Frigidaire is the US consumer and commercial home appliances brand subsidiary of European parent company Electrolux. Frigidaire was founded as the Guardian Frigerator Company in Fort Wayne and developed the first self-contained refrigerator in 1916. In 1918, William C. Durant, a founder of General Motors invested in the company and in 1919, it adopted the name Frigidaire; the brand was so well known in the refrigeration field in the early-to-mid-1900s that many Americans called any refrigerator a Frigidaire. In France and some other french speaking countries the word Frigidaire is in use today; the name Frigidaire or its antecedent Frigerator may be the origin of the used English word fridge, although more simply an abbreviation of refrigerator, a word known to have been used as early as 1611. From 1919 to 1979, the company was owned by General Motors. During that period, it was first a subsidiary of Delco-Light and was an independent division based in Dayton, Ohio; the division manufactured the compressors for GM's cars that were equipped with air conditioning.
Frigidaire was sold to the White Sewing Machine Company in 1979, which in 1986 was purchased by Electrolux, its current parent. While the company was owned by General Motors, its logo featured the phrase "Product of General Motors", renamed to "Home Environment Division of General Motors"; the company claims firsts including: Electric self-contained refrigerator Home food freezer Room air conditioner 30" electric range Coordinated colors for home appliances During the years that Frigidaire was owned by General Motors, it was competitive in the automatic clothes-washing-machine business. Frigidaire engineer Kenneth Sisson credited with the design of the incrementing timer used on clothes washers and dishwashers for years to come, designed the Frigidaire automatic washer with the Unimatic mechanism in the late 1930s. Production of the first Frigidaire automatic clothes washers was halted due to World War II and therefore the machine was not formally introduced until 1947; the washing action of a Frigidaire automatic was unique in that the agitator pulsated up and down, a unique departure from the traditional oscillating type.
The Frigidaire washers were named for their mechanisms, which underwent frequent changes over the years. The Unimatic was in production the longest, for any single Frigidaire mechanism, from 1947 to 1958; the Pulsamatic mechanism, unique in that it pulsated 630 times per minute, was introduced in 1955 for the lower-end models. This became the foundation for the Multimatic, introduced for the 1959 model year; the Multimatic lasted through 1964. The Rollermatic was unique in that instead of using an oil-filled gearcase and urethane rollers transferred the power within the mechanism; this underwent a slight revision in 1970 for the new eighteen-pound capacity 1-18, which kept the same basic mechanism but differed in that it was belt-driven off of the motor and added a recirculating pump. Besides the unique action, another notable feature of these older washers was the final, high-speed spin cycle, 1140 revolutions per minute in the Unimatic, 850 in the Multimatic, 1010 in the high-end Rollermatic models.
When Frigidaire was acquired by White Consolidated Industries in 1979, it abandoned the General Motors design in favor of the Westinghouse-produced top-loading design, as White-Westinghouse was among its house brands by this time. Frigidaire produces a wide variety of refrigerators and freezers for the consumer market, their model line-up includes refrigerator freezer units of several different types. The selection they offer includes traditional Top Freezer models, as well as more modern Side-By-Side and French Door styles. In 2016, Frigidaire partnered with Ryder and Embark, an autonomous trucking firm, to deliver refrigerators from Texas to California. Level 2 autonomous trucks are used, they have a driver behind the wheel at all times. The reason for experimenting with autonomous vehicles is a looming shortage of drivers. In 2015, the American Trucking Association predicted that there would be a shortage of 175,000 drivers by 2024. In addition to manufacturing room air conditioners, Frigidaire provided the factory air conditioning systems for General Motors automobiles.
From the 1950s through the 1970s, these units developed a reputation for providing powerful air conditioning systems on all GM cars & trucks from the largest Cadillacs to the small Chevrolet Vega. G. M. sold Frigidaire auto air conditioning compressors to British Leyland for Jaguar autos and to Rolls Royce for Rolls Royce and Bentley autos. A new cooktop manufacturing facility opened in the Frank C. Pidgeon Industrial park, southwest of Memphis; the facility is built to LEED certification standards. Workers will manufacture the company's Electrolux ICON, Electrolux and Frigidaire product lines, including drop-in/slide-in ranges, wall ovens, specialty free standing ranges and cook tops; the $190 million, 750,000 square foot Memphis manufacturing plant began production of stoves and ranges in 2013. The plant’s research and development center includes the technology and machinery to simulate a stove’s lifetime usage and performance expectations and can test more than 300 products at one time. Electrolux/Frigidaire operates a manufacturing facility for free standing gas and electric ranges in Springfield, Tennessee.
