subsequent months. The first YouTube video, titled Me at the zoo, shows co-founder Jawed Karim at the San Diego Zoo; the video was uploaded on April 23, 2005, can still be viewed on the site. YouTube offered the public a beta test of the site in May 2005; the first video to reach one million views was a Nike advertisement featuring Ronaldinho in November 2005.
Following a $3.5 million investment from Sequoia Capital in November, the site launched on December 15, 2005, by which time the site was receiving 8 million views a day. The site grew and, in July 2006, the company announced that more than 65,000 new videos were being uploaded every day, that the site was receiving 100 million video views per day. According to data published by market research company comScore, YouTube is the dominant provider of online video in the United States, with a market share of around 43% and more than 14 billion views of videos in May 2010. In May 2011, 48 hours of new videos were uploaded to the site every minute, which increased to 60 hours every minute in January 2012, 100 hours every minute in May 2013, 300 hours every minute in November 2014, 400 hours every minute in February 2017; as of January 2012, the site had 800 million unique users a month. It is estimated that in 2007 YouTube consumed as much bandwidth as the entire Internet in 2000. According to third-party web analytics providers and SimilarWeb, YouTube is the second-most visited website in the world, as of December 2016.
AirPods are wireless Bluetooth earbuds created by Apple. They were first released on December 13, 2016; the product's second iteration, with improved battery life, was released on March 20, 2019. AirPods are Apple's most popular accessory product, with 35 million units sold in 2018. In addition to playing audio, AirPods feature a built-in microphone that filters out background noise, which allows taking phone calls and talking to Apple's digital assistant, Siri. Additionally, built-in accelerometers and optical sensors enable AirPods to detect taps and in-ear placement, which enables automatic pausing when they are taken out of the ears. On March 20, 2019, Apple released the second generation AirPods, which feature the H1 chip and hands-free “Hey Siri” support. An optional wireless charging case was added in the offerings. Apple claims that the new AirPods have 50% more talk time over the 1st generation AirPods, which were discontinued on the same day. AirPods were announced on September 7 at an Apple Special Event, 2016 alongside the iPhone 7 and Apple Watch Series 2.
Apple planned to release the AirPods in late October, but the company delayed the release date. On December 13, 2016, Apple released the AirPods to be ordered online, they were available at Apple Stores, Apple Authorized Resellers, select carriers on December 20. On announcement day, AirPods were compared to Apple's existing EarPods, with The Verge noting "They look... just like the old EarPods, with the wires cut off." Mocked by many for its unfamiliar design, its popularity grew over the years and was voted the most popular "hearable" brand of 2019. Apple incorporated their own custom designed chip, the W1, into the AirPods, which helps optimize battery use and processes the Bluetooth 4.2 connection as well as audio. There are two microphones in each AirPod: one at ear level, facing outward, another at the bottom of the stem; each AirPod weighs 0.14 oz, its charging case weighs 1.34 oz. It holds a charge for about five hours, while charging the pods for 15 minutes in the case gives 3 hours of listening time.
The charging case can charge the pods for a total of 24 hours of usage. During a teardown, each AirPod was found to contain a 93 milliwatt hour battery in its stem, while the charging case was found to contain a 1.52 watt hour or 398 mAh at 3.81 V battery. AirPods include the proprietary Apple W1 SoC, whose additional connectivity functions require devices running iOS 10, macOS Sierra, watchOS 3, or later, they can function as standard Bluetooth headphones when connected to any device that supports Bluetooth 4.0 or higher, including Android devices. 2nd generation AirPods include an H1 processor which supports hands-free "Hey Siri", Bluetooth 5 connectivity and Apple claims 50% more talk time and faster device connection times. 2nd generation AirPods can be purchased with the same charging case as the 1st generation, or for an additional $40 with the Wireless Charging Case, which can be used with Qi chargers. The Wireless Charging Case can be purchased separately for $79 and is compatible with 1st generation AirPods.
AirPods are compatible with any device that supports Bluetooth 4.0 or higher, including Android devices, although certain features such as automatic switching between devices are only available on Apple devices using iCloud. AirPods have full functionality with the following devices: iPhone 5 or newer, running iOS 10 or iPod Touch 6th generation or newer, running iOS 10 or 2013 iPads or newer, running iOS 10 or Macs running macOS Sierra or Apple TV 4th generation or newer Apple Watch models running watchOS 3 or laterThe 2nd generation AirPods are compatible with devices running iOS 12.2 or macOS 10.14.4 or or watchOS 5.2 or later. Apple has a program to service batteries and purchase replacement individual AirPods and charging cases. AirPods contain upgradeable firmware, its original firmware was 3.3.1. In February 2017, Apple released 3.5.1, 3.7.2 in May 2017, 6.3.2 after on March 26, 2019.. AirPods automatically sync through Apple's iCloud service allowing users to switch audio sources to other supported devices connected by the same Apple ID.
