The Philippines the Republic of the Philippines, is an archipelagic country in Southeast Asia. Situated in the western Pacific Ocean, it consists of about 7,641 islands that are categorized broadly under three main geographical divisions from north to south: Luzon and Mindanao; the capital city of the Philippines is Manila and the most populous city is Quezon City, both part of Metro Manila. Bounded by the South China Sea on the west, the Philippine Sea on the east and the Celebes Sea on the southwest, the Philippines shares maritime borders with Taiwan to the north, Vietnam to the west, Palau to the east, Malaysia and Indonesia to the south; the Philippines' location on the Pacific Ring of Fire and close to the equator makes the Philippines prone to earthquakes and typhoons, but endows it with abundant natural resources and some of the world's greatest biodiversity. The Philippines has an area of 300,000 km2, according to the Philippines Statistical Authority and the WorldBank and, as of 2015, had a population of at least 100 million.
As of January 2018, it is the eighth-most populated country in Asia and the 12th most populated country in the world. 10 million additional Filipinos lived overseas, comprising one of the world's largest diasporas. Multiple ethnicities and cultures are found throughout the islands. In prehistoric times, Negritos were some of the archipelago's earliest inhabitants, they were followed by successive waves of Austronesian peoples. Exchanges with Malay, Indian and Chinese nations occurred. Various competing maritime states were established under the rule of datus, rajahs and lakans; the arrival of Ferdinand Magellan, a Portuguese explorer leading a fleet for the Spanish, in Homonhon, Eastern Samar in 1521 marked the beginning of Hispanic colonization. In 1543, Spanish explorer Ruy López de Villalobos named the archipelago Las Islas Filipinas in honor of Philip II of Spain. With the arrival of Miguel López de Legazpi from Mexico City, in 1565, the first Hispanic settlement in the archipelago was established.
The Philippines became part of the Spanish Empire for more than 300 years. This resulted in Catholicism becoming the dominant religion. During this time, Manila became the western hub of the trans-Pacific trade connecting Asia with Acapulco in the Americas using Manila galleons; as the 19th century gave way to the 20th, the Philippine Revolution followed, which spawned the short-lived First Philippine Republic, followed by the bloody Philippine–American War. The war, as well as the ensuing cholera epidemic, resulted in the deaths of thousands of combatants as well as tens of thousands of civilians. Aside from the period of Japanese occupation, the United States retained sovereignty over the islands until after World War II, when the Philippines was recognized as an independent nation. Since the unitary sovereign state has had a tumultuous experience with democracy, which included the overthrow of a dictatorship by a non-violent revolution; the Philippines is a founding member of the United Nations, World Trade Organization, Association of Southeast Asian Nations, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum, the East Asia Summit.
It hosts the headquarters of the Asian Development Bank. The Philippines is considered to be an emerging market and a newly industrialized country, which has an economy transitioning from being based on agriculture to one based more on services and manufacturing. Along with East Timor, the Philippines is one of Southeast Asia's predominantly Christian nations; the Philippines was named in honor of King Philip II of Spain. Spanish explorer Ruy López de Villalobos, during his expedition in 1542, named the islands of Leyte and Samar Felipinas after the then-Prince of Asturias; the name Las Islas Filipinas would be used to cover all the islands of the archipelago. Before that became commonplace, other names such as Islas del Poniente and Magellan's name for the islands San Lázaro were used by the Spanish to refer to the islands; the official name of the Philippines has changed several times in the course of its history. During the Philippine Revolution, the Malolos Congress proclaimed the establishment of the República Filipina or the Philippine Republic.
From the period of the Spanish–American War and the Philippine–American War until the Commonwealth period, American colonial authorities referred to the country as the Philippine Islands, a translation of the Spanish name. Since the end of World War II, the official name of the country has been the Republic of the Philippines. Philippines has gained currency as the common name since being the name used in Article VI of the 1898 Treaty of Paris, with or without the definite article. Discovery in 2018 of stone tools and fossils of butchered animal remains in Rizal, Kalinga has pushed back evidence of early hominins in the archipelago to as early as 709,000 years. However, the metatarsal of the Callao Man, reliably dated by uranium-series dating to 67,000 years ago remains the oldest human remnant found in the archipelago to date; this distinction belonged to the Tabon Man of Palawan, carbon-dated to around 26,500 years ago. Negritos were among the archipelago's earliest inhabitants, but their first settlement in the Philippines has not been reliably dated.