The Springfield facility employs about 2,900 people. It has operated a large manufacturing facility in Northern Mexico since 2005. Frigidaire Building, a historic structure in Portland
A toaster, or a toast maker, is an electric small appliance designed to toast sliced bread by exposing it to radiant heat, thus converting it into toast. Toasters can toast multiple types of sliced bread products. Invented in Scotland in 1893, it was developed over the years, with the introduction of an automatic mechanism to stop the toasting and pop the slices up; the most common household toasting appliances are the toaster oven. Bread slices are inserted into slots in the top of a pop-up toaster, which make toast from bread in one to three minutes by using electric heating elements. Toasters have a control to adjust. Toaster ovens have a hinged door in the front that opens to allow food items to be placed on a rack, which has heat elements above and below the grilling area. Toaster ovens function the same as a small-scale conventional oven. Toaster ovens have settings to toast bread and a temperature control for use of the appliance as an oven. Modern toasters are one of three varieties: pop-up toasters, toaster ovens, conveyor belt toasters.
For home use, consumers choose a toaster type based on their intended use. Pop-up toasters are better than toaster ovens for making evenly toasted toast, but toaster ovens can bake and broil while pop-up toasters cannot. Conveyor belt toasters are used in restaurants or other industrial catering environments where toast needs to be made and in larger quantities. Features which distinguish various types of toasters include the following: For all toastersConsistency of toasting – The ideal toaster can provide toasting over the area of the bread, reproduce this throughout the lifetime of the machine. Choice of toastiness – The user should be able to choose the darkness of the toasting. Toast output – Various toasters can process bread into toast at different capacities. Ease of operation – The toaster's controls should be labelled to permit easy use and predictable results. Removability of crumb tray – Toasters with a permanently attached crumb tray will be more difficult to clean than those with a removable tray.
Cord placement – There can be variation on the placement of a cord as well as retraction functionality. For pop-up toasters onlyOne-sided toasting – Toasters may optionally toast only one side of the bread for toasting one side of a bagel. One-slot toasting – The ability to toast an individual slot, if a single item is desired. Slot depth -- People desiring toasted. Slot width -- People desiring toasted. Safety features – Most contemporary pop-up toasters have automatic shutoff in case of toast displacement and burning. Bread lifter – Beyond the pop-up, some toasters may incorporate a bread lifter to further expel toast products. For toaster ovens onlyBroil options – If only the upper heating element may be used toaster ovens can make broiling an option. Compact shape – Appropriately sized toaster ovens will serve the user's requirements but not occupy more counter space than necessary. Design for cleaning – A nonstick interior such as that made from porcelain makes oven interiors easier to clean.
Interior lighting – A light inside the oven permits observation of cooking food. Multiple shelf racks – Having options for positioning the oven shelf gives more control over distance between food and the heating element. In pop-up or automatic toasters, bread slices are inserted vertically into the slots on the top of the toaster. A lever on the side of the toaster is pressed; when an internal device determines that the toasting cycle is complete, the toaster turns off and the toast pops up out of the slots. The heating elements of a pop-up toaster are oriented vertically, parallel to the bread slice – although there are some variations. In earlier days, the completion of the toasting operation was determined by a mechanical clockwork timer. Toasters made since the 1930s use a thermal sensor, such as a bimetallic strip, located close to the toast; this allows the first cycle to run longer than subsequent cycles. The thermal device is slightly responsive to the actual temperature of the toast itself.
