A gear or cogwheel is a rotating machine part having cut teeth, or in the case of a cogwheel, inserted teeth, which mesh with another toothed part to transmit torque. Geared devices can change the speed and direction of a power source. Gears always produce a change in torque, creating a mechanical advantage, through their gear ratio, thus may be considered a simple machine; the teeth on the two meshing gears all have the same shape. Two or more meshing gears, working in a sequence, are called a transmission. A gear can mesh with a linear toothed part, called a rack, producing translation instead of rotation; the gears in a transmission are analogous to the wheels in belt pulley system. An advantage of gears is; when two gears mesh, if one gear is bigger than the other, a mechanical advantage is produced, with the rotational speeds, the torques, of the two gears differing in proportion to their diameters. In transmissions with multiple gear ratios—such as bicycles and cars—the term "gear" as in "first gear" refers to a gear ratio rather than an actual physical gear.
The term describes similar devices when the gear ratio is continuous rather than discrete, or when the device does not contain gears, as in a continuously variable transmission. Early examples of gears date from the 4th century BC in China, which have been preserved at the Luoyang Museum of Henan Province, China; the earliest preserved gears in Europe were found in the Antikythera mechanism, an example of a early and intricate geared device, designed to calculate astronomical positions. Its time of construction is now estimated between 150 and 100 BC. Gears appear in works connected to Hero of Alexandria, in Roman Egypt circa AD 50, but can be traced back to the mechanics of the Alexandrian school in 3rd-century BC Ptolemaic Egypt, were developed by the Greek polymath Archimedes; the segmental gear, which receives/communicates reciprocating motion from/to a cogwheel, consisting of a sector of a circular gear/ring having cogs on the periphery, was invented by Arab engineer Al-Jazari in 1206.
The worm gear was invented in the Indian subcontinent, for use in roller cotton gins, some time during the 13th–14th centuries. Differential gears may have been used in some of the Chinese south-pointing chariots, but the first verifiable use of differential gears was by the British clock maker Joseph Williamson in 1720. Examples of early gear applications include: The Antikythera mechanism Ma Jun used gears as part of a south-pointing chariot; the first geared mechanical clocks were built in China in 725. Al-Jazari invented the segmental gear as part of a water-lifting device; the worm gear was invented as part of a roller cotton gin in the Indian subcontinent. The 1386 Salisbury cathedral clock may be the world's oldest still working geared mechanical clock; the definite ratio that teeth give gears provides an advantage over other drives in precision machines such as watches that depend upon an exact velocity ratio. In cases where driver and follower are proximal, gears have an advantage over other drives in the reduced number of parts required.
The downside is that gears are more expensive to manufacture and their lubrication requirements may impose a higher operating cost per hour. An external gear is one with the teeth formed on the outer surface of a cone. Conversely, an internal gear is one with the teeth formed on the inner surface of a cylinder or cone. For bevel gears, an internal gear is one with the pitch angle exceeding 90 degrees. Internal gears do not cause output shaft direction reversal. Spur gears or straight-cut gears are the simplest type of gear, they consist of a disk with teeth projecting radially. Though the teeth are not straight-sided, the edge of each tooth is straight and aligned parallel to the axis of rotation; these gears mesh together only if fitted to parallel shafts. No axial thrust is created by the tooth loads. Spur gears tend to be noisy at high speeds. Helical or "dry fixed" gears offer a refinement over spur gears; the leading edges of the teeth are set at an angle. Since the gear is curved, this angling makes.