There are several opposing theories regarding the origins of ancient Filipinos. F. Landa Jocano theorizes. Wilhelm Solheim's Island Origin Theory postulates that the peopling of the archipelago transpired via trade networks originating in the Sundaland area around
Cecilia Manguerra Brainard
Cecilia Manguerra Brainard is an author and editor of 20 books. She co-founded Artists. Brainard's works include the World War II novel, When the Rainbow Goddess Wept, The Newspaper Widow and Woman With Horns and Other Stories, she edited several anthologies including Fiction by Filipinos in America, Contemporary Fiction by Filipinos in America, two volumes of Growing Up Filipino I and II, books used by educators. Cecilia Manguerra Brainard grew up in Cebu City, the youngest of four children to Concepcion Cuenco Manguerra and Mariano F. Manguerra; the death of her father when she was nine prompted her to start writing, first in journals essays and fiction. She attended St. Theresa's Maryknoll College in the Philippines. Brainard has worked with Asian American youths for which she received a Special Recognition Award from the Los Angeles Board of Education, she has received awards from the California State Senate, 21st District, several USIS Grants, a California Arts Council Fellowship, an Outstanding Individual Award from the City of Cebu, Brody Arts Fund Award, a City of Los Angeles Cultural grant, many more.
The books she has written and edited have won awards, the Gintong Aklat Award and the International Gourmand Award among them. Her work has been translated into Turkish. Brainard's second novel, Magdalena inspired the playwright Jocelyn Deona de Leon to write a stage play, Gabriela's Monologue, produced in 2011 by the Bindlestiff Studio in San Francisco as part of Stories XII! Annual production showcasing original works for the stage by Pilipino/Filipino American Artists. Brainard's writings can be found in periodicals such as Town and Country, Zee Lifestyle Magazine, Focus Philippines, Philippine Graphic, Amerasia Journal, Bamboo Ridge among others, her stories have been anthologized in books such as Making Waves, Songs of Ourselves, On a Bed of Rice, "Pinay: Autobiographical Narratives by Women Writers, 1926-1998", "Asian American Literature",Cherished, others. Acapulco at Sunset and other Stories Angelica's Daughters, a Dugtungan Novel "Gokkusagi Tanricasi Agladginda" Magdalena, The Newspaper Widow Vigan and other Stories When the Rainbow Goddess Wept, which first appeared as Song of Yvonne, Woman With Horns and Other Stories Ala Carte Food and Fiction Contemporary Fiction by Filipinos in America Fiction by Filipinos in America Growing Up Filipino: Stories for Young Adults Growing Up Filipino II: More Stories for Young Adults Seven Stories from Seven Sisters: A Collection of Philippine Folktales The Beginning and Other Asian Folktales Behind the Walls: Life of Convent Girls" Finding God: True Stories of Spiritual Encounters" Journey of 100 Years: Reflections on the Centennial of Philippine Independence Magnificat: Mama Mary's Pilgrim Sites Philippine Woman in America Cecilia's Diary: 1962-1969 Fundamentals of Creative Writing" Out of Cebu: Essays and Personal Prose Philippine Woman in America Top Hat Award from the Philippine American Business Improvement and Development Certificate of Recognition from the United States House of Representatives Gintong Aklat Award, for Finding God: True Stories of Spiritual Encounters Gourmand Award, for Ala Carte Food & Fiction Certificate of Recognition from the Cebu Provincial Government Amazing Alumni Achiever Award from Maryknoll College, QC, RP Certificate of Recognition from the California State Senate, 21st District Filipinas Magazine Achievement Award for Arts and Culture California State Summer School for the Arts Award Outstanding Individual Award from the City of Cebu, Philippines USIS Travel Lecture Grants Makati Rotarian Award Literature Award, Filipino Women's Network City of Los Angeles Certificate of Appreciation Brody Arts Fund Fellowship Special Recognition Award, Los Angeles Board of Education City of Los Angeles Cultural Grant California Arts Council Artists' Fellowship in Fiction Abao, Jane Frances P. 2001.
