Low-alcohol beer is beer with little or no alcohol content and aims to reproduce the taste of beer without the inebriating effects of standard alcoholic brews. Most low-alcohol beers are lagers. Low-alcohol beer is known as light beer, non-alcoholic beer, small beer, small ale, or near-beer. In the United States, beverages containing less than 0.5% alcohol by volume were called non-alcoholic, according to the now-defunct Volstead Act. Because of its low alcohol content, non-alcoholic beer may be sold to minors in many American states. In the United Kingdom, the following definitions apply by law: No alcohol or alcohol-free: not more than 0.05% ABV Dealcoholized: over 0.05% but less than 0.5% ABV Low-alcohol: not more than 1.2% ABVIn some parts of the European Union, beer must contain no more than 0.5% ABV if it is labelled "alcohol-free". In Australia, the term "light beer" refers to any beer with less than 3.5% alcohol. Spain is the main producer of low-alcohol beer in the European Union. Low-alcoholic brews such as small beer date back at least to Medieval Europe, where they served as a less risky alternative to water and were less expensive than the full strength brews used at festivals.
More the temperance movements and the need to avoid alcohol while driving, operating machinery, etc. led to the development of non-intoxicating beers. In the United States, non-alcoholic brews were promoted during Prohibition, according to John Naleszkiewicz. In 1917, President Wilson proposed limiting the alcohol content of malt beverages to 2.75% to try to appease avid prohibitionists. In 1919, Congress approved the Volstead Act, which limited the alcohol content of all beverages to 0.5%. These low alcohol beverages became known as tonics, many breweries began brewing them in order to stay in business during Prohibition. Since removing the alcohol from the beer requires just one simple extra step, many breweries saw it as an easy change. In 1933, when Prohibition was repealed, breweries removed this extra step. By the 1980s and 1990s, growing concerns about alcoholism led to the growing popularity of "light" beers. In the 2010s, breweries have focused on marketing low-alcohol beers to counter the popularity of homebrew.
Declining consumption has led to the introduction of mass-market non-alcoholic beverages, dubbed as "near beer". At the start of the 21st century, alcohol-free beer has seen a rise in popularity in the Middle East. One reason for this is that Islamic scholars issued fatawa which permitted the consumption of beer as long as large quantities could be consumed without getting drunk. Positive features of non-alcoholic brews include the ability to drive after consuming several drinks, the reduction in alcohol-related illness, less severe hangover symptoms; some common complaints about non-alcoholic brews include a loss of flavor, addition of one step in the brewing process, sugary taste, a shorter shelf life. There are legal implications; some state governments, e.g. Pennsylvania, prohibit the sale of non-alcoholic brews to persons under the age of 21. A study conducted by the department of psychology at Indiana University said, "Because non-alcoholic beer provides sensory cues that simulate alcoholic beer, this beverage may be more effective than other placebos in contributing to a credible manipulation of expectancies to receive alcohol", making people feel "drunk" when physically they are not.
Light beer is beer with reduced alcohol content and/or calories compared to regular beer. The spelling "lite beer" is commonly used. Light beers may be chosen by drinkers who wish to manage their alcohol consumption or their calorie intake. However, these beers are sometimes criticized for being less flavorful than full-strength beers, being "watered down", thus advertising campaigns for light beers advertise their retention of flavor. In Australia, regular beers have 5% ABV. In Canada, a reduced-alcohol beer contains 2.6%–4.0% ABV, an “extra-light” beer contains less than 2.5%. In the United States, most reduced-alcohol beers, including Bud Light, Coors Light, Miller Lite, have 4.2% ABV, 16% less than beer with 5% ABV. In Sweden, low alcohol beer is either 2.2%, 2.8% or 3.5%, can be purchased in an ordinary supermarket whereas normal strength beers of above 3.5% must be purchased at Systembolaget. Beer containing 2.8-3.5% ABV may be sold in any convenience store to people over 18 years of age, whereas stronger beer may only be sold in state-run liquor stores to people older than 20.
