Oslo is the capital and most populous city of Norway. It constitutes both a municipality. Founded in the year 1040 as Ánslo, established as a kaupstad or trading place in 1048 by Harald Hardrada, the city was elevated to a bishopric in 1070 and a capital under Haakon V of Norway around 1300. Personal unions with Denmark from 1397 to 1523 and again from 1536 to 1814 reduced its influence, with Sweden from 1814 to 1905 it functioned as a co-official capital. After being destroyed by a fire in 1624, during the reign of King Christian IV, a new city was built closer to Akershus Fortress and named Christiania in the king's honour, it was established as a municipality on 1 January 1838. The city's name was spelled Kristiania between 1897 by state and municipal authorities. In 1925 the city was renamed Oslo. Oslo is the governmental centre of Norway; the city is a hub of Norwegian trade, banking and shipping. It is maritime trade in Europe; the city is home to many companies within the maritime sector, some of which are among the world's largest shipping companies and maritime insurance brokers.
Oslo is a pilot city of the Council of Europe and the European Commission intercultural cities programme. Oslo is considered a global city and was ranked "Beta World City" in studies carried out by the Globalization and World Cities Study Group and Network in 2008, it was ranked number one in terms of quality of life among European large cities in the European Cities of the Future 2012 report by fDi magazine. A survey conducted by ECA International in 2011 placed Oslo as the second most expensive city in the world for living expenses after Tokyo. In 2013 Oslo tied with the Australian city of Melbourne as the fourth most expensive city in the world, according to the Economist Intelligence Unit's Worldwide Cost of Living study; as of 1 July 2017, the municipality of Oslo had a population of 672,061, while the population of the city's urban area of 3 December 2018 was 1,000,467. The metropolitan area had an estimated population of 1.71 million. The population was increasing at record rates during the early 2000s, making it the fastest growing major city in Europe at the time.
This growth stems for the most part from international immigration and related high birth rates, but from intra-national migration. The immigrant population in the city is growing somewhat faster than the Norwegian population, in the city proper this is now more than 25% of the total population if immigrant parents are included; as of 1 January 2016, the municipality of Oslo had a population of 658,390. The urban area extends beyond the boundaries of the municipality into the surrounding county of Akershus; the city centre is situated at the end of the Oslofjord, from which point the city sprawls out in three distinct "corridors"—inland north-eastwards, southwards along both sides of the fjord—which gives the urbanized area a shape reminiscent of an upside-down reclining "Y". To the north and east, wide forested hills rise above the city giving the location the shape of a giant amphitheatre; the urban municipality of Oslo and county of Oslo are two parts of the same entity, making Oslo the only city in Norway where two administrative levels are integrated.
Of Oslo's total area, 130 km2 is built-up and 7 km2. The open areas within the built-up zone amount to 22 km2; the city of Oslo was established as a municipality on 3 January 1838. It was separated from the county of Akershus to become a county of its own in 1842; the rural municipality of Aker was merged with Oslo on 1 January 1948. Furthermore, Oslo shares several important functions with Akershus county; as defined in January 2004 by the city council ^ The definition has since been revised in the 2015 census. After being destroyed by a fire in 1624, during the reign of King Christian IV, a new city was built closer to Akershus Fortress and named Christiania in the king's honour; the old site east of the Aker river was not abandoned however and the village of Oslo remained as a suburb outside the city gates. The suburb called Oslo was included in the city proper. In 1925 the name of the suburb was transferred to the whole city, while the suburb was renamed "Gamlebyen" to avoid confusion; the Old Town is an area within the administrative district Gamle Oslo.