"Retelling the Stories, Rewriting the Bildungsroman: Cecilia Manguerra Brainard's When the Rainbow Goddess Wept." Humanities Diliman. Adler, Les. 1996. "Acapulco at Sunset and Other Stories: A Review." Pilipinas 26. Alexice, Mya. Book Review of "The Newspaper Widow" - Foreword Reviews, January/February 2018. Anonas-Carpio, Alma. "The Tremendous Power of Secrets." Philippin
Mindanao or still known as Southern Philippines, is the second largest island in the Philippines. Mindanao and the smaller islands surrounding it make up the island group of the same name. Located in the southern region of the archipelago, as of the 2010 census, the main island was inhabited by 20,281,545 people, while the entire Mindanao island group had an estimated total of 25,537,691 residents. According to the 2015 Philippine Population Census, Davao City is the most populous city on the island, with a population of 1,632,991 residents, followed by Zamboanga City, Cagayan de Oro City, General Santos City, Iligan City, Butuan City and Cotabato City. About 70% of residents identify as Christian, 20% identify as Muslim. Mindanao is divided into six regions: the Zamboanga Peninsula, Northern Mindanao, the Caraga region, the Davao region, SOCCSKSARGEN, the Bangsamoro Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao. Native ethnic groups in Mindanao include the Lumads and the Moros (namely the Maguindanaos, the Maranaos, the Tausugs, the Yakans, the Iranuns, the Sama concentrated within the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao.
Joining them are the indigenous Butuanons and the Surigaonons of the Caraga region as well as the Zamboangueños of the eponymous peninsula, along with descendants of settlers from the Visayas and Luzon, among them the Cebuanos and the Hiligaynons. Mindanao is considered the major breadbasket of the Philippines, with eight of the top 10 agri-commodities exported from the Philippines coming from the island group itself. Mindanao is known for its moniker being The Philippines' Land of Promise. Archaeological findings on the island point to evidence of human activity dating back to about ten thousand years ago. At around 1500 BC Austronesian people spread throughout the Philippines; the Subanon are believed to have established themselves on Mindanao Island during the Neolithic Era, or New Stone Age, the period in the development of human technology beginning around 10,000 BC according to the ASPRO chronology. The evidence of old stone tools in Zamboanga del Norte may indicate a late Neolithic presence.
Ceramic burial jars, both unglazed and glazed, as well as Chinese celadons, have been found in caves, together with shell bracelets and gold ornaments. Many of the ceramic objects are from the Ming periods. Evidently, there was a long history of trade between the Subanon and the Chinese long before the latter's contact with Islam. In the classic epoch of Philippine history, the people of Mindanao were exposed to Hindu and Buddhist influence and beliefs from Indonesia and Malaysia. Indianized abugida scripts such as Kawi and Baybayin was introduced via Sulawesi and Java, the cultural icons of the sarong, the pudong turban and batik and ikat weaving and dyeing methods were introduced. Artifacts found from this era include the Golden kinnara, Golden Tara, the Ganesh pendant; these cultural traits passed from Mindanao into the Visayas and Luzon, but were subsequently lost or modified after the Spanish arrival in the 16th century. The Hindu-Buddhist cultural revolution was strongest in the coastal areas of the island, but were incorporated into local animist beliefs and customs tribes that resided more inland.
The Rajahnate of Butuan, a Hindu kingdom mentioned in Chinese records as a tributary state in the 10th century AD, was concentrated along the northeastern coast of the island around Butuan. The Darangen epic of the Maranao people harkens back to this era as the most complete local version of the Ramayana; the Maguindanao at this time had strong Hindu beliefs, evidenced by the Ladya Lawana epic saga that survives to the modern day, albeit Islamized from the 17th century on wards. The spread of Islam in the Philippines began in the 14th century by Muslim merchants from the western part of the Malay Archipelago; the first Mosque in the Philippines was built in the mid-14th century in the town of Simunul. Around the 16th century, Muslim sultanates: Sulu and Maguindanao were established from Hindu-Buddhist Rajahnates; as Islam gained a foothold over most of Mindanao, the natives residing within the Sultanates were either converted into Islam or obligated to pay tribute to their new Muslim rulers.