Like the timer, it can be adjusted by the user to determine the "doneness" of the toast. The most used methods to adjust heat supplied to the toast are either variable time or a heat sensor. Among pop-up toasters, those toasting two slices of bread are more purchased than those which can toast four. Pop-up toasters can have a range of appearances beyond just a square box, may have an exterior finish of chrome, brushed metal, or any color plastic; the marketing and price of toasters may not be an indication of quality for producing good toast. A typical modern two-slice pop-up toaster can draw from 600 to 1200 watts. Toaster ovens are small electric ovens with wire rack and removable baking pan. To toast bread with a toaster oven, slices of bread are placed horizontally on the rack; when the toast is done, the toaster turns off. Most toaster ovens are larger than toasters, but are capable of performing most of the functions of electric ovens, albeit on a much smaller scale, they can be used to cook toast with toppings, like garlic bread or cheese, though they tend to produce drier toast since their heating elements are located farther from the toast.
Stamford is a city in Fairfield County, United States. According to the 2010 census, the population of the city is 122,643; as of 2017, according to the Census Bureau, the population of Stamford had risen to 131,000, making it the third-largest city in the state and the seventh-largest city in New England. 30 miles from Manhattan, Stamford is in the Bridgeport-Stamford-Norwalk Metro area, a part of the Greater New York metropolitan area. Stamford is home to four Fortune 500 Companies, nine Fortune 1000 Companies, 13 current 100 Companies, as well as numerous divisions of large corporations; this gives Stamford the largest financial district in the New York metropolitan region outside New York City itself and one of the largest concentrations of corporations in the United States. Stamford was known as Rippowam by the Native American inhabitants to the region, the first European settlers to the area referred to it as such; the present name is after the town of Stamford, England. The deed to Stamford was signed on July 1, 1640 between Captain Turner of the New Haven Colony and Chief Ponus.
By the 18th century, one of the primary industries of the town was merchandising by water, possible due to Stamford's proximity to New York. In 1692, Stamford was home to a less famous witch trial than the well-known Salem witch trials, which occurred in 1692; the accusations were less fanatical and smaller-scale but grew to prominence through gossip and hysterics. New Canaan separated from Stamford when it incorporated as a town in 1801, followed by Darien in 1820. Starting in the late 19th century, New York residents built summer homes on the shoreline, back there were some who moved to Stamford permanently and started commuting to Manhattan by train, although the practice became more popular later. Stamford incorporated as a city in 1893. In 1950, the Census Bureau reported the city's population as 94.6 % 5.2 % black. In the 1960s and 1970s, Stamford's commercial real estate boomed as corporations relocated from New York City to peripheral areas. A massive urban redevelopment campaign during that time resulted in a downtown with many tall office buildings.
The F. D. Rich Co. was the city-designated urban renewal developer of the downtown in an ongoing redevelopment project, contentious, beginning in the 1960s and continuing through the 1970s. The company put up what was the city's tallest structure, One Landmark Square, at 21 floors high, the GTE building, along with the Marriott Hotel, the Stamford Town Center and many of the other downtown office buildings. One Landmark Square has since been dwarfed by the new 34-story Trump Parc Stamford condominium tower, again by the Atlantic Station development, another project by the Rich Company in partnership with Cappelli Enterprises. Over the years, other developers have joined in building up the downtown, a process that continued, with breaks during downturns in the economy, through the 1980s, 1990s and into the new century. Since 2008, an 80-acre mixed-use redevelopment project for the Stamford's Harbor Point neighborhood has added additional growth south of the city's Downtown area. Once complete, the redevelopment will include 6,000,000 square feet of new residential, retail and hotel space, a marina.
As of July 2012 900 of the projected 4,000 Harbor Point residential units had been constructed. New restaurants and recreational activities have come up in the Harbor Point area, considered as New Stamford. Stamford is situated on the Long Island Sound, it comprises a number of neighborhoods and villages including Cove, East Side, North Stamford, West Side, Turn Of River, Springdale, Ridgeway, South End, Shippan and Palmers Hill. North of the Merritt Parkway is considered the North Stamford section of the city. North Stamford encompasses the largest land mass in Stamford, however it is the least densely populated area of the city. North Stamford functionally and acts as one municipality with the City of Stamford. Towns surrounding Stamford include Pound Ridge, New York to the north, Greenwich to the west, both Darien and New Canaan to the east; the city has an area of 52.09 square miles, making it the largest city by area in the state. Under the Köppen climate classification, Stamford has a temperate climate, with long, hot summers, cool to cold winters.