Helical gears can be meshed in crossed orientations. The former refers to. In the latter, the shafts are non-parallel, in this configuration the gears are sometimes known as "skew gears"; the angled teeth engage more than do spur gear teeth, causing them to run more smoothly and quietly. With parallel helical gears, each pair of teeth first make contact at a single point at one side of the gear wheel. In spur gears, teeth meet at a line contact across their entire width, causing stress and noise. Spur gears make a characteristic whine at high speeds. For this reason spur gears are used in low-speed applications and in situations where noise control is not a problem, helical gears are used in high-speed applications, large power transmission, or where noise abatement is important; the speed is considered high. A disadvantage of helical gears is a resultant thrust along the axis of the gear, which must
Switzerland the Swiss Confederation, is a country situated in western and southern Europe. It consists of 26 cantons, the city of Bern is the seat of the federal authorities; the sovereign state is a federal republic bordered by Italy to the south, France to the west, Germany to the north, Austria and Liechtenstein to the east. Switzerland is a landlocked country geographically divided between the Alps, the Swiss Plateau and the Jura, spanning a total area of 41,285 km2. While the Alps occupy the greater part of the territory, the Swiss population of 8.5 million people is concentrated on the plateau, where the largest cities are to be found: among them are the two global cities and economic centres Zürich and Geneva. The establishment of the Old Swiss Confederacy dates to the late medieval period, resulting from a series of military successes against Austria and Burgundy. Swiss independence from the Holy Roman Empire was formally recognized in the Peace of Westphalia in 1648; the country has a history of armed neutrality going back to the Reformation.
It pursues an active foreign policy and is involved in peace-building processes around the world. In addition to being the birthplace of the Red Cross, Switzerland is home to numerous international organisations, including the second largest UN office. On the European level, it is a founding member of the European Free Trade Association, but notably not part of the European Union, the European Economic Area or the Eurozone. However, it participates in the Schengen Area and the European Single Market through bilateral treaties. Spanning the intersection of Germanic and Romance Europe, Switzerland comprises four main linguistic and cultural regions: German, French and Romansh. Although the majority of the population are German-speaking, Swiss national identity is rooted in a common historical background, shared values such as federalism and direct democracy, Alpine symbolism. Due to its linguistic diversity, Switzerland is known by a variety of native names: Schweiz. On coins and stamps, the Latin name – shortened to "Helvetia" – is used instead of the four national languages.
Switzerland is one of the most developed countries in the world, with the highest nominal wealth per adult and the eighth-highest per capita gross domestic product according to the IMF. Switzerland ranks at or near the top globally in several metrics of national performance, including government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic competitiveness and human development. Zürich and Basel have all three been ranked among the top ten cities in the world in terms of quality of life, with the first ranked second globally, according to Mercer in 2018; the English name Switzerland is a compound containing Switzer, an obsolete term for the Swiss, in use during the 16th to 19th centuries. The English adjective Swiss is a loan from French Suisse in use since the 16th century; the name Switzer is from the Alemannic Schwiizer, in origin an inhabitant of Schwyz and its associated territory, one of the Waldstätten cantons which formed the nucleus of the Old Swiss Confederacy. The Swiss began to adopt the name for themselves after the Swabian War of 1499, used alongside the term for "Confederates", used since the 14th century.
The data code for Switzerland, CH, is derived from Latin Confoederatio Helvetica. The toponym Schwyz itself was first attested in 972, as Old High German Suittes perhaps related to swedan ‘to burn’, referring to the area of forest, burned and cleared to build; the name was extended to the area dominated by the canton, after the Swabian War of 1499 came to be used for the entire Confederation. The Swiss German name of the country, Schwiiz, is homophonous to that of the canton and the settlement, but distinguished by the use of the definite article; the Latin name Confoederatio Helvetica was neologized and introduced after the formation of the federal state in 1848, harking back to the Napoleonic Helvetic Republic, appearing on coins from 1879, inscribed on the Federal Palace in 1902 and after 1948 used in the official seal.. Helvetica is derived from the Helvetii, a Gaulish tribe living on the Swiss plateau before the Roman era. Helvetia appears as a national personification of the Swiss confederacy in the 17th century with a 1672 play by Johann Caspar Weissenbach.