In addition, businesses selling food for on-premises consumption do not need an alcohol license to serve 3.5% beer. All major Swedish brewers, several international ones, in addition to their full-strength beer, make 3.5% folköl versions as well. Beer below or equaling 2.25% ABV is not subject to age restrictions. Low-point beer, known in the United States as "three-two beer" or "3 point 2 brew", is beer that contains 3.2% alcohol by weight. The term "low-point beer" is unique to the United States, where some states limit the sale of beer, but beers of this type are available in countries that tax or otherwise regulate beer according to its alcohol content. In the United States, 3.2 beer was the highest alcohol content beer allowed to be produced for nine months in 1933. As part of his New Deal, President Franklin D. Roosev
Twenty-first Amendment to the United States Constitution
The Twenty-first Amendment to the United States Constitution repealed the Eighteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, which had mandated nationwide Prohibition on alcohol. The Twenty-first Amendment was proposed by Congress on February 20, 1933, was ratified by the requisite number of states on December 5, 1933, it is unique among the 27 amendments of the U. S. Constitution for being the only one to repeal a prior amendment, as well as being the only amendment to have been ratified by state ratifying conventions; the Eighteenth Amendment was ratified on January 16, 1919, the result of years of advocacy by the temperance movement. The subsequent passage of the Volstead Act established federal enforcement of the nationwide prohibition on alcohol; as many Americans continued to drink despite the amendment, Prohibition gave rise to a profitable black market for alcohol, fueling the rise of organized crime. Throughout the 1920's, Americans came to see Prohibition as unenforceable, a movement to repeal the Eighteenth Amendment grew until the Twenty-first Amendment was ratified in 1933.
Section 1 of the Twenty-first Amendment expressly repeals the Eighteenth Amendment. Section 2 bans the importation of alcohol into states and territories that have laws prohibiting the importation or consumption of alcohol. Several states continued to be "dry states" in the years after the repeal of the Eighteenth Amendment, but in 1966 the last dry state legalized the consumption of alcohol. Nonetheless, several states continue to regulate the distribution of alcohol. Many states delegate their power to ban the importation of alcohol to counties and municipalities, there are numerous dry communities throughout the United States. Section 2 has arisen as in issue in Supreme Court cases that touch on the Commerce Clause. Section 1; the eighteenth article of amendment to the Constitution of the United States is hereby repealed. Section 2; the transportation or importation into any State, Territory, or possession of the United States for delivery or use therein of intoxicating liquors, in violation of the laws thereof, is hereby prohibited.
Section 3. This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by conventions in the several States, as provided in the Constitution, within seven years from the date of the submission hereof to the States by the Congress; the Eighteenth Amendment to the Constitution had ushered in a period known as Prohibition, during which the manufacture and sale of alcoholic beverages was illegal. Passage of the Eighteenth Amendment in 1919 was the crowning achievement of the temperance movement, but it soon proved unpopular. Crime rates soared under Prohibition as gangsters, such as Chicago's Al Capone, became rich from a profitable violent black market for alcohol; the federal government was incapable of stemming the tide: enforcement of the Volstead Act proved to be a nearly impossible task and corruption was rife among law enforcement agencies. In 1932, wealthy industrialist John D. Rockefeller, Jr. stated in a letter:When Prohibition was introduced, I hoped that it would be supported by public opinion and the day would soon come when the evil effects of alcohol would be recognized.
I have and reluctantly come to believe that this has not been the result. Instead, drinking has increased; as more and more Americans opposed the Eighteenth Amendment, a political movement grew for its repeal. However, repeal was complicated by grassroots politics. Although the U. S. Constitution provides two methods for ratifying constitutional amendments, only one method had been used up until that time. However, the wisdom of the day was that the lawmakers of many states were either beholden to or fearful of the temperance lobby; the Congress adopted the Blaine Act and proposed the Twenty-first Amendment on February 20, 1933. The proposed amendment was adopted on December 5, 1933, it is the only amendment to have been ratified by state ratifying conventions, specially selected for the purpose. All other amendments have been ratified by state legislatures, it is the only amendment, approved for the explicit purpose of repealing a existing amendment to the Constitution. The Twenty-first Amendment ending national prohibition became effective on December 15, though people started drinking before that date.