Stamford, like the rest of coastal Connecticut, lies in the broad transition zone between the continental climates of New England and southeast Canada to the north, the milder temperate and subtropical climates to the south. The warm/hot season in Stamford is from mid-April through early November. Late day thundershowers are common in the hottest months, despite the sunny skies; the cool/cold season is from late November though mid March. Winter weather is far more variable than summer weather along the Connecticut coast, ranging from sunny days with higher temperatures to cold and blustery conditions with occasional snow. Like much of the Connecticut coast and nearby Long Island, NY, some of the winter precipitation is rain or a mix and rain and wet snow in Stamford. Stamford averages about 30 inches of snow annually, compared to inland areas like Hartford and Albany which average 45–60 inches of snow annually. Although infrequent, tropical cyclones have struck the Stamford metropolitan area.
Hurricane landfalls have occurred along the Connecticut coast in 1903, 1938, 1944, 1954, 1
Electrolux AB is a Swedish multinational home appliance manufacturer, headquartered in Stockholm. It is ranked the world's second largest appliance maker by units sold after Whirlpool. Electrolux products sell under a variety of brand names, are major appliances and vacuum cleaners intended for consumer use; the company makes appliances for professional use. Electrolux has a primary listing on the Stockholm Stock Exchange and is a constituent of the OMX Stockholm 30 index; the company originates from a merger of two companies—Lux AB and Svenska Elektron AB, the former an established manufacturer and the latter a younger company founded by a former vacuum salesman, an employee of the former firm. The origins of Electrolux are tied to the vacuum, but today it makes major appliances. In 1919, a Svenska Elektron AB acquisition, Elektromekaniska AB, became Elektrolux, it sold Lux branded vacuum cleaners in several European countries. In 1923, the company acquired AB Arctic and subsequently added absorption refrigerators to its product line.
Other appliances soon followed, including washing machines in 1951, dishwashers in 1959, food service equipment in 1962. The company has and expanded through mergers and acquisitions. While Electrolux had bought several companies before the 1960s, that decade saw the beginnings of a new wave of M&A activity; the company bought ElektroHelios, Norwegian Elektra, Danish Atlas, Finnish Slev, Flymo, et al. in the nine years from 1960 to 1969. This style of growth continued through the 1990s, seeing Electrolux purchase scores of companies including, for a time, Husqvarna. Hans Werthen and Chairman of the Board, led the strategic core of an decentralized Electrolux—and was instrumental to its rapid growth. While attempts to cut costs, centralise administration, wring out economies of scale from Electrolux's operations were made in the 1960s and 1970s with the focus so on growth, further company-wide restructuring efforts only began in the late 1990s. Electrolux made an initial public offering on the London Stock Exchange in 1928 and another on the Stockholm Stock Exchange in 1930.
Its shares trade on the NASDAQ OMX Nordic Market and over-the-counter. Electrolux is an OMX Nordic 40 constituent stock. In North America, the Electrolux name was long used by vacuum cleaner manufacturer Aerus LLC established to sell Swedish Electrolux products. In 2000, Aerus transferred trademark rights back to the Electrolux Group, ceased using the Electrolux name in 2004. Conversely, Electrolux-made vacuums carried the Eureka brand name, which Electrolux continued to use while selling Electrolux branded vacuums after 2000. Electrolux USA customer service maintains a database of Electrolux made vacuums and provides a link to Aerus's website for the convenience of owners of Electrolux branded Aerus vacuums. Keith McLoughlin took over as President and CEO on January 1, 2011, became the company's first non Swedish chief executive. In August 2011, Electrolux acquired from Sigdo Koppers the Chilean appliance manufacturer CTI obtaining several brands with the purchase including: Fensa, Gafa and Somela.