The previous names are reflected in street names like Oslo Oslo hospital. The origin of the name Oslo has been the subject of much debate, it is derived from Old Norse and was — in all probability — the name of a large farm at Bjørvika, but the meaning of that name is disputed. Modern linguists interpret the original Óslo, Áslo or Ánslo as either "Meadow at the Foot of a Hill" or "Meadow Consecrated to the Gods", with both considered likely. Erroneously, it was once assumed that "Oslo" meant "the mouth of the Lo river", a supposed previous name for the river Alna. However, not only has no evidence been found of a river "Lo" predating the work where Peder Claussøn Friis first proposed this etymology, but the name is ungrammatical in Norwegian: the correct form would have been Loaros; the name Lo is now believed to be a back-formation arrived at by Friis in support of his etymology
Hillsdale, New Jersey
For the unincorporated community in Monmouth County, see Hillsdale, Monmouth County, New Jersey. Hillsdale is a borough in the New York City metropolitan area in Bergen County, New Jersey, United States; as of the 2010 United States Census, the borough's population was 10,219, reflecting an increase of 132 from the 10,087 counted in the 2000 Census, which had in turn increased by 337 from the 9,750 counted in the 1990 Census. The populated area today known as Hillsdale took form in the mid-to-late 19th century as land speculators, led by David P. Patterson, developed subdivisions to profit from the coming of the Hackensack and New York Railroad; the area was incorporated as Hillsdale Township on March 25, 1898, from portions of Washington Township, which had, in turn, been set off from Harrington Township in 1840. Portions of the township were taken on April 1906, to create the township of River Vale. Hillsdale was reincorporated as a borough by an act of the New Jersey Legislature on March 2, 1923, based on the results of a referendum held on April 24, 1923.
The borough's name derives from its location in a "dale among the hills". According to the United States Census Bureau, the borough had a total area of 2.957 square miles, including 2.949 square miles of land and 0.008 square miles of water. A small portion of Woodcliff Lake Reservoir lies inside the borough, at the southeast end of the reservoir, with Church Road following along the southern end of the spillway; the borough borders Ho-Ho-Kus, Park Ridge, River Vale, Saddle River, Washington Township and Woodcliff Lake. Hillsdale Manor is an unincorporated community located within Hillsdale; as of the 2010 United States Census, there were 10,219 people, 3,493 households, 2,843.302 families residing in the borough. The population density was 3,464.8 per square mile. There were 3,567 housing units at an average density of 1,209.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the borough was 89.42% White, 1.01% Black or African American, 0.12% Native American, 6.26% Asian, 0.05% Pacific Islander, 2.06% from other races, 1.08% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 7.77% of the population. There were 3,493 households out of which 40.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 69.6% were married couples living together, 8.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 18.6% were non-families. 16.1% of all households were made up of individuals, 9.6% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.92 and the average family size was 3.27. Same-sex couples headed 23 households in 2010, an increase from the 19 counted in 2000. In the borough, the population was spread out with 26.6% under the age of 18, 6.0% from 18 to 24, 21.6% from 25 to 44, 31.0% from 45 to 64, 14.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 42.8 years. For every 100 females there were 95.7 males. For every 100 females ages 18 and older there were 92.5 males. The Census Bureau's 2006-2010 American Community Survey showed that median household income was $116,021 and the median family income was $132,340.
Males had a median income of $91,250 versus $53,190 for females. The per capita income for the borough was $45,549. About 1.4% of families and 3.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 4.0% of those under age 18 and 2.9% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2000 United States Census there were 10,087 people, 3,502 households, 2,850 families residing in the borough; the population density was 3,383.2 people per square mile. There were 3,547 housing units at an average density of 1,189.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the borough was 92.41% White, 0.85% African American, 0.07% Native American, 5.08% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 0.86% from other races, 0.69% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 4.25% of the population. There were 3,502 households out of which 38.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 70.8% were married couples living together, 7.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 18.6% were non-families. 15.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.8% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.87 and the average family size was 3.20. In the borough the population was spread out with 26.0% under the age of 18, 5.1% from 18 to 24, 29.0% from 25 to 44, 25.1% from 45 to 64, 14.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females, there were 95.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 90.8 males. The median income for a household in the borough was $82,904, the median income for a family was $90,861. Males had a median income of $65,052 versus $43,558 for females; the per capita income for the borough was $34,651. About 2.5% of families and 3.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 2.9% of those under age 18 and 3.0% of those age 65 or over. Stony Brook Swim Club is a pool complex located on Cedar Lane that includes an Olympic-size swimming pool, kiddie pool, intermediate pool, water slide, picnic area, basketball court, playground. Beechwood Park, located on Hillsdale Avenue, has an amphitheater, picnic area, a softball field.