The various responses of the 48 states is as follows:The following states ratified the amendment: Ratification was completed on December 5, 1933. The amendment was subsequently ratified by conventions in the following states: The amendment was rejected by the following state: South Carolina Voters in the following state rejected holding a convention to consider the amendment: North Carolina The following states took no action to consider the amendment: Georgia Kansas Louisiana Mississippi Nebraska North Dakota Oklahoma South Dakota The second section bans the importation of alcohol in violation of state or territorial law; this has been interpreted to give states absolute control over alcoholic beverages, many U. S. states still remained "dry" long after its ratification. Mississippi was the last, remaining dry until 1966. Many states now delegate the authority over alcohol granted to them by this Amendment to their municipaliti
Federal Communications Commission
The Federal Communications Commission is an independent agency of the United States government created by statute to regulate interstate communications by radio, wire and cable. The FCC serves the public in the areas of broadband access, fair competition, radio frequency use, media responsibility, public safety, homeland security; the FCC was formed by the Communications Act of 1934 to replace the radio regulation functions of the Federal Radio Commission. The FCC took over wire communication regulation from the Interstate Commerce Commission; the FCC's mandated jurisdiction covers the 50 states, the District of Columbia, the Territories of the United States. The FCC provides varied degrees of cooperation and leadership for similar communications bodies in other countries of North America; the FCC is funded by regulatory fees. It has an estimated fiscal-2016 budget of US $388 million, it has 1,688 federal employees, made up of 50% males and 50% females as of December, 2017. The FCC's mission, specified in Section One of the Communications Act of 1934 and amended by the Telecommunications Act of 1996 is to "make available so far as possible, to all the people of the United States, without discrimination on the basis of race, religion, national origin, or sex, efficient and world-wide wire and radio communication services with adequate facilities at reasonable charges."
The Act furthermore provides that the FCC was created "for the purpose of the national defense" and "for the purpose of promoting safety of life and property through the use of wire and radio communications."Consistent with the objectives of the Act as well as the 1999 Government Performance and Results Act, the FCC has identified four goals in its 2018-22 Strategic Plan. They are: Closing the Digital Divide, Promoting Innovation, Protecting Consumers & Public Safety, Reforming the FCC's Processes; the FCC is directed by five commissioners appointed by the President of the United States and confirmed by the United States Senate for five-year terms, except when filling an unexpired term. The U. S. President designates one of the commissioners to serve as chairman. Only three commissioners may be members of the same political party. None of them may have a financial interest in any FCC-related business. † Commissioners may continue serving until the appointment of their replacements. However, they may not serve beyond the end of the next session of Congress following term expiration.
In practice, this means that commissioners may serve up to 1 1/2 years beyond the official term expiration dates listed above if no replacement is appointed. This would end on the date that Congress adjourns its annual session no than noon on January 4; the FCC is organized into seven Bureaus, which process applications for licenses and other filings, analyze complaints, conduct investigations and implement regulations, participate in hearings. The Consumer & Governmental Affairs Bureau develops and implements the FCC's consumer policies, including disability access. CGB serves as the public face of the FCC through outreach and education, as well as through their Consumer Center, responsible for responding to consumer inquiries and complaints. CGB maintains collaborative partnerships with state and tribal governments in such areas as emergency preparedness and implementation of new technologies; the Enforcement Bureau is responsible for enforcement of provisions of the Communications Act 1934, FCC rules, FCC orders, terms and conditions of station authorizations.