On February 6, 2017, Electrolux announced that it had agreed to acquire Anova Applied Electronics, Inc. the U. S.-based provider of the Anova Precision Cooker. 1919: The Lux vacuum is the first product Electrolux sells. 1925: D, Electrolux's first refrigerator, is an absorption model. 1937: Electrolux model 30 vacuum is unveiled. 1940: Assistent, the company's only wartime consumer product, is a mixer/food processor. 1951: W 20, Electrolux's first home washing machine, is manufactured in Gothenburg, Sweden. 1959: D 10, the company's first dishwasher, is a counter top model nicknamed "round jar". 2001: Launch of the Electrolux Trilobite, a robotic vacuum cleaner. Electrolux sells under a wide variety of brand names worldwide. Most of them were acquired through mergers and acquisitions and only do business in a single country or geographic area; the following is an incomplete list. EuropeAEG Atlas Corberó Dometic, appliances for RV's uses the Electrolux logo. Based in Sweden and owned by Dometic Group, itself owned by EQT Partners since 2011.
Elektro Helios, manufacturer of consumer appliances for the Swedish market Faure, French consumer appliance maker Lehel, consumer appliance brand sold in Hungary and elsewhere Marynen/Marijnen, consumer product brand sold in the Netherlands Parkinson Cowan, cooking appliances Progress, vacuum cleaner brand sold throughout Europe REX-Electrolux, Italian appliance manufacturer Rosenlew, consumer product brand sold in Scandinavian countries Samus, Romanian producer of cooking stoves headquartered in Satu Mare Voss, premium consumer cooking appliance and equipment supplier in Denmark and elsewhere Zanker, consumer kitchen appliance brand sold in central Europe Zanussi, Italian appliance manufacturer that became part of Electrolux in 1984 Zanussi Professional, professional kitchen equipment manufacturer Zoppas, consumer products brand sold in ItalyAustralia and OceaniaDishlex brand sold in Australia Kelvinator, commercial refrigerator and freezer brand sold in Australia and elsewhere Simpson, consumer appliance brand sold in Australia Westinghouse, a kitchen appliance brand in Australia licensed from Westinghouse Electric Corp to Electrolux Home Products Pty Ltd.
North AmericaAnova Applied Electronics, Inc. provider of the Anova Precision Cooker Electrolux ICON, premium consumer appliance brand sold in the US Eureka, American consumer vacuum cleaner brand
A food processor is a kitchen appliance used to facilitate repetitive tasks in the preparation of food. Today, the term always refers to an electric-motor-driven appliance, although there are some manual devices referred to as "food processors". Food processors are similar to blenders in many forms. A food processor requires little to no liquid during use, unlike a blender, which requires a set amount of liquid in order for the blade to properly blend the food. Food Processors are used to blend, chop and slice, allowing for quicker meal preparation. One of the first electric food processors was the Starmix, introduced by German company Electrostar in 1946. Although the basic unit resembled a simple blender, numerous accessories were available, including attachments for slicing bread, milk centrifuges and ice cream bowls. In a time when electric motors were expensive, they developed the piccolo, where the food processor's base unit could drive a vacuum cleaner. In the 1960s, Albrecht von Goertz designed the Starmix MX3 food processor.
Although the entire company was rebranded as Starmix in 1968 following the success of the processors, they focused on vacuum cleaners and electric hand-dryers and the last mixer was produced around the year 2000. In France, the concept of a machine to process food began when a catering company salesman, Pierre Verdun, observed the large amount of time his clients spent in the kitchen chopping and mixing, he produced a bowl with a revolving blade in the base. In 1960, this evolved into Robot-Coupe, a company established to manufacture commercial "food processors" for the catering industry. In the late 1960s, a commercial food processor driven by a powerful commercial induction motor was produced. Robot-Coupe's Magimix food processor arrived from France in the UK in 1974, beginning with the Model 1800. A UK company Kenwood Limited started their own first Kenwood Food Processor,'processor de- luxe,' in 1979. Carl Sontheimer introduced this same Magimix 1800 food processor to North America in 1973 under the Cuisinart brand, as America's first domestic food processor.