Switzerland has existed as a state in its present form since the adoption of the Swiss Federal Constitution in 1848. The precursors of Switzerland established a protective alliance at the end of the 13th century, forming a loose confederation of states which persisted for centuries; the oldest traces of hominid existence in Switzerland date back about 150,000 years. The oldest known farming settlements in Switzerland, which were found at Gächlingen, have been dated to around 5300 BC; the earliest known cultural tribes of the area were members of the Hallstatt and La Tène cultures, named after the archaeological site of La Tène on the north side of Lake Neuchâtel. La Tène culture developed and flourished during the late Iron Age from around 450 BC under some influence from the Gree
A chimney is an architectural ventilation structure made of masonry, clay or metal that isolates hot toxic exhaust gases or smoke produced by a boiler, furnace, incinerator or fireplace from human living areas. Chimneys are vertical, or as near as possible to vertical, to ensure that the gases flow smoothly, drawing air into the combustion in what is known as the stack, or chimney effect; the space inside a chimney is called the flue. Chimneys are adjacent to large industrial refineries, fossil fuel combustion facilities or part of buildings, steam locomotives and ships. In the United States, the term'Smokestack industry' refers to the environmental impacts of burning fossil fuels by industrial society including the electric industry during its earliest history; the term smokestack is used when referring to locomotive chimneys or ship chimneys, the term funnel can be used. The height of a chimney influences its ability to transfer flue gases to the external environment via stack effect. Additionally, the dispersion of pollutants at higher altitudes can reduce their impact on the immediate surroundings.
The dispersion of pollutants over a greater area can reduce their concentrations and facilitate compliance with regulatory limits. Romans used tubes inside the walls to draw smoke out of bakeries but chimneys only appeared in large dwellings in northern Europe in the 12th century; the earliest extant example of an English chimney is at the keep of Conisbrough Castle in Yorkshire, which dates from 1185 AD. However, they did not become common in houses until the 17th centuries. Smoke hoods were an early method of collecting the smoke into a chimney. Another step in the development of chimneys was the use of built in ovens which allowed the household to bake at home. Industrial chimneys became common in the late 18th century. Chimneys in ordinary dwellings were first built of plaster or mud. Since chimneys have traditionally been built of brick or stone, both in small and large buildings. Early chimneys were of a simple brick construction. Chimneys were constructed by placing the bricks around tile liners.
To control downdrafts, venting caps with a variety of designs are sometimes placed on the top of chimneys. In the 18th and 19th centuries, the methods used to extract lead from its ore produced large amounts of toxic fumes. In the north of England, long near-horizontal chimneys were built more than 3 km long, which terminated in a short vertical chimney in a remote location where the fumes would cause less harm. Lead and silver deposits formed on the inside of these long chimneys, periodically workers would be sent along the chimneys to scrape off these valuable deposits; as a result of the limited ability to handle transverse loads with brick, chimneys in houses were built in a "stack", with a fireplace on each floor of the house sharing a single chimney with such a stack at the front and back of the house. Today's central heating systems have made chimney placement less critical, the use of non-structural gas vent pipe allows a flue gas conduit to be installed around obstructions and through walls.
In fact, most modern high-efficiency heating appliances do not require a chimney. Such appliances are installed near an external wall, a noncombustible wall thimble allows a vent pipe to run directly through the external wall. On a pitched roof where a chimney penetrates a roof, flashing is used to seal up the joints; the down-slope piece is called an apron, the sides receive step flashing and a cricket is used to divert water around the upper side of the chimney underneath the flashing. Industrial chimneys are referred to as flue gas stacks and are external structures, as opposed to those built into the wall of a building, they are located adjacent to a steam-generating boiler or industrial furnace and the gases are carried to them with ductwork. Today the use of reinforced concrete has entirely replaced brick as a structural component in the construction of industrial chimneys. Refractory bricks are used as a lining if the type of fuel being burned generates flue gases containing acids. Modern industrial chimneys sometimes consist of a concrete windshield with a number of flues on the inside.
