The Tungri were a tribe, or group of tribes, who lived in the Belgic part of Gaul, during the times of the Roman empire. Within the Roman empire, their territory was the Civitas Tungrorum, they were described by Tacitus as being the same people who were first called "Germani", meaning that all other tribes who were referred to this way, including those in Germania east of the Rhine river were named after them. More Tacitus was thereby equating the Tungri with the "Germani Cisrhenani" described generations earlier by Julius Caesar, their name is the source of several place names in Belgium and the Netherlands, including Tongeren, several places called Tongerloo, Tongelre. In a comment in his Germania, Tacitus remarks that Germani was the original tribal name of the Tungri with whom the Gauls were in contact; the name Germany, on the other hand, they say, is modern and newly introduced, from the fact that the tribes which first crossed the Rhine and drove out the Gauls, are now called Tungrians, were called Germans.
Thus what was the name of a tribe, not of a race prevailed, till all called themselves by this self-invented name of Germans, which the conquerors had first employed to inspire terror. Some generations earlier, Julius Caesar, on the other hand, does not mention the Tungri, but does say that the Condrusi, the Eburones, the Caeroesi and the Paemani, living in the same approximate area as the Tungri, were "called by the common name of Germans" and had settled in Gaul before the Cimbric wars, having come from Germany east of the Rhine; the Romans allies named them as having one collective contribution of men to the Belgic revolt against him, within which the Eburones were the most important. The Eburones, who lived as far east as Cologne, were led by Ambiorix and Cativolcus. Neighbouring these tribes where the Aduatuci, whose origin Caesar describes more as having descended from the Cimbri and Teutones, against whom the Germani had been the only Gaulish tribe to defend themselves, their descendants, if there were any lived amongst the Tungri.
During the campaign of Caesar, the Tencteri and Usipetes crossed the Rhine for a cattle raid of the territories the Menapii and Condrusi, giving Caesar an excuse for new military intervention in the area. He pursued them back over the Rhine. Caesar himself encouraged the Sicambri to cross the Rhine into the territory of the Eburones, seeking to plunder the lands of the people whose fortress he had just taken; these tribes who crossed the Rhine and became part of Roman Germania Inferior were themselves heavily influenced by Gaulish culture, some using Gaulish personal names or Gaulish tribal names. As the area became part of the Roman empire some of these tribes from over the Rhine, including Sicambri and Ubii, were forced by Tiberius to settle among in the northeast of Gaul, Romanised provinces with tribal names developed from the mergers of incoming groups, with people who had lived there before Caesar; this is a origin of both the Tungri the other tribal groups of Germania Inferior. The Roman civitas of the Tungri is smaller than the area which Caesar ascribed to the earlier Germani Cisrhenani, with the areas near the Rhine governed as a military frontier, populated at least with soldiers and immigrants from the other side of the Rhine.
The exact history of each these populations is not known, although the areas nearer to the Rhine appear to have had larger scale immigration while the Tungri are suspected of being less changed in their make-up by this process. Smaller tribal groups such as the Condrusi and the Texuandri continued to exist as recognized groups for the administrative purpose of mustering troops. To the north of the Tungri, in the Rhine-Maas delta were the Batavians, a new formation made up of in-coming Chatti, with a possible contribution of Eburones. To the northeast of the Tungri, near the Rhine were the Cugerni, who are thought to be Sicambri, around the area of Cologne and Bonn the Ubii were settled. Pliny the Elder is the first writer to mention the Tungri in Gallia Belgica, in his Natural History, he notes that their territory...has a spring of great renown, which sparkles as it bursts forth with bubbles innumerable, has a certain ferruginous taste, only to be perceived after it has been drunk. This water is purgative, is curative of tertian fevers, disperses urinary calculi: upon the application of fire it assumes a turbid appearance, turns red It has been suggested that this refers to the well-known waters of Spa in the province of Liège, or else to waters found at Tongeren, which are suitably iron-bearing, today referred to as the "Plinius bron".