The largest of the Muslim settlements was the Sultanate named after the Maguindanaoans. Maps made during the 17th and 18th centuries suggest that the name Mindanao was used by the natives to refer to the island, by Islam was well established in Mindanao and had influenced groups on other islands to the north. On 2 February 1543, Ruy Lopez de Villalobos was the first Spaniard to reach Mindanao, he called the island "Caesarea Caroli" after Charles V of the Holy Roman Empire. Shortly after Spain's colonization of Cebu, they moved on to colonize Butuan and the surrounding Caraga region in northeast Mindanao and discovered significant Muslim presence on the island. Over time a number of tribes in Mindanao converted to Roman Catholicism and built settlements and forts throughout the coastal regions of the island; these settlements endured despite incurring attacks fr
The Pensionado Act is Act Number 854 of the Philippine Commission. Passed by Congress, it established a scholarship program for Filipinos to attend school in the United States, it was the largest American scholarship program until the Fulbright Program was established in 1948. Students of this scholarship program were known as pensionados. From the initial 100 students, the program provided education in the United States to around 14,000; the alumni of the program went on to work for the government in the Philippine Islands. Due to their success, other immigrants from the Philippines followed. In 1943, the program ended. During World War II, Japan initiated a similar program during its occupation of the Philippines. Following the War, Philippine independence, Filipino students continued to come to the United States utilizing government scholarships. During the Spanish era of the Philippines, education other than that provided by religious institutions, was not available to the average Filipino until after 1863.
Following the Spanish–American War in the late 19th century, Filipinos became nationals of the United States. At the behest of American Soldiers, well-to-do families began to send their children to the United States for education. D. at Georgetown University at the age of 20. This followed a trend of well-to-do families sending students to the United States, with Chinese students first coming to the United States beginning in 1847, Japanese students coming to the United States beginning in 1866; the first school established by the United States in the Philippines was on Corregidor, in March 1900 the Philippine Commission began to pass legislation to provide for public education, including secondary education in each provincial capital beginning in 1902. However, there were a lack of educators, with many Soldiers taking up the task of becoming teachers; this problem was first addressed by the Thomasites arrival in 1901. Directed by then-Governor General William Howard Taft, more was to be done to foster goodwill between Filipinos and Americans.
Envisioned by Professor Bernard Moses in July 1900, the program was to pacify Filipino opposition following the Philippine–American War, as well as prepare the islands for self-governance, by showing the difference between Spain and the United States through direct exposure. Additionally, the program was to expose the United States to "the best and brightest Filipino youths" to "make a favorable impression" of the Philippines in the United States; the program was overseen by David Prescott Barrows, the Philippines' director of education at the time. In its first year, there were twenty thousand applicants; these early pensionados were chosen from the elite class of Filipinos. Prior to taking college courses, the initial pensionados attended high school in the continental United States for the purpose of language and culture acclimation. In some areas of the United States, the pensionados were some of the first Filipinos to immigrate to those areas; as much as a quarter of the initial batch of pensionados went to school in the Chicago region.
During the second year of the program, the first Pinay pensionados were chosen. As the program continued, the number of pensionados increased, with there being 180 pensionados in 1907, 209 in 1912. Among the pensionados were some of the first Filipino nursing students to come to the United States. There was a pause in the program between 1915 and 1917. In 1921, the Philippine government had allotted ₱472,000 of their budget for supporting 111 pensionados, 13 of whom were working on achieving a doctoral degree. Pensionados went on to attend many colleges and universities, including the following: California Christian College Columbia University Cornell University Drexel Institute Harvard University Indiana University Los Angeles Junior College Massachusetts Institute of Technology Oberlin College San Diego Normal School Stanford University Syracuse University State Normal School University of CaliforniaUniversity of California, Los Angeles University of Chicago University of Illinois University of Michigan University of Southern California University of Washington Woodbury College From 1903, until 1938, pensionados studied in the United States, with the majority returning to the Philippines.
These former students would go on to serve within the government established in the islands by the United States. Before returning to the Philippines, pensionados began student-run newspapers, which were part of the beginning of media geared to the Filipino diaspora in the United States. Known as "fountain pen boys", by 1920 nearly five thousand pensionados had attended American schools, receiving post-secondary education. In 1922 alone, there were 900 Filipinos attending college in the United States. Due to the Great Depression funding for the program was reduced. By 1938, around fourteen thousand pensionados had received their education in the United States, some going onto important positions upon returning to the Philippines. In 1943, the program ended. Near the end of World War II, the Commonwealth Government in Exile was offered to have some of the pensionados trained in foreign relat
Journalism refers to the production and distribution of reports on recent events. The word journalism applies to the occupation, as well as citizen journalists using methods of gathering information and using literary techniques. Journalistic media include print, radio, and, in the past, newsreels. Concepts of the appropriate role for journalism vary between countries. In some nations, the news media are controlled by government intervention and are not independent. In others, the news media are independent of the government but instead operate as private industry motivated by profit. In addition to the varying nature of how media organizations are run and funded, countries may have differing implementations of laws handling the freedom of speech and libel cases; the advent of the Internet and smartphones has brought significant changes to the media landscape in recent years. This has created a shift in the consumption of print media channels, as people consume news through e-readers and other personal electronic devices, as opposed to the more traditional formats of newspapers, magazines, or television news channels.