The 300 m chimney at Sasol Three consists of a 26 m diameter windshield with four 4.6 metre diameter concrete flues which are lined with refractory bricks built on rings of corbels spaced at 10 metre intervals. The reinforced concrete can be sliding formwork; the height is to ensure the pollutants are dispersed over a wider area to meet legal or other safety requirements. A flue liner is a secondary barrier in a chimney that protects the masonry from the acidic products of combustion, helps prevent flue gas from entering the house, reduces the size of an oversized flue. Since the 1950s, building codes in many locations require newly built chimneys to have a flue liner. Chimneys built without a liner can have a liner added, but the type of liner needs to match the type of appliance it services. Flue liners may be concrete tile, metal, or poured in place concrete. Clay tile flue liners are common in the United States, although it is the only liner that does not meet Underwriters Laboratories 1777 approval and they have problems such as cracked tiles and improper installation.
Clay tiles are about 2 feet long, available in various sizes and shapes, are installed in new construction as the chimney is built. A refractory cement is used between each tile. Metal liners may be stainless steel, aluminum, or galvanized iron and may be flexible or rigid pipes. Stainless stee
Snowdon Mountain Railway
The Snowdon Mountain Railway is a narrow gauge rack and pinion mountain railway in Gwynedd, north-west Wales. It is a tourist railway that travels for 4.7 miles from Llanberis to the summit of Snowdon, the highest peak in Wales. The SMR is the only public rack and pinion railway in the United Kingdom, after more than 100 years of operation it remains a popular tourist attraction, carrying more than 130,000 passengers annually; the line is owned and operated by Heritage Great Britain, operators of several other tourist attractions in the United Kingdom. The railway is operated in some of the harshest weather conditions in Britain, with services curtailed from reaching the summit in bad weather and remaining closed during the winter from November to mid-March. Single carriage trains are pushed up the mountain by either steam locomotives or diesel locomotives, it has previously used diesel railcars as multiple units. The SMR was the inspiration for the fictional Culdee Fell Railway, appearing in the book Mountain Engines, part of The Railway Series written by Reverend W. Awdry.
The idea of a railway to the summit of Snowdon was first proposed in 1869, when Llanberis was linked to Caernarfon by the London & North Western Railway. In 1871 a Bill was put before Parliament, applying for powers of compulsory purchase for a railway to the summit, but it was opposed by the local landowner, Mr Assheton-Smith of the Vaynol Estate, who thought that a railway would spoil the scenery. For two decades nothing happened, Assheton-Smith remained opposed to any plans. However, in 1893 the Rhyd Ddu terminus of the North Wales Narrow Gauge Railways was renamed Snowdon, attracting many of the tourists who visited Llanberis and affecting the livelihoods of the accommodation providers who were Assheton-Smith tenants. After much persuasion Assheton-Smith gave his assent to the construction of a railway to the summit, though still the principal landowner in the area, he was not a major influence in the company. However, no Act of Parliament was now required, as the line was built on private land obtained by the company, without any need for the power of compulsory purchase.
This was unusual for a passenger-carrying railway, meant that the railway did not come under the jurisdiction of the Board of Trade. The railway was constructed between December 1894, when the first sod was cut by Enid Assheton-Smith, February 1896, at a total cost of £63,800; the engineers for the railway were Sir Douglas Fox and Mr Andrew Fox of London, the contractors were Messrs Holme and King of Liverpool. By April 1895 the earthworks were 50% complete, a sign of the effort put into the construction work as much as of the lack of major earthworks along much of the route. All tracklaying had to start from one end of the line, to ensure the rack was aligned. Progress up the mountain was quite rapid, with the locomotives being used to move materials as required. Considering the exposed location and possible effects of bad weather, it is surprising that the first train reached the summit in January 1896; as the fencing and signals were not ready, the opening was set for Easter. The line was opened at Easter 1896.
In anticipation of this, Colonel Sir Francis Marindin from the Board of Trade made an unofficial inspection of the line on Friday 27 March. This included a demonstration of the automatic brakes, he declared himself satisfied with the line, but recommended that the wind speed be monitored and recorded, trains stopped when the wind was too strong. On Saturday 4 April a train was run by the contractor consisting of two coaches. On the final section, the ascending train hit a boulder that had fallen from the side of a cutting and several wheels were derailed; the workmen on the train were able to rerail the carriage and the train continued. The railway was opened on Monday 6 April 1896, two trains were dispatched to the summit. On the first return trip down the mountain due to the weight of the train, locomotive No. 1 Ladas with two carriages lost the rack and ran out of control. The locomotive fell down the mountain. A passenger died from loss of blood after jumping from the carriage. After a miscommunication the second downward train hit the carriages of the first, with no fatalities.