Both Pliny and Ptolemy's Geography are unclear concerning the exact position of the Tungri but are understood as placing them east of the Scheldt, to the north of the Arduenna Silva, along the middle and lower valley of the Mosa. The Eburones had a fort called Atuatuca. Caesar reported. Under Roman occupation, a new city Aduatuca Tungrorum, modern Tongeren in the Limburg province of Belgium, because the capital city of the region. Under the Romans, the Tungri civitas was first a part of Gallia Belgica, split out to join the territories of the Ubii to the southeast, the Cugerni, who are equated with being descended from the Sicambri, to the northeast, an
The Toxandri were a people living at the time of the Roman empire. Their territory was called Toxandria, Toxiandria or Taxandria, a name which survived into the Middle Ages, it was equivalent to the modern Campine geographical region of northeastern Flanders and southern Netherlands. In modern terms this covered all or most of North Brabant, the east of Antwerp Province, the north of Belgian Limburg, their name is preserved in modern placenames such as Tessenderlo, in the modern Belgian province of Limburg where it borders upon the provinces of Antwerp and Flemish Brabant. Pliny the Elder in his Naturalis Historia reported that they were divided into "various peoples with many names", he placed them at the extreme edge of Gallia Belgica, the River Scaldis which some translations interpret as being "beyond" that river, with the Menapii on the more Roman side. This means that the Texuandri were either within, or close to, the part of the river delta frontier area of Belgic Gaul, that became part of Roman "Lower Germany".
The coastal Menapii and Morini were west of the Scheldt, so the Texuandri were on the eastern bank north of modern Antwerp, in or near the area known as Toxandria in the Middle Ages. From military records around the empire it appears that the Texuandri may have formed at least one administrative district or "pagus" which contributed troops to Roman armies, but it appears to be associated with more than one higher level district. One is the Civitas Tungrorum, the civitas of the Tungri, but there seems to be an association with the civitas of the Nervii, to the west; the modern town of Tongerloo, named after the Tungri, is close to Tessenderlo, but further from the city of the Tungri, modern Tongeren. The relationship between the Tungri and Toxandri is unclear. Prior to Pliny, the Toxandrians were not mentioned by Julius Caesar or Strabo in their reports of the region, it has been speculated in modern times that their name may have been a calque of the name of the Eburones who lived in the same area and were mentioned by both authors, but whom Caesar claimed to have destroyed in revenge for their rebellion against him.
The name of the Eburones is based on the Celtic word for a yew tree, which in Latin is called "taxus". Alternatively, the Toxandri and Tungri, whose name only appears for the first time in Roman times, may have been made up of Germanic immigrants from the east of the Rhine, settling Roman territory, as happened closer to the Rhine - for example the Ubii to the east near Cologne, the Cugerni to the northeast near Xanten, the Batavians and Canenefates directly to the north of the Toxandri, in the Rhine-Meuse delta. Tacitus does not mention the Toxandri, but mentions that the Tungri, unlike the Ubii and Canenefates, had changed tribal name, having been known as the Germani, a grouping which had included the Eburones. Before the takeover of Rome in this region, in Julius Caesar's commentary tribal boundaries in the area where the Toxandri are found are left unclear, it is described as thorny low forest and marshy lowlands, northwards of main populations of the cisrhenane Germani and Nervii. Caesar mentions both these politically important tribes retreating into estuarine areas, but more connects those regions to the Menapii, who in Caesar's time, as opposed to Strabo's, stretched through the delta all the way to the Rhine.
At one point Caesar says that the cisrhenane Germani bordering the Menapii were the Eburones, who he describes as the biggest and most important tribe of the Germani. In one isolated passage, Caesar did describe a tribe in the area of the Toxandri, the Ambivariti, he describes their position incidentally only, mentioning that a raiding group from Germany had crossed the Rhine at a point where Menapii lived on both sides of the river, crossed the Meuse in order to raid the Ambivariti. But this tribe is never mentioned by any other known classical source, Caesar does not describe the associations of these people with any others. In the middle of the 4th century, the area of Toxandria became de-populated, was exposed to constant raiding from tribes across the Rhine, outside the empire. Having been amongst the worst raiders, the Salian Franks were settled as foederati in Toxandria. Julian the Apostate had at first fought against Saxons and Franks, including the Salians, but allowed this one group "descended from the Franks" to settle in Toxandria in 358.