In 2014, a group of 70 residents, assisted by a $1,000 grant, worked to rebuild and expand walking trails that run through the park. Hillsdale Memorial Park, located across from Beechwood Park has baseball fields and basketball courts. Hillsdale has several recreationa
Eleanor Rosch is a professor of psychology at the University of California, specializing in cognitive psychology and known for her work on categorization, in particular her prototype theory, which has profoundly influenced the field of cognitive psychology. Throughout her work Rosch has conducted extensive research focusing on a range of topics, including semantic categorization, mental representation of concepts, linguistics, her research interests include cognition, causality, thinking and cross-cultural and religious psychology. Her more recent work in the psychology of religion has sought to show the implications of Buddhism and contemplative aspects of Western religions for modern psychology. Rosch was born in New York City, the daughter of an English teacher from England and a mother, a Russian refugee, she completed an undergraduate philosophy thesis at Reed College on Wittgenstein, whom she said "cured her of studying philosophy."After school, she served as a social worker in Portland for several years, returning to Harvard to study clinical psychology at the then-Department of Social Relations.
Rosch delivered a paradigm-changing doctoral thesis at Harvard about category formation. From field experiments Rosch conducted in the 1970s with the Dani people of Papua New Guinea, she concluded that when categorizing an everyday object or experience, people rely less on abstract definitions of categories than on a comparison of the given object or experience with what they deem to be the object or experience best representing a category. Although the Dani lack words for all the English colors, Rosch showed that they could still categorize objects by colors for which they had no words, she argued that basic objects have a psychological import that transcends cultural differences and shapes how such objects are mentally represented. She concluded that people in different cultures tend to categorize objects by using prototypes, although the prototypes of particular categories may vary. Rosch contributed to multiple scholarly works of taxonomic analysis of objects based on these prototype and subordinate terms.
She inferred that overuse of subordinate terms could be attributed to the attitude of snobbery and elitism. Her work has been referenced by that of computer vision and deep learning research Aude Oliva, who has built upon Rosch's object classifications to teach computers to recognize basic scenes interpreted by humans. 1991. The Embodied Mind. MIT Press. 1978. Cognition and Categorization. Hillsdale NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. 1973, "On the Internal Structure of Perceptual and Semantic Categories." In T. Moore, Cognitive Development and the Acquisition of Language, New York: Academic Press, 1973. 1974, Linguistic relativity. In: E. Silverstein Human Communication: Theoretical Perspectives, Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. 1977, "Human Categorization" in Warren, Neil, ed. Advances in Cross-Cultural Psychology 1: 1-72. Academic Press. 1983, "Prototype classification and logical classification: The two systems" in Scholnick, E. New Trends in Cognitive Representation: Challenges to Piaget's Theory. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates: 73-86 Rosch, E.
H.. "Natural categories". Cognitive Psychology. 4: 328–50. Doi:10.1016/0010-028590017-0. Rosch, R. H.. "Cognitive reference points". Cognitive Psychology. 7: 532–47. Doi:10.1016/0010-028590021-3. 1975, "Cognitive representation of semantic categories," Journal of Experimental Psychology 104: 192-233. Rosch, E. H.. B.. D.. M.. "Basic objects in natural categories". Cognitive Psychology. 8: 382–439. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.149.3392. Doi:10.1016/0010-028590013-X. Mervis, C. B.. "Categorization of Natural Objects". Annual Review of Psychology. 32: 89–113. Doi:10.1146/annurev.ps.32.020181.000513. Eleanor Rosch. "How to catch James's mystic germ: Religious experience, Buddhist meditation and psychology". Journal of Consciousness Studies. 9: 37–56. ISSN 1355-8250. Eleanor Rosch. "The basis of compassion: Western science in dialog with the Dalai Lama". PsycCRITIQUES. 48: 330–332. Doi:10.1037/000807. ISSN 1554-0138. Eleanor Rosch. "More than mindfulness: When you have a tiger by the tail, let it eat you". Psychological Inquiry. 18: 258–264. Doi:10.1080/10478400701598371.