Sontheimer contracted with a Japanese manufacturer to produce new models in 1977 in order to launch his new Japanese-made food processor in 1980 when his contract with Robot-Coupe expired. Disability research was an ongoing project because the first food processor created was not user friendly for all individuals. In 1978, Marc Harrison was a professor at the Rhode Island School of Design, he specialized in Industrial Design. Cuisinart, an American company and hired Marc Harrison in 1978 to update the Food Processor. Marc Harrison updated the product to focus on making the machine usable for those with limited abilities with fine motor skills and eyesight, which in turn made it easier for any user to operate; these updates included larger writing on the base of the product to benefit those who have vision impairments, larger handles and buttons. These updates were created. Food processors have multiple functions, depending on the placement and type of attachment or blade; these functions include: The base of the unit houses a motor which turns a vertical shaft.
A bowl made of transparent plastic, fits around the shaft. Cutting blades can be attached to the shaft. Shredding or slicing disks can be attached instead. A lid with a "feed tube" is fitted onto the bowl; the feed tube allows ingredients to be added while grinding or pureeing. It serves as a chute through which items are introduced to shredding or slicing disks. A "pusher" sized to slide through the feed tube, protecting the user's fingers. All modern food processors have safety devices which prevent the motor from operating if the bowl is not properly secured to the base or if the lid is not properly secured to the bowl. A food chopper is a food processor of a smaller size, it suits better for chopping food than for making smoothies. Blade grinder Blender Bread machine Coffee grinder Electric pressure cooking Food processing Ultrasonic homogenizer Grater, a non-electric kitchen cutting implement Home robot Mandoline, a kitchen cutting device that uses similar styles of blades to some food processors Multicooker Donvier Howstuffworks "How Food Processors Work"
Coffeemakers or coffee machines are cooking appliances used to brew coffee. While there are many different types of coffeemakers using a number of different brewing principles, in the most common devices, coffee grounds are placed in a paper or metal filter inside a funnel, set over a glass or ceramic coffee pot, a cooking pot in the kettle family. Cold water is poured into a separate chamber, heated up to the boiling point, directed into the funnel; this is called automatic drip-brew. For hundreds of years, making a cup of coffee was a simple process. Roasted and ground coffee beans were placed in a pot or pan, to which hot water was added, followed by attachment of a lid to commence the infusion process. Pots were designed for brewing coffee, all with the purpose of trying to trap the coffee grounds before the coffee is poured. Typical designs feature a pot with a flat expanded bottom to catch sinking grounds and a sharp pour spout that traps the floating grinds. Other designs feature a wide bulge in the middle of the pot to catch grounds.
In France, in about 1710, the Infusion brewing process was introduced. This involved submersing the ground coffee enclosed in a linen bag, in hot water and letting it steep or "infuse" until the desired strength brew was achieved. Throughout the 19th and the early 20th centuries, it was considered adequate to add ground coffee to hot water in a pot or pan, boil it until it smelled right, pour the brew into a cup. There were lots of innovations from France in the late 18th century. With help from Jean-Baptiste de Belloy, the Archbishop of Paris, the idea that coffee should not be boiled gained acceptance; the first modern method for making coffee using a coffee filter—drip brewing—is more than 125 years old, its design had changed little. The biggin, originating in France ca. 1780, was a two-level pot holding coffee in a cloth sock in an upper compartment into which water was poured, to drain through holes in the bottom of the compartment into the coffee pot below. Coffee was dispensed from a spout on the side of the pot.
The quality of the brewed coffee depended on the size of the grounds - too coarse and the coffee was weak. A major problem with this approach was that the taste of the cloth filter - whether cotton, burlap or an old sock - transferred to the taste of the coffee. Around the same time, a French inventor developed the "pumping percolator", in which boiling water in a bottom chamber forces itself up a tube and trickles through the ground coffee back into the bottom chamber. Among other French innovations, Count Rumford, an eccentric American scientist residing in Paris, developed a French Drip Pot with an insulating water jacket to keep the coffee hot; the first metal filter was developed and patented by French inventor. Other coffee brewing devices became popular throughout the nineteenth century, including various machines using the vacuum principle; the Napier Vacuum Machine, invented in 1840, was an early example of this type. While too complex for everyday use, vacuum devices were prized for producing a clear brew, were popular up until the middle of the twentieth century.