According to Zosimus, in the years previous to this agreement, the Salians had settled in the island of the Batavians, a border island of the Roman empire, forced there by Saxons from northern Germany. But they had come under attack from Saxons." " commanded his army to attack them briskly. The Salians became Roman allies and provided troops for the imperial army, in the period that Roman influence in the area was weakening. Toxandria therefore became the name of a Frankish county in early medieval Lower Lotharingia. Texandria is mentioned as a large county in the 870 Treaty of Meersen, remained th
The Germanic peoples are an Indo-European ethnolinguistic group of Northern European origin identified by their use of the Germanic languages. Their history stretches from the 2nd millennium BCE up to the present day. Proto-Germanic peoples are believed to have emerged during the Nordic Bronze Age, which developed out of the Battle Axe culture in southern Scandinavia. During the Iron Age various Germanic tribes began a southward expansion at the expense of Celtic peoples, which led to centuries of sporadic violent conflict with ancient Rome, it is from Roman authors. The decisive victory of Arminius at the Battle of the Teutoburg Forest in 9 CE is believed to have prevented the eventual Romanization of the Germanic peoples, has therefore been considered a turning point in world history. Germanic tribes settled the entire Roman frontier along the Rhine and the Danube, some established close relations with the Romans serving as royal tutors and mercenaries, sometimes rising to the highest offices in the Roman military.
Meanwhile, Germanic tribes expanded into Eastern Europe, where the Goths subdued the local Iranian nomads and came to dominate the Pontic Steppe launching sea expeditions into the Balkans and Anatolia as far as Cyprus. The westward expansion of the Huns into Europe in the late 4th century CE pushed many Germanic tribes into the Western Roman Empire, their vacated lands were filled by Slavs. Much of these territories were reclaimed in following centuries. Other tribes became known as the Anglo-Saxons. With the collapse of the Western Roman Empire, a series of Germanic kingdoms emerged, of which, Francia gained a dominant position; this kingdom formed the Holy Roman Empire under the leadership of Charlemagne, recognized by Pope Leo III in 800 CE. Meanwhile, North Germanic seafarers referred to as Vikings, embarked on a massive expansion which led to the establishment of the Duchy of Normandy, Kievan Rus' and their settlement of the British Isles and the North Atlantic Ocean as far as North America.
With the North Germanic abandonment of their native religion in the 11th century, nearly all Germanic peoples had been converted to Christianity. In about 222 BCE, the first use of the Latin term "Germani" appears in the Fasti Capitolini inscription de Galleis Insvbribvs et Germ; this may be referring to Gaul or related people. The term Germani shows up again written by Poseidonios, but is a quotation inserted by the author Athenaios who wrote much later. Somewhat the first surviving detailed discussions of Germani and Germania are those of Julius Caesar, whose memoirs are based on first-hand experience. From Caesar's perspective, Germania was a geographical area of land on the east bank of the Rhine opposite Gaul, which Caesar left outside direct Roman control; this word provides the etymological origin of the modern concept of "Germanic" languages and Germany as a geographical abstraction. For some classical authors Germania included regions of Sarmatia, as well as an area under Roman control on the west bank of the Rhine.
Additionally, in the south there were Celtic peoples still living east of the Rhine and north of the Alps. Caesar and others noted differences of culture which could be found on the east of the Rhine, but the theme of all these cultural references was that this was a wild and dangerous region, less civilized than Gaul, a place that required additional military vigilance. Caesar used the term Germani for a specific tribal grouping in northeastern Belgic Gaul, west of the Rhine, the largest part of whom were the Eburones, he made clear. These are the so-called Germani Cisrhenani, whom Caesar believed to be related to the peoples east of the Rhine, descended from immigrants into Gaul. Tacitus suggests that this was the original meaning of the word "Germani" – as the name of a single tribal nation west of the Rhine, ancestral to the Tungri, not the name of a whole race as it came to mean, he suggested that two large Belgic tribes neighbouring Caesar's Germani, the Nervii and the Treveri, liked to call themselves Germanic in his time, in order not to be associated with Gaulish indolence.
Caesar described this group of tribes both as Germani. Gauls are associated with Celtic languages, the term Germani is associated with Germanic languages, but Caesar did not discuss languages in detail; the geographer Ptolemy described the place where these people lived as Germania, which according to his accounts was bordered by the Rhine and Danube Rivers, but he circumscribed into Greater Germania an area which included Jutland and an enormous island known as Scandia. While saying that the Germani had ancestry across the Rhine, Caesar did not describe these tribes as recent immigrants, saying that they had defended themselves some generations earlier from the invading Cimbri and Teutones, it has been claimed, for example by Maurits Gysseling, that the place names of this region show evidence of an early presence of Germanic languages, as early as the 2nd century BCE. The Celtic culture and language were however influential als
The Salian Franks called the Salians, were a northwestern subgroup of the earliest Franks who first appear in the historical records in the third century. They lived at the mouth of the Rhine river in what was the Roman Empire and today Netherlands and Belgium. Like the other Franks in this period, the Salian Franks were a Germanic people living near the river Rhine, which had long been a militarized border; the Salians, unlike other Franks, first appear living inside the Roman Empire, living in the Rhine delta in the modern Netherlands. In modern works they are contrasted with their neighbours to the east, known as the Rhineland or Ripuarian Franks, who held the Roman city of Cologne, in modern Germany. How the Franks in these areas were politically connected or separated, how many groups there were, is unknown until the time when they all fell under the reign of Clovis I. A much author, Gregory of Tours, said that in old records he found it seemed the Franks had once had kinglets in each city they held.