An inquiry concluded that the accident had been triggered by post-construction settlement, compounded by excess speed due to the weight of the train. As a result of the inquiry's recommendations the maximum allowed train weight was reduced to the equivalent of 1½ carriages, leading to lighter carriages being bought and used on two-carriage trains. A gripper system was installed on the rack railway; the railway reopened to Hebron on Saturday 26 September 1896 On 9 April 1897 the line re-opened to Clogwyn. By June the trains were again reaching the summit; this time there were no incidents and the train service continued. On 30 July 1906 a wagon broke loose and ran into a train, injuring one passenger, the driver and guard. Traffic was suspended for several hoursIn 1910 there were reports of vandalism on the line. A man named William Morris Griffiths who had climbed Snowdon to see the sunrise, placed a stone on the rail and sitting on it, slide down the track at speed. Someone put a boulder on the line behind him and pushed it down, it struck Griffiths in the back, he somersaulted off the line and died a few hours later.
The manager of the railway reported that crowds of visitors were breaking down fences, pulli
A narrow-gauge railway is a railway with a track gauge narrower than standard 1,435 mm. Most narrow-gauge railways are between 600 1,067 mm. Since narrow-gauge railways are built with tighter curves, smaller structure gauges, lighter rails, they can be less costly to build and operate than standard- or broad-gauge railways. Lower-cost narrow-gauge railways are built to serve industries and communities where the traffic potential would not justify the cost of a standard- or broad-gauge line. Narrow-gauge railways have specialized use in mines and other environments where a small structure gauge necessitates a small loading gauge, they have more general applications. Non-industrial, narrow-gauge mountain railways are common in the Rocky Mountains of the United States and the Pacific Cordillera of Canada, Switzerland, the former Yugoslavia and Costa Rica. In some countries, narrow gauge is the standard. Narrow-gauge trams metre-gauge, are common in Europe. In general, a narrow-gauge railway is narrower than 1,435 mm.
Because of historical and local circumstances, the definition of a narrow-gauge railway varies. The earliest recorded railway appears in Georgius Agricola's 1556 De re metallica, which shows a mine in Bohemia with a railway of about 2 ft gauge. During the 16th century, railways were restricted to hand-pushed, narrow-gauge lines in mines throughout Europe. In the 17th century, mine railways were extended to provide transportation above ground; these lines were industrial. These railways were built to the same narrow gauge as the mine railways from which they developed; the world's first steam locomotive, built in 1802 by Richard Trevithick for the Coalbrookdale Company, ran on a 3 ft plateway. The first commercially successful steam locomotive was Matthew Murray's Salamanca built in 1812 for the 4 ft 1 in Middleton Railway in Leeds. Salamanca was the first rack-and-pinion locomotive. During the 1820s and 1830s, a number of industrial narrow-gauge railways in the United Kingdom used steam locomotives.
In 1842, the first narrow-gauge steam locomotive outside the UK was built for the 1,100 mm -gauge Antwerp-Ghent Railway in Belgium. The first use of steam locomotives on a public, passenger-carrying narrow-gauge railway was in 1865, when the Ffestiniog Railway introduced passenger service after receiving its first locomotives two years earlier. Many narrow-gauge railways were part of industrial enterprises and served as industrial railways, rather than general carriers. Common uses for these industrial narrow-gauge railways included mining, construction, tunnelling and conveying agricultural products. Extensive narrow-gauge networks were constructed in many parts of the world. Significant sugarcane railways still operate in Cuba, Java, the Philippines, Queensland, narrow-gauge railway equipment remains in common use for building tunnels; the first use of an internal combustion engine to power a narrow-gauge locomotive was in 1902. F. C. Blake built a 7hp petrol locomotive for the Richmond Main Sewerage Board sewage plant at Mortlake.