News organizations are challenged to monetize their digital wing, as well as improvise on the context in which they publish in print. Newspapers have seen print revenues sink at a faster pace than the rate of growth for digital revenues. Journalistic conventions vary by country. In the United States, journalism is produced by individuals. Bloggers are but not always, journalists; the Federal Trade Commission requires that bloggers who write about products received as promotional gifts to disclose that they received the products for free. This is intended to protect consumers. In the US, many credible news organizations are incorporated entities. Many credible news organizations, or their employees belong to and abide by the ethics of professional organizations such as the American Society of News Editors, the Society of Professional Journalists, Investigative Reporters & Editors, Inc. or the Online News Association. Many news organizations have their own codes of ethics that guide journalists' professional publications.
For instance, The New York Times code of standards and ethics is considered rigorous. When crafting news stories, regardless of the medium and bias are issues of concern to journalists; some stories are intended to represent the author's own opinion. In a print newspaper, information is organized into sections and the distinction between opinionated and neutral stories is clear. Online, many of these distinctions break down. Readers should pay careful attention to headings and other design elements to ensure that they understand the journalist's intent. Opinion pieces are written by regular columnists or appear in a section titled "Op-ed", while feature stories, breaking news, hard news stories make efforts to remove opinion from the copy. According to Robert McChesney, healthy journalism in a democratic country must provide an opinion of people in power and who wish to be in power, must include a range of opinions and must regard the informational needs of all people. Many debates center on whether journalists are "supposed" to be "objective" and "neutral".
Additionally, the ability to render a subject's complex and fluid narrative with sufficient accuracy is sometimes challenged by the time available to spend with subjects, the affordances or constraints of the medium used to tell the story, the evolving nature of people's identities. There are several forms of journalism with diverse audiences. Thus, journalism is said to serve the role of a "fourth estate", acting as a watchdog on the workings of the government. A single publication contains many forms of journalism, each of which may be presented in different formats; each section of a newspaper, magazine, or website may cater to a different audience. Some forms include: Access journalism – journalists who self-censor and voluntarily cease speaking about issues that might embarrass their hosts, guests, or powerful politicians or businesspersons. Advocacy journalism – writing to advocate particular viewpoints or influence the opinions of the audience. Broadcast journalism – written or spoken journalism for radio or television.
Citizen journalism – participatory journalism. Data journalism – the practice of finding stories in numbers, using numbers to tell stories. Data journalists may use data to support their reporting, they may report about uses and misuses of data. The US news organization ProPublica is known as a pioneer of data journalism. Drone journalism – use of drones to capture journalistic footage. Gonzo journalism – first championed by Hunter S. Thompson, gonzo journalism is a "highly personal style of reporting". Interactive journalism – a type of online journalism, presented on the web Investigative journalism – in-depth reporting that uncovers social problems. Leads to major social problems being resolved. Photojournalism – the practice of telling true stories through images Sensor journalism – the use of sensors to support journalistic inquiry. Tabloid journalism – writing, light-hearted and entertaining. Considered less legitimate than mainstream journalism. Yellow journalism – writing which emphasizes exaggerated claims or rumors.
The rise of social media ha
Cebu is a province of the Philippines located in the Central Visayas region, consists of a main island and 167 surrounding islands and islets. Its capital is Cebu City, the oldest city and first capital of the Philippines, politically independent from the provincial government; the Cebu Metropolitan Area or Metro Cebu is formed by 6 municipalities. Cebu is one of the most developed provinces in the Philippines with Metro Cebu being the second largest metropolitan area in the Philippines and Cebu City as the main center of commerce, trade and industry in the Visayas. In a decade it has transformed into a global hub for business processing services, shipping, furniture-making, heavy industry. Mactan–Cebu International Airport, located on Mactan Island, is the second busiest airport in the Philippines; the name "Cebu" comes from a shortened form of sinibuayng hingpit. It was applied to the harbors of the town of Sugbu, the ancient name for Cebu City. Alternate renditions of the name by traders between the 13th to 16th centuries include Sebu, Zubu, or Zebu, among others.