Although treated as a tribe it has been argued by Matthias Springer that this might represent a misunderstanding. All of the classical mentions of them seem to derive from one mention by Ammianus Marcellinus of "Franks, those namely whom custom calls the Salii". Ammianus, who served in the Roman military, reported that the Salii were pushed from their home in Batavia, into Toxandria, by the non-Roman Chamavi; the first historian to say that the Salians had been pushed into the empire from outside was Zosimus, but his description of events seems to be confused and derived from others. The account of Zosimus, that the Salians had been pushed into the empire as a single tribe, is still accepted. In this case, their homeland may have been between the Rhine and the IJssel in the modern day Dutch region of the Veluwe and they may have given their name to the region of Salland, it has been proposed that the Salii might have been one of the peoples making up the large nation of the Chauci during the Roman empire, most of whom became Saxons.
In 358, the Salians came to some form of agreement with the Romans, which allowed them to keep settlements south of the delta in Toxandria, between the rivers Scheldt and Demer the area of the current Dutch province of Noord-Brabant, adjacent parts of the two bordering Belgian provinces of Antwerpen and Belgian Limburg, the so-called "Kempen". The Merovingian kings responsible for the conquest of Gaul are thought to have had Salian ancestry, because they applied so-called Salian law in their Roman-populated territories between the Loire and Silva Carbonaria, although they clearly had connections with the Rhineland or Ripuarian Franks before they conquered them; the Lex Ripuaria originated about 630 and has been described as a development of the Frankish laws known from Lex Salica. On the other hand, following the interpretation of Springer the Lex Salica may have meant something like "Common Law". Various etymologies are proposed; the ethnonym is unrelated to the name for the dancing priests of Mars, who were called Salii.
In line with theories that the Salians existed as a tribe outside the Roman empire, the name may have derived from the name of the IJssel river called Hisloa or Hisla, in ancient times, which may be the Salians' original residence. Today this area is called Salland. Alternatively, the name may derive from a proposed Germanic word *saljon meaning friend or comrade, indicating that the term implied an alliance. In that case, the name may have originated in the empire itself, or the river and/or region might be named after the inhabitants. Apart from some isolated fragments, there is no record of the Salian Frankish language but it is presumed to be ancestral to the modern family of Low Franconian dialects, which are represented today by Dutch and Flemish dialects, Afrikaans. Before the Merovingian takeover, the Salian tribes constituted a loose confederacy that only banded together, for example to negotiate with Roman authority; each tribe consisted of extended family groups centered on a renowned or noble family.
The importance of the family bond was made clear by the Salic Law, which ordained that an individual had no right to protection if not part of a family. While the Goths or the Vandals had been at least converted to Christianity since the mid-4th century, polytheistic beliefs are thought to have flourished among the Salian Franks until the conversion of Clovis to Catholicism shortly before or after 500, after which paganism diminished gradually. On the other hand it is possible many Salians in Gaul were Arian Christians, like contemporary Germanic kingdoms. Within the Roman empire, Germanic tribes had lived in the river deltas now in the Netherlands long before the names "Frank" or "Salii" appeared; the most important are known to history as the Batavi, a name based on the older name of the island they lived on, where we first find the Salians living. They were reported by Tacitus to be immigrants from the Chatti; the first mention of Franks in the area was about 286 AD, during the reign of emperor Probus, when Carausius was put in charge of defending the coasts of the Straits of Dover against Saxon and Frankish pirates.