This 2 ft 9 in gauge locomotive was the third petrol-engined locomotive built. Extensive narrow-gauge rail systems served the front-line trenches of both sides in World War I, they were a short-lived military application, after the war the surplus equipment created a small boom in European narrow-gauge railway building. Narrow-gauge railways cost less to build because they are lighter in construction, using smaller cars and locomotives, smaller bridges and tunnels, tighter curves. Narrow gauge is used in mountainous terrain, where engineering savings can be substantial, it is used in sparsely populated areas where the potential demand is too low for broad-gauge railways to be economically viable. This is the case in parts of Australia and most of Southern Africa, where poor soils have led to population densities too low for standard gauge to be viable. For temporary railways which will be removed after short-term use, such as logging, mining or large-scale construction projects, a narrow-gauge railway is cheaper and easier to install and remove.
Such railways have vanished, due to the capabilities of modern trucks. In many countries, narrow-gauge railways were built as branch lines to feed traffic to standard-gauge lines due to lower construction costs; the choice was not between a narrow- and standard-gauge railway, but between a narrow-gauge railway and none at all. Narrow-gauge railways cannot interchange rolling stock with the standard- or broad-gauge railways with which they link, the transfer of passengers and freight require time-consuming manual labour or substantial capital expenditure; some bulk commodities, such as coal and gravel, can be mechanically transshipped, but this is time-consuming, the equipment required for the transfer is complex to maintain. If rail lines with other gauges coexist in a network, in times of peak demand i
A scale model is most a physical representation of an object, which maintains accurate relationships between all important aspects of the model, although absolute values of the original properties need not be preserved. This enables it to demonstrate some behavior or property of the original object without examining the original object itself; the most familiar scale models represent the physical appearance of an object in miniature, but there are many other kinds. Scale models are used in many fields including engineering, film making, military command and hobby model building. While each field may use a scale model for a different purpose, all scale models are based on the same principles and must meet the same general requirements to be functional; the detail requirements vary depending on the needs of the modeler. To be a true scale model, all relevant aspects must be modeled, such as material properties, so the model's interaction with the outside world is reliably related to the original object's interaction with the real world.
In general a scale model must be designed and built considering similitude theory. However, other requirements concerning practical issues must be considered. Similitude is the art of predicting prototype performance from scale model observations; the main requirement of similitude is all dimensionless quantities must be equal for both the scaled model and the prototype under the conditions the modeler desires to make observations. Dimensionless quantities are referred to as Pi terms, or π terms. In many fields the π terms are well established. For example, in fluid dynamics, a well known dimensionless number called the Reynolds number comes up in scale model tests with fluid in motion relative to a stationary surface. Thus, for a scale model test to be reliable, the Reynolds number, as well as all other important dimensionless quantities, must be equal for both scale model and prototype under the conditions that the modeler wants to observe. An example of the Reynolds number and its use in similitude theory satisfaction can be observed in the scale model testing of fluid flow in a horizontal pipe.
The Reynolds number for the scale model pipe must be equal to the Reynolds number of the prototype pipe for the flow measurements of the scale model to correspond to the prototype in a meaningful way. This can be written mathematically, with the subscript m referring to the scale model and subscript p referring to the prototype, as follows: R e m = ρ m v m L m μ m = ρ p v p L p μ p = R e p where v is the mean velocity of the object relative to the fluid L is a characteristic linear dimension, μ is the dynamic viscosity of the fluid ρ is the density of the fluid. Observing the equation above it is clear to see that while the Reynolds numbers must be equal for the scale model and the prototype, this can be accomplished in many different ways, for example, in this problem by altering the scale of the dynamic viscosity of the model to work with the scale of the length; this means, the scales of different quantities, for example a material's elasticity in the scale model versus the prototype, are governed by equating the dimensionless quantities and the other quantity's scaling within the dimensionless quantity to ensure the dimensionless quantity of interest is of equal magnitude for the scale model and prototype.