Sugbu, in turn, is derived from the Old Cebuano term for "scorched earth" or "great fire". The Rajahnate of Cebu was a native kingdom which existed in Cebu prior to the arrival of the Spaniards, it was founded by Sri Lumay otherwise known as Rajamuda Lumaya, a half-Malay, half-Tamil prince of the Chola dynasty who invaded Sumatra in Indonesia. He was sent by the Maharajah to establish a base for expeditionary forces to subdue the local kingdoms, but he rebelled and established his own independent Rajahnate instead; the arrival of Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan in 1521 began a period of Spanish exploration and colonization. Losing the favour of King Manuel I of Portugal for his plan of reaching the Spice Islands by sailing west from Europe, Magellan offered his services to king Charles I of Spain. On 20 September 1519, Magellan led five ships with a total complement of 250 people from the Spanish fort of Sanlúcar de Barrameda en route to southeast Asia via the Americas and Pacific Ocean.
They reached the Philippines on 16 March 1521. Rajah Kolambu the king of Mazaua told them to sail for Cebu, where they could trade and obtain provisions. Arriving in Cebu City, with Enrique of Malacca as translator, befriended Rajah Humabon the Rajah or King of Cebu, persuaded the natives to ally themselves with Charles I of Spain. Humabon and his wife were baptized as Carlos and Juana; the Santo Niño was presented to the native queen of Cebu, as a symbol of peace and friendship between the Spaniards and the Cebuanos. On 14 April Magellan erected a large wooden cross on the shores of Cebu. Afterwards, about 700 islanders were baptized. Magellan soon heard of datu Lapu-Lapu, a native king in nearby Mactan Island, a rival of the Rajahs of Cebu, it was thought that Humabon and Lapu–Lapu had been fighting for control of the flourishing trade in the area. On 27 April the Battle of Mactan occurred, where the Spaniards were defeated and Magellan was killed by the natives of Mactan in Mactan Island. According to Italian historian and chronicler Antonio Pigafetta, Magellan's body was never recovered despite efforts to trade for it with spice and jewels.
Magellan's second-in-command, Juan Sebastián Elcano, took his place as captain of the expedition and sailed the fleet back to Spain, circumnavigating the world. Survivors of the Magellan expedition returned to Spain with tales of a savage island in the East Indies. Several Spanish expeditions were sent to the islands but all ended in failure. In 1564, Spanish explorers led by Miguel López de Legazpi, sailing from Mexico, arrived in 1565, established a colony; the Spaniards fought the King, Rajah Tupas, occupied his territories. The Spaniards established settlements, trade flourished and renamed the island to "Villa del Santísimo Nombre de Jesús". Cebu became the first European settlement established by the Spanish Cortés in the Philippines. In 1595, the Universidad de San Carlos was established and in 1860, Cebu opened its ports to foreign trade; the first printing house was established in 1873 and in 1880, the Colegio de la Inmaculada Concepcion was established and the first periodical The Bulletin of Cebu began publishing in 1886.
In 1898, the island was ceded to the United States after the Spanish–American War and Philippine–American War. In 1901, Cebu was governed by the United States for a brief period, however it became a charter province on 24 February 1937 and was governed independently by Filipino politicians. Cebu, being one of the most densely populated islands in the Philippines, served as a Japanese base during their occupation in World War II which began with the landing of Japanese soldiers in April 1942; the 3rd, 8th, 82nd and 85th Infantry Division of the Philippine Commonwealth Army was re-established from 3 January 1942 to 30 June 1946 and the 8th Constabulary Regiment of the Philippine Constabulary was reestablished again from 28 October 1944 to 30 June 1946 at the military general headquarters and the military camps and garrisoned in Cebu city and Cebu province. They started the Anti-Japanese military operations in Cebu from April 1942 to September 1945 and helped Cebuano guerrillas and fought against the Japanese Imperial forces.
Three years in March 1945, combined Filipino and A