In the time of Probus there is record of a large group who decided to hijack some Roman ships and return with them from the Black Sea – reaching the Atlantic after causing chaos through Greece and Gibraltar. It has been proposed that the
Cologne is the largest city of Germany's most populous federal state of North Rhine-Westphalia, its 1 million+ inhabitants make it the fourth most populous city in Germany after Berlin and Munich. The largest city on the Rhine, it is the most populous city both of the Rhine-Ruhr Metropolitan Region, Germany's largest and one of Europe's major metropolitan areas, of the Rhineland. Centred on the left bank of the Rhine, Cologne is about 45 kilometres southeast of North Rhine-Westphalia's capital of Düsseldorf and 25 kilometres northwest of Bonn, it is the largest city in the Central Ripuarian dialect areas. The city's famous Cologne Cathedral is the seat of the Catholic Archbishop of Cologne. There are many institutions of higher education in the city, most notably the University of Cologne, one of Europe's oldest and largest universities, the Technical University of Cologne, Germany's largest university of applied sciences, the German Sport University Cologne, Germany's only sport university.
Cologne Bonn Airport lies in the southeast of the city. The main airport for the Rhine-Ruhr region is Düsseldorf Airport. Cologne was founded and established in Ubii territory in the 1st century AD as the Roman Colonia Claudia Ara Agrippinensium, the first word of, the origin of its name. An alternative Latin name of the settlement is Augusta Ubiorum, after the Ubii. "Cologne", the French version of the city's name, has become standard in English as well. The city functioned as the capital of the Roman province of Germania Inferior and as the headquarters of the Roman military in the region until occupied by the Franks in 462. During the Middle Ages it flourished on one of the most important major trade routes between east and west in Europe. Cologne was one of the leading members of the Hanseatic League and one of the largest cities north of the Alps in medieval and Renaissance times. Prior to World War II the city had undergone several occupations by the French and by the British. Cologne was one of the most bombed cities in Germany during World War II, with the Royal Air Force dropping 34,711 long tons of bombs on the city.
The bombing reduced the population by 95% due to evacuation, destroyed the entire city. With the intention of restoring as many historic buildings as possible, the successful postwar rebuilding has resulted in a mixed and unique cityscape. Cologne is a major cultural centre for the Rhineland. Exhibitions range from local ancient Roman archeological sites to contemporary graphics and sculpture; the Cologne Trade Fair hosts a number of trade shows such as Art Cologne, imm Cologne and the Photokina. The first urban settlement on the grounds of modern-day Cologne was Oppidum Ubiorum, founded in 38 BC by the Ubii, a Cisrhenian Germanic tribe. In 50 AD, the Romans founded Colonia Claudia Ara Agrippinensium on the river Rhine and the city became the provincial capital of Germania Inferior in 85 AD. Considerable Roman remains can be found in present-day Cologne near the wharf area, where a 1,900-year-old Roman boat was discovered in late 2007. From 260 to 271 Cologne was the capital of the Gallic Empire under Postumus and Victorinus.
In 310 under emperor Constantine I a bridge was built over the Rhine at Cologne. Roman imperial governors resided in the city and it became one of the most important trade and production centres in the Roman Empire north of the Alps. Cologne is shown on the 4th century Peutinger Map. Maternus, elected as bishop in 313, was the first known bishop of Cologne; the city was the capital of a Roman province until it was occupied by the Ripuarian Franks in 462. Parts of the original Roman sewers are preserved underneath the city, with the new sewerage system having opened in 1890. Early medieval Cologne was part of Austrasia within the Frankish Empire. In 716, Charles Martel commanded an army for the first time and suffered the only defeat of his life when Chilperic II, King of Neustria, invaded Austrasia and the city fell to him in the Battle of Cologne. Charles fled to the Eifel mountains, rallied supporters, took the city back that same year after defeating Chilperic in the Battle of Amblève. Cologne had been the seat of a bishop since the Roman period.
In 843, Cologne became a city within the Treaty of Verdun-created East Francia. In 953, the archbishops of Cologne first gained noteworthy secular power, when bishop Bruno was appointed as duke by his brother Otto I, King of Germany. In order to weaken the secular nobility, who threatened his power, Otto endowed Bruno and his successors on the bishop's see with the prerogatives of secular princes, thus establishing the Electorate of Cologne, formed by the temporal possessions of the archbishopric and included in the end a strip of territory along the left Bank of the Rhine east of Jülich, as well as the Duchy of Westphalia on the other side of the Rhine, beyond Berg and Mark. By the end of the 12th century, the Archbishop of Cologne was one of the seven electors of the Holy Roman Emperor. Besides being prince elector, he was Arch-chancellor of Italy as well, technically from 1238 and permanently from 1263 until 1803. Following the Battle of Worringen in 1288, Cologne gained its independence from the archbishops and became a Free City.