With the above understanding of similitude requirements, it becomes clear the scale reported in scale models refers only to the geometric scale, S L, not the scale of the parameters important to consider in the scale model design and fabrication. In general the scale of any quantity i material density or viscosity, is defined as: S i = i p i m where i p is the quantity value of the prototype i m is the quantity value of the scale modelThis relationship must be applied to all quantities of interest in the prototype, observing similitude requirements—so the scale model can be built using dimensions and materials that make scale model testing results meaningful with respect to the prototype. One method to determine the dimensionless quantities of concern for a given problem is to use dimensional analysis. Practical concerns include the cost to construct the model, available test facilities to condition and observe the model, the availability of certain materials, who will build it. Practical requirements are very diverse depending on the purpose of the scale model and they all must be considered to have a successful scale model experience.
As an example an aerospace company needs to test a new wing shape. Acco
Whit Monday or Pentecost Monday is the holiday celebrated the day after Pentecost, a moveable feast in the Christian calendar. It is moveable. Whit Monday gets its English name from "Whitsunday", an English name for Pentecost, one of the three baptismal seasons; the origin of the name "Whit Sunday" is attributed to the white garments worn by those newly baptized on this feast. The Monday after Pentecost is a holiday in Antigua and Barbuda, Austria, the Bahamas, Belgium, the British Virgin Islands, the Cayman Islands, Denmark, France, Greece, Hungary, Ivory Coast, Monaco, the Netherlands, Romania, Saint Lucia, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Solomon Islands, Switzerland and Ukraine. In many of these countries, Whit Monday is known as "the second day of Pentecost" or "the second Whitsun". In France, it became a work day for many workers from 2005 to 2007; this was to raise extra funds following the government's lack of preparation for a summertime heat wave, which led to a shortage of proper health care for the elderly.
It continues to be a "worked public holiday" in France. In Liechtenstein, Whit Monday is considered to be a "favorite holiday", much like Christmas in many other countries. In Germany, Whit Monday is a Holy Day of Obligation for Roman Catholics. In South Tyrol, it replaces the holiday of the local patron saint celebrated elsewhere in Italy; until 1973, Whit Monday was a public holiday in Ireland. It was a bank holiday in the United Kingdom until 1967, it was formally replaced by the fixed Spring Bank Holiday on the last Monday in May in 1971. It was a public holiday in various former British colonies in the Pacific, it remains a public holiday in some of the countries of the Commonwealth Caribbean. In Sweden, Whit Monday was a public holiday until 2004 as it was replaced by the National Day of Sweden from 2005. Although Whit Monday is a civil holiday in many countries, it was not a Catholic religious holiday any more than the other weekdays that follow Pentecost Sunday; until the 1969 revision of the General Roman Calendar, they were part of the octave of Pentecost, added in the 7th century.
The Monday after Pentecost is now the first day of the resumption of Ordinary Time. While the details differ from diocese to diocese, the most widespread practice in Germany was to have a compulsory votive Mass of the Holy Spirit outranking solemnities. However, in February 2018, Pope Francis declared that henceforth, Whit Monday will be the fixed date for the celebration of a new feast known as the “Memorial of Mary, Mother of the Church” to be celebrated throughout the universal Church. In the Eastern Orthodox Church Whit Monday is known as "Monday of the Holy Spirit" or "Day of the Holy Spirit" and is the first day of the afterfeast of Pentecost, being dedicated to the honor of God the Holy Spirit and in commemoration of his descent upon the apostles at Pentecost; the day following is known as Third Day of the Trinity. In the services on the Monday of the Holy Spirit many of the same hymns are sung as on the day of Pentecost itself. During the Divine Liturgy the Deacon intones the same introit as on the day of Pentecost, the dismissal is the same as on the day of Pentecost.
Special canons to the Holy Spirit are chanted at Matins. The table on the right provides columns giving the dates on which Whit Monday is observed in both Western and Eastern Christianity; the Eastern Orthodox and Oriental Orthodox churches calculate Pascha differently from the West, so the date of Whit Monday will be different most years. Azores Day Christianity portal Trinity Week—Day of the Holy Spirit Orthodox icon and synaxarion