ISSN 1047-840X. Eleanor Rosch & Eman Fallah. "Science and religion, Dalai Lama style". PsycCritiques. 52: np. doi:10.1037/a0007895. ISSN 1554-0138. Rosch is a Fellow of the Cognitive Science Society, she has mediated several discussions with the Dalai Lama. Categorization Cognitive science Embodied mind Grand Valley Dani language Interobject Prototype theory Faculty page for Eleanor Rosch at the Department of Psychology at the University of California, Berkeley Eleanor Rosch's web page on Pitt's Information Science Hall of Fame
New York City
The City of New York called either New York City or New York, is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2017 population of 8,622,698 distributed over a land area of about 302.6 square miles, New York is the most densely populated major city in the United States. Located at the southern tip of the state of New York, the city is the center of the New York metropolitan area, the largest metropolitan area in the world by urban landmass and one of the world's most populous megacities, with an estimated 20,320,876 people in its 2017 Metropolitan Statistical Area and 23,876,155 residents in its Combined Statistical Area. A global power city, New York City has been described as the cultural and media capital of the world, exerts a significant impact upon commerce, research, education, tourism, art and sports; the city's fast pace has inspired the term New York minute. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy.
Situated on one of the world's largest natural harbors, New York City consists of five boroughs, each of, a separate county of the State of New York. The five boroughs – Brooklyn, Manhattan, The Bronx, Staten Island – were consolidated into a single city in 1898; the city and its metropolitan area constitute the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States. As many as 800 languages are spoken in New York, making it the most linguistically diverse city in the world. New York City is home to more than 3.2 million residents born outside the United States, the largest foreign-born population of any city in the world. In 2017, the New York metropolitan area produced a gross metropolitan product of US$1.73 trillion. If greater New York City were a sovereign state, it would have the 12th highest GDP in the world. New York is home to the highest number of billionaires of any city in the world. New York City traces its origins to a trading post founded by colonists from the Dutch Republic in 1624 on Lower Manhattan.
The city and its surroundings came under English control in 1664 and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, the Duke of York. New York served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790, it has been the country's largest city since 1790. The Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to the U. S. by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is an international symbol of the U. S. and its ideals of liberty and peace. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance, environmental sustainability, as a symbol of freedom and cultural diversity. Many districts and landmarks in New York City are well known, with the city having three of the world's ten most visited tourist attractions in 2013 and receiving a record 62.8 million tourists in 2017. Several sources have ranked New York the most photographed city in the world. Times Square, iconic as the world's "heart" and its "Crossroads", is the brightly illuminated hub of the Broadway Theater District, one of the world's busiest pedestrian intersections, a major center of the world's entertainment industry.
The names of many of the city's landmarks and parks are known around the world. Manhattan's real estate market is among the most expensive in the world. New York is home to the largest ethnic Chinese population outside of Asia, with multiple signature Chinatowns developing across the city. Providing continuous 24/7 service, the New York City Subway is the largest single-operator rapid transit system worldwide, with 472 rail stations. Over 120 colleges and universities are located in New York City, including Columbia University, New York University, Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top universities in the world. Anchored by Wall Street in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan, New York has been called both the most economically powerful city and the leading financial center of the world, the city is home to the world's two largest stock exchanges by total market capitalization, the New York Stock Exchange and NASDAQ. In 1664, the city was named in honor of the Duke of York.
James's older brother, King Charles II, had appointed the Duke proprietor of the former territory of New Netherland, including the city of New Amsterdam, which England had seized from the Dutch. During the Wisconsinan glaciation, 75,000 to 11,000 years ago, the New York City region was situated at the edge of a large ice sheet over 1,000 feet in depth; the erosive forward movement of the ice contributed to the separation of what is now Long Island and Staten Island. That action left bedrock at a shallow depth, providing a solid foundation for most of Manhattan's skyscrapers. In the precolonial era, the area of present-day New York City was inhabited by Algonquian Native Americans, including the Lenape, whose homeland, known as Lenapehoking, included Staten Island; the first documented visit into New York Harbor by a European was in 1524 by Giovanni da Verrazzano, a Florentine explorer in the service of the French crown. He named it Nouvelle Angoulême. A Spanish expedition led by captain Estêvão Gomes, a Portuguese sailing for Emperor Charles V, arrived in New York Harbor in January 1525 and charted the mouth of the Hudson River, which he named Río de San Antonio.
The Padrón Rea