The principle of a vacuum brewer was to heat water in a lower vessel until expansion forced the contents through a narrow tube into an upper vessel containing ground coffee. When the lower vessel was empty and sufficient brewing time had elapsed, the heat was removed and the resulting vacuum would draw the brewed coffee back through a strainer into the lower chamber, from which it could be decanted; the Bauhaus interpretation of this device can be seen in Gerhard Marcks' Sintrax coffee maker of 1925. An early variant technique, called a balance siphon, was to have the two chambers arranged side-by-side on a sort of scale-like device, with a counterweight attached opposite the initial chamber. Once the near-boiling water was forced from the heating chamber into the brewing one, the counterweight was activated, causing a spring-loaded snuffer to come down over the flame, thus turning "off" the heat, allowing the cooled water to return to the original chamber. In this way, a sort of primitive'automatic' brewing method was achieved.
On August 27, 1930, Inez H. Pierce of Chicago, Illinois filed patent for the first vacuum coffee maker that automated the vacuum brewing process, while eliminating the need for a stove top burner or liquid fuels. An electrically heated stove was incorporated into the design of the vacuum brewer. Water was heated in a recessed well, which reduced wait times and forced the hottest water into the reaction chamber. Once the process was complete, a thermostat using bi-metallic expansion principles shut off heat to the unit at the appropriate time. Pierce's invention was the first "automatic" vacuum coffee brewer, was incorporated in the Farberware Coffee Robot. Pierce's design was improved by U. S. appliance engineers Ivar Jepson, Ludvik Koci, Eric Bylund of Sunbeam in the late 1930s. They altered the heating chamber and eliminated the recessed well, hard to clean, they made several improvements to the filtering mechanism. Their improved design of plated metals, styled by industrial designer Alfonso Iannelli, became the famous Sunbeam Coffeemaster line of automated vacuum coffee makers.
The Coffeemaster vacuum brewer was sold in large numbers in the United States during the years following World War I. Percolators began to be developed from the mid-nineteenth century. In the United States, James H. Mason of Massachusetts patented an early percolator design in 1865. An Illinois farmer named Hanson Goodrich is credited with patenti
Gaggenau Hausgeräte is a German manufacturer of high-end home appliances. The company was established in 1683 as the Eisenwerke Gaggenau A. G. in the Black Forest region of Germany by German aristocrat Markgraf Ludwig Wilhelm von Baden. The company's roots began in extractive metallurgy, smelting base metal from ore and forging hammer and nails out of a hammer mill. During the Industrial Revolution the company was transitioned by CEO Michael Flürscheim from forging nails to producing farming machinery. By the 1880s the company became enamel specialists and at the turn of the century began producing bicycles and cast products under the brand name Badenia, it is a subsidiary of Bosch-Siemens Hausgeräte. In 2008, the company won the IF Design Awards in every category. Gaggenau Hausgeräte is a popular German brand that manufactures domestic appliances; the company was founded in 1683 in the Black Forest region of Germany by aristocrat Markgraf Ludwig Wilhelm von Baden. In 1873 Michael Flürscheim became the company’s CEO, affiliated Gaggenau Hausgeräte with the German railway network.
The company diversified. In 1879, the inventor and entrepreneur Theodor Bergmann joined the company, which he expanded through a range of products including enamel. By the 1880s, the company ran a successful business producing hardwearing advertising signs for companies such as Odol and Stollwerck. In 1893, Bergmann left the company and the company started focusing production on bicycles and cast products under the brand name Badenia. From 1991 to 1998, Timothy Jacob Jensen served as Gaggenau Hausgeräte’s chief designer and developing a range of products including ceramic hobs, built-in ovens, extractor hoods, washing machines, tumble dryers. A number of these products received awards in Germany; these include the EB900 Built-in oven and CK494 Glass ceramic hob. In 1995, Gaggenau Hausgeräte was acquired by Bosch-Siemens Hausgeräte. Gaggenau has been a subsidiary of Munich-based BSH Hausgeräte since 1995. Under the brand name Gaggenau, the Gaggenau company and BSH manufacture the following products: Wall-mounted convection ovens Wall-mounted Combi ovens Warming drawers Microwave ovens Wall-mounted coffee machines Cooktops Ventilation hoods Refrigerators and Combi refrigerator/freezer units Wine cabinets Dishwashers Most of Gaggenau products are produced in France or in Germany.