One criticism of AirPods is their high price. Another criticism is the perceived tendency. Another prominent criticism was an issue that caused the charging case battery to deplete at a rapid rate despite the AirPods not being used. Users were reporting upwards of 30% idle discharge per day. In response, Apple upgraded the AirPods' firmware to version 3.5.1, which addressed connectivity and battery drain issues. The Lithium-ion batteries in AirPods can see significant degradation over time, with two-year-old sets lasting for less than half of the advertised five hours. Apple earbuds Google Pixel Buds AirPods on the Apple website A Patent Update for the Apple AirPods
Twitter is an American online news and social networking service on which users post and interact with messages known as "tweets". Tweets were restricted to 140 characters, but on November 7, 2017, this limit was doubled for all languages except Chinese and Korean. Registered users can post and retweet tweets, but unregistered users can only read them. Users access Twitter through its website interface, through Short Message Service or its mobile-device application software. Twitter, Inc. is based in San Francisco and has more than 25 offices around the world. Twitter was created in March 2006 by Jack Dorsey, Noah Glass, Biz Stone, Evan Williams and launched in July of that year; the service gained worldwide popularity. In 2012, more than 100 million users posted 340 million tweets a day, the service handled an average of 1.6 billion search queries per day. In 2013, it was one of the ten most-visited websites and has been described as "the SMS of the Internet"; as of 2018, Twitter had more than 321 million monthly active users.
Since 2015 Twitter has been a hotbed of debates and news covering politics of the United States. During the 2016 U. S. presidential election, Twitter was the largest source of breaking news on the day, with 40 million election-related tweets sent by 10:00 p.m. that day. It was a source of information on Brett Kavanaugh's Supreme Court nomination and the 2018 United States midterm elections. Twitter's origins lie in a "daylong brainstorming session" held by board members of the podcasting company Odeo. Jack Dorsey an undergraduate student at New York University, introduced the idea of an individual using an SMS service to communicate with a small group; the original project code name for the service was twttr, an idea that Williams ascribed to Noah Glass, inspired by Flickr and the five-character length of American SMS short codes. The decision was partly due to the fact that the domain twitter.com was in use, it was six months after the launch of twttr that the crew purchased the domain and changed the name of the service to Twitter.
The developers considered "10958" as a short code, but changed it to "40404" for "ease of use and memorability". Work on the project started on March 21, 2006, when Dorsey published the first Twitter message at 9:50 p.m. Pacific Standard Time: "just setting up my twttr". Dorsey has explained the origin of the "Twitter" title:...we came across the word'twitter', it was just perfect. The definition was'a short burst of inconsequential information,' and'chirps from birds', and that's what the product was. The first Twitter prototype, developed by Dorsey and contractor Florian Weber, was used as an internal service for Odeo employees and the full version was introduced publicly on July 15, 2006. In October 2006, Biz Stone, Evan Williams and other members of Odeo formed Obvious Corporation and acquired Odeo, together with its assets — including Odeo.com and Twitter.com — from the investors and shareholders. Williams fired Glass, silent about his part in Twitter's startup until 2011. Twitter spun off into its own company in April 2007.
Williams provided insight into the ambiguity that defined this early period in a 2013 interview: With Twitter, it wasn't clear what it was. They called it a social network, they called it microblogging, but it was hard to define, because it didn't replace anything. There was this path of discovery with something like that, where over time you figure out what it is. Twitter changed from what we thought it was in the beginning, which we described as status updates and a social utility, it is that, in part, but the insight we came to was Twitter was more of an information network than it is a social network. The tipping point for Twitter's popularity was the 2007 South by Southwest Interactive conference. During the event, Twitter usage increased from 20,000 tweets per day to 60,000. "The Twitter people cleverly placed two 60-inch plasma screens in the conference hallways streaming Twitter messages," remarked Newsweek's Steven Levy. "Hundreds of conference-goers kept tabs on each other via constant twitters.
Panelists and speakers mentioned the service, the bloggers in attendance touted it." Reaction at the conference was positive. Blogger Scott Beale said. Social software researcher danah boyd said. Twitter staff received the festival's Web Award prize with the remark "we'd like to thank you in 140 characters or less, and we just did!"The first unassisted off-Earth Twitter message was posted from the International Space Station by NASA astronaut T. J. Creamer on January 22, 2010. By late November 2010, an average of a dozen updates per day were posted on the astronauts' communal account, @NASA_Astronauts. NASA has hosted over 25 "tweetups", events that provide guests with VIP access to NASA facilities and speakers with the goal of leveraging participants' social networks to further the outreach goals of NASA. In August 2010, the company appointed Adam Bain from News Corp.'s Fox Audience Network as president of revenue. The company experienced rapid initial growth, it had 400,000 tweets posted per quarter in 2007.