Archbishop Sigfried II von Westerburg was forced to reside in Bonn. The archbishop preserv
The Chamavi were a Germanic tribe of Roman imperial times whose name survived into the Early Middle Ages. They first appear under that name in the 1st century AD Germania of Tacitus as a Germanic tribe that lived to the north of the Lower Rhine, their name survives in the region today called Hamaland, in the Gelderland province of the Netherlands, between the IJssel and Ems rivers. Various proposals have been made; the ending of the name is found in various Roman forms that are similar to other tribes. The root is thought to be Germanic, might be related to: *hamu for lame or incomplete indicating the name once described a powerlessness. Low German, hamme, an enclosed piece of land describing their settlements. *hamu, describing clothing. According to Velleius Paterculus, in 4 BC, Tiberius crossed the Rhine and attacked, in sequence, the Chamavi and Bructeri implying that the Chamavi lived west of the other two named tribes; the Bructeri lived between the Ems and Lippe, so the Chamavi probably lived west of the Ems.
Tacitus reports in his Annals that in the time of Nero, the Angrivarii, having been ejected from their homes further to the north, pleaded with Rome to allow them to live in a military buffer zone on the northern bank of the Rhine, saying that "these fields belonged to the Chamavi. These fields, being on the Rhine between IJssel and Lippe, were to the south of modern Hamaland, to the west of the Bructeri. In this passage he does not explain. In his Germania, Tacitus reported that the Chamavi and Angrivarii had moved recently in his time into the lands of the Bructeri, the Bructeri having been expelled and utterly destroyed by an alliance of neighboring peoples.... The Bructeri lived in the area between the Lippe and Ems rivers, to the southeast of modern Hamaland, to the west of the Ems. Tacitus reports that to the north of the Chamavi and Angrivarii lived "the Dulgubini and Chasuarii, other tribes not famous". To their south were the Tencteri, at that time between the Rhine and the Chatti. Ptolemy in his Geographia, mentions several tribal names which could refer to different reports of the Chamavi's position.
But the text is notoriously difficult to unravel: Ptolemy describes the peoples between the Frisians and Chauci on the North Sea coast, the more nomadic and newly arrived Suebic nations who he describes as now living in a band from their more well-known locations near the Elbe all the way to the Rhine, where he places at least part of the Suebic Langobardi. From west to east: Between the Frisians and the Rhine, he places the lesser Bructeri; these "Chaimai" are therefore neighbours of the Angrivarii and Dulgubni matching Tacitus, although the Bructeri have not disappeared. So this passage matches other classical texts. On the other hand, coming from the direction of the Elbe, now south of the Suebian band of peoples, the Kamauoi are mentioned together with the Cherusci at "Mount Melibocus", thought to be the Harz mountains. Both are said to be "under", meaning the Calucones, who lived on both side of the Elbe. Matching the Harz, the Elbe is to the west, where the "Bainochaimai" live. Although these Cherusci are close to where other texts report them, this is quite far to the east of Hamaland, somewhat to the east of the land of the Bructeri.
So this is an unusual placement to be reported for the Chamavi. In a third place, when describing the tribes south of the band of Suevi, east of the Abnobian mountains running parallel to the Rhine coming from the west this time, Ptolemy mentions first that "under" the most westerly Suevi are from north to south, the Chasuarii Nertereani Danduti the Turoni and Marvingi under the Marvingi, the Curiones Chattuari, as far as the Danube and the Parmaecampi; the next apparent north to south series starts not with Suevi but with the Camavi "under" whom are the Chatti and Tubanti, between these and the Sudetes mountains, thought to be the Erzgebirge, the Teuriochaemae. Not only the Chamavi, but the Tubanti and Chattuari, are described by Tacitus and other sources as living much further to the north of the Rhine and the Harz mountains, nowhere near the Danube; the Chatti however, are in the expected place. In about 293 or 294, according to the Latin Panegyrics VIII, Constantius Chlorus, had victories in the Scheldt delta, his opponents are thought to have been Chamavi and Frisii, because the author of the text mentions that as a result and Frisians now plow his land and the price of food is lower.
Some apparently became soldiers, about 300 the 11th cohort "chamadoroi" were noted in Peamou in Upper Egypt, corresponding to the 11th cohort Chamavi known from the Notitia Dignitatum. We know. In 313, Constantine the Great als