Major areas of enforcement that are handled by the Enforcement Bureau are consumer protection, local competition, public safety, homeland security. The International Bureau develops international policies in telecommunications, such as coordination of frequency allocation and orbital assignments so as to minimize cases of international electromagnetic interference involving U. S. licensees. The International Bureau oversees FCC compliance with the international Radio Regulations and other international agreements; the Media Bureau develops and administers the policy and licensing programs relating to electronic media, including cable television, broadcast television, radio in the United States and its territories. The Media Bureau handles post-licensing matters regarding direct broadcast satellite service; the Wireless Telecommunications Bureau regulates domestic wireless telecommunications programs and policies, including licensing. The bureau implements competitive bidding for spectrum auctions and regulates wireless communications services including mobile phones, public safety, other commercial and private radio services.
The Wireline Competition Bureau develops policy concerning wire line telecommunications. The Wireline Competition Bureau's main objective is to promote growth and economical investments in wireline technology infrastructure, development and services; the Public Safety and Homeland Security Bureau was launched in 2006 with a focus on critical communications infrastructure. The FCC has eleven Staff Offices; the FCC's Offices provide support services to the Bureaus. The Office of Administrative Law Judges is responsible for conducting hearings ordered by the Commission; the hearing function includes acting on interlocutory requests filed in the proceedings such as petitions to intervene, petitions to enlarge issues, contested discovery requests. An Administrative Law Judge, appointed under the Administrative Procedure Act, presides at the hearing during which documents and sworn testimony are received in evidence, witnesses are cross-examined. At the co
National Youth Administration
The National Youth Administration was a New Deal agency sponsored by the Presidency of Franklin D. Roosevelt in the United States that focused on providing work and education for Americans between the ages of 16 and 25, it operated from June 26, 1935 to 1939 as part of the Works Progress Administration and included a Division of Negro Affairs headed by Mary McLeod Bethune who worked at the agency from 1936 to 1943. Following the passage of the Reorganization Act of 1939, the NYA was transferred from the WPA to the Federal Security Agency. In 1942, the NYA was transferred to the War Manpower Commission; the NYA was discontinued in 1943. By 1938, college youth were paid from $306 to $400 a month for "work study" projects at their schools. Another 155,000 boys and girls from relief families were paid $10 to $25 a month for part-time work that included job training. Unlike the Civilian Conservation Corps, it included young women; the youth lived at home, worked on construction or repair projects. Its annual budget was $580.
The NYA was headed by Aubrey Willis Williams, a prominent liberal from Alabama, close to Harry Hopkins and Eleanor Roosevelt. The head of the Texas division at one point was Lyndon B. Johnson, to become president of the United States; the NYA operated several programs for out-of-school youth. As the Great Depression continued to grip the American economy and inhibit the harnessing of American potential and poverty spiraled to record highs; these debilitating years saw youth unemployment rise to 30% and the younger cohorts of the United States faced the devastation of not being able to afford education. Serving as the main catalyst for change and accelerator for government intervention, Eleanor Roosevelt advocated government involvement. In 1934 she notably declared that she experienced "moments of real terror when we might be losing this generation". Halfway through the depression, Roosevelt had mixed opinions on the NYA and started leaning towards Congress to shut it down. "Its time we start thinking about the economy with war debt and the rise of liberals we must act now, as president I make the decision to give the NYA to congress to make sense of."
In June 1935, to combat the economic forces that entangled youth and their families, the National Youth Administration was launched by an Executive Order. The federal agency was intended to assist young Americans during the tumultuous times, to prevent them from falling victim to current hardships, to maintain their potential for future achievement and societal contribution; the NYA's first mission embodied the goal to prevent already-enrolled high school and university students from dropping out before earning their degree, out of necessity due to dire financial times. The agency achieved this by providing grants to youth in exchange for part-time work positions in various sectors of the education system, including administration, janitorial work, cafeteria services; these efforts stemmed from a twofold mission for develop the youth's talent, while keeping them from flooding the already-suffering and compromised labor markets. Secondly, the NYA was committed to providing training and employment for long-term value and advancement.