This grew to 100 million tweets posted per quarter in 2008. In February 2010, Twitter users were sending 50 million tweets per day. By March 2010, the company recorded over 70,000 registered applications; as of June 2010, about 65 million tweets were posted each day, equaling about 750 tweets sent each second, according to Twitter. As of March 2011, about 140 million tweets posted daily; as noted on Compete.com, Twitter moved up to the third-highest-ranking social networking site
HyperCard is a software application and development kit for Apple Macintosh and Apple IIGS computers. It is among the first successful hypermedia systems predating the World Wide Web. HyperCard combines a flat-file database with a graphical, user-modifiable interface. HyperCard includes a built-in programming language called HyperTalk for manipulating data and the user interface; this combination of features – a database with simple form layout, flexible support for graphics, ease of programming – suits HyperCard for many different projects such as rapid application development of applications and databases, interactive applications with no database requirements and control systems, many examples in the demoscene. HyperCard was released in 1987 for $49.95 and was included for free with all new Macs sold then. It was withdrawn from sale in March 2004, having received its final update in 1998 upon the return of Steve Jobs to Apple. HyperCard runs in the Classic Environment, but was not ported to Mac OS X. HyperCard is based on the concept of a "stack" of virtual "cards".
Cards hold data. Each card contains a set of interactive objects, including text fields, check boxes and similar common graphical user interface elements. Users browse the stack by navigating from card to card, using built-in navigation features, a powerful search mechanism, or through user-created scripts. Users modify stacks by adding new cards, they place GUI objects on the cards using an interactive layout engine based on a simple drag-and-drop interface. HyperCard includes prototype or template cards called backgrounds; this way, a stack of cards with a common layout and functionality can be created. The layout engine is similar in concept to a form as used in most rapid application development environments such as Borland Delphi, Microsoft Visual Basic and Visual Studio; the database features of the HyperCard system are based on the storage of the state of all of the objects on the cards in the physical file representing the stack. The database does not exist as a separate system within the HyperCard stack.
Instead, the state of any object in the system is considered to be editable at any time. From the HyperCard runtime's perspective, there is no difference between moving a text field on the card and typing into it, both operations change the state of the target object within the stack; such changes are saved when complete, so typing into a field causes that text to be stored to the stack's physical file. The system operates in a stateless fashion, with no need to save during operation; this is in common with many database-oriented systems, although somewhat different from document-based applications. The final key element in HyperCard is the script, a single code-carrying element of every object within the stack; the script is a text field. Like any other property, the script of any object can be edited at any time and changes are saved as soon as they were complete; when the user invokes actions in the GUI, like clicking on a button or typing into a field, these actions are translated into events by the HyperCard runtime.
The runtime examines the script of the object, the target of the event, like a button, to see if its script object contains the event's code, called a handler. If it does, the HyperTalk engine runs the handler; these concepts make up the majority of the HyperCard system. Unlike the majority of RAD or database systems of the era, HyperCard combines all of these features, both user-facing and developer-facing, in a single application; this allows rapid turnaround and immediate prototyping without any coding, allowing users to author custom solutions to problems with their own personalized interface. "Empowerment" became a catchword as this possibility was embraced by the Macintosh community, as was the phrase "programming for the rest of us", that is, not just professional programmers. It is this combination of features that makes HyperCard a powerful hypermedia system. Users can build backgrounds to suit the needs of some system, say a rolodex, use simple HyperTalk commands to provide buttons to move from place to place within the stack, or provide the same navigation system within the data elements of the UI, like text fields.
Using these features, it is easy to build linked systems similar to hypertext links on the Web. Unlike the Web, programming and browsing were all the same tool. Similar systems have been created for HTML but traditional Web services are more heavyweight. HyperCard contains an object oriented scripting language called HyperTalk. HyperTalk object classes are predetermined by the HyperCard environment, although others can be added by the use of externals; the weakly typed HyperTalk supports most standard programming structures such as "if-then" and "repeat". HyperTalk is verbose, hence its ease of readability. HyperTalk code segments are referred to as "scripts", a term, considered less daunting to beginning programmers. HyperCard can be extended through the use of external command and external function modules; these are code libraries packaged in a resource fork that in
MacOS is a series of graphical operating systems developed and marketed by Apple Inc. since 2001. It is the primary operating system for Apple's Mac family of computers. Within the market of desktop and home computers, by web usage, it is the second most used desktop OS, after Microsoft Windows.macOS is the second major series of Macintosh operating systems. The first is colloquially called the "classic" Mac OS, introduced in 1984, the final release of, Mac OS 9 in 1999; the first desktop version, Mac OS X 10.0, was released in March 2001, with its first update, 10.1, arriving that year. After this, Apple began naming its releases after big cats, which lasted until OS X 10.8 Mountain Lion. Since OS X 10.9 Mavericks, releases have been named after locations in California. Apple shortened the name to "OS X" in 2012 and changed it to "macOS" in 2016, adopting the nomenclature that they were using for their other operating systems, iOS, watchOS, tvOS; the latest version is macOS Mojave, publicly released in September 2018.
Between 1999 and 2009, Apple sold. The initial version, Mac OS X Server 1.0, was released in 1999 with a user interface similar to Mac OS 8.5. After this, new versions were introduced concurrently with the desktop version of Mac OS X. Beginning with Mac OS X 10.7 Lion, the server functions were made available as a separate package on the Mac App Store.macOS is based on technologies developed between 1985 and 1997 at NeXT, a company that Apple co-founder Steve Jobs created after leaving the company. The "X" in Mac OS X and OS X is pronounced as such; the X was a prominent part of the operating system's brand identity and marketing in its early years, but receded in prominence since the release of Snow Leopard in 2009. UNIX 03 certification was achieved for the Intel version of Mac OS X 10.5 Leopard and all releases from Mac OS X 10.6 Snow Leopard up to the current version have UNIX 03 certification. MacOS shares its Unix-based core, named Darwin, many of its frameworks with iOS, tvOS and watchOS.
A modified version of Mac OS X 10.4 Tiger was used for the first-generation Apple TV. Releases of Mac OS X from 1999 to 2005 ran on the PowerPC-based Macs of that period. After Apple announced that they were switching to Intel CPUs from 2006 onwards, versions were released for 32-bit and 64-bit Intel-based Macs. Versions from Mac OS X 10.7 Lion run on 64-bit Intel CPUs, in contrast to the ARM architecture used on iOS and watchOS devices, do not support PowerPC applications. The heritage of what would become macOS had originated at NeXT, a company founded by Steve Jobs following his departure from Apple in 1985. There, the Unix-like NeXTSTEP operating system was developed, launched in 1989; the kernel of NeXTSTEP is based upon the Mach kernel, developed at Carnegie Mellon University, with additional kernel layers and low-level user space code derived from parts of BSD. Its graphical user interface was built on top of an object-oriented GUI toolkit using the Objective-C programming language. Throughout the early 1990s, Apple had tried to create a "next-generation" OS to succeed its classic Mac OS through the Taligent and Gershwin projects, but all of them were abandoned.
This led Apple to purchase NeXT in 1996, allowing NeXTSTEP called OPENSTEP, to serve as the basis for Apple's next generation operating system. This purchase led to Steve Jobs returning to Apple as an interim, the permanent CEO, shepherding the transformation of the programmer-friendly OPENSTEP into a system that would be adopted by Apple's primary market of home users and creative professionals; the project was first code named "Rhapsody" and officially named Mac OS X. Mac OS X was presented as the tenth major version of Apple's operating system for Macintosh computers. Previous Macintosh operating systems were named using Arabic numerals, as with Mac OS 8 and Mac OS 9; the letter "X" in Mac OS X's name refers to a Roman numeral. It is therefore pronounced "ten" in this context. However, it is commonly pronounced like the letter "X"; the first version of Mac OS X, Mac OS X Server 1.0, was a transitional product, featuring an interface resembling the classic Mac OS, though it was not compatible with software designed for the older system.
Consumer releases of Mac OS X included more backward compatibility. Mac OS applications could be rewritten to run natively via the Carbon API; the consumer version of Mac OS X was launched in 2001 with Mac OS X 10.0. Reviews were variable, with extensive praise for its sophisticated, glossy Aqua interface but criticizing it for sluggish performance. With Apple's popularity at a low, the makers of several classic Mac applications such as FrameMaker and PageMaker declined to develop new versions of their software for Mac OS X. Ars Technica columnist John Siracusa, who reviewed every major OS X release up to 10.10, described the early releases in retrospect as'dog-slow, feature poor' and Aqua as'unbearably slow and a huge resource hog'. Apple developed several new releases of Mac OS X. Siracusa's review of version 10.3, noted "It's strange to have gone from years of uncertainty and vaporware to a steady annual supply of major new operating system releases." Version 10.4, Tiger shocked executives at Microsoft by offering a number of features, such as fast file s