Young people were provided with work experience and learning-by-doing training in a wide variety of fields, including recreation, public service, the arts and development, construction. By 1937, more than 400,000 youth were employed or participating in occupational training under the NYA; these vocational programs and occupational placements were put to the ultimate test with the onset of World War II. The 1939 outbreak of war in Europe provided the perfect testing grounds to observe the effectiveness of NYA's training and initiatives in many fields that were related to the war economy; the war effort increased the program's reach and saw a substantial surge in young, trained workers contributing to the defense industry. On a larger scale, the program enabled American youth to contribute to the war effort, stimulate the American war economy, turn the United States into an international powerhouse of production; the NYA was fundamental in bringing considerations for African Americans into the dialogue surrounding aid to workers and maturing youth.
This platform was pushed by Aubrey Williams' leadership in the agency. He was a forerunner in addressing unemployment and access to education among African Americans, creating the Office of Minority Affairs, his goals emphasized increasing their economic well-being through labor opportunities, increased educational attainment, maximizing potential. More Williams was influential in emphasizing the program's broad reach and positive implications on the future, his public addresses adamantly expressed that the transition youth experienced when adjusting from elementary years to greater independence and work positions was always rough, yet the economic situation of the Depression aggravated the transition and threatened to derail reaching final aspirations of work. Consequentially, it was the NYA's duty to provide access to education and sense of occupational achievement through its interactive initiatives and agendas. Williams' emphasis on turning America's youth into productive citizens was further supported by President Franklin Roosevelt's proclamation that the "yield on this investment should be high."
Providing the youth with the foundation they needed would enable them to contribute to America's future development, the nation's strength, progress and acceleration forward. Overall, the NYA helped over 4.5 million American youths find jobs, receive vocational training, afford hig
Executive Order 6102
Executive Order 6102 is a United States presidential executive order signed on April 5, 1933, by President Franklin D. Roosevelt "forbidding the Hoarding of gold coin, gold bullion, gold certificates within the continental United States"; the order was made under the authority of the Trading with the Enemy Act of 1917, as amended by the Emergency Banking Act the previous month. The limitation on gold ownership in the U. S. was repealed after President Gerald Ford signed a bill legalizing private ownership of gold coins and certificates by an act of Congress codified in Pub. L. 93–373 which went into effect December 31, 1974. The stated reason for the order was that hard times had caused "hoarding" of gold, stalling economic growth and making the depression worse; the New York Times, on April 6, 1933, p. 16, wrote under the headline "Hoarding of Gold", "The Executive Order issued by the President yesterday amplifies and particularizes his earlier warnings against hoarding. On March 6, taking advantage of a wartime statute that had not been repealed, he issued Presidential Proclamation 2039 that forbade the hoarding'of gold or silver coin or bullion or currency', under penalty of $10,000 and/or up to five to ten years imprisonment."The main rationale behind the order was to remove the constraint on the Federal Reserve which prevented it from increasing the money supply during the depression.
By the late 1920s, the Federal Reserve had hit the limit of allowable credit that could be backed by the gold in its possession. Executive Order 6102 required all persons to deliver on or before May 1, 1933, all but a small amount of gold coin, gold bullion, gold certificates owned by them to the Federal Reserve, in exchange for $20.67 per troy ounce. Under the Trading with the Enemy Act of 1917, as amended by the passed Emergency Banking Act of March 9, 1933, violation of the order was punishable by fine up to $10,000 or up to ten years in prison, or both. Order 6102 exempted "customary use in industry, profession or art", a provision that covered artists, jewelers and sign makers among others; the order further permitted any person to own up to $100 in gold coins. The same paragraph exempted "gold coins having recognized special value to collectors of rare and unusual coins"; that protected recognized gold coin collections from legal seizure and melting. The price of gold from the Treasury for international transactions was raised by the Gold Reserve Act to $35 an ounce.
The resulting profit that the government realized funded the Exchange Stabilization Fund established by the Gold Reserve Act in 1934. The regulations prescribed within Executive Order 6102 were modified by Executive Order 6111 of April 20, 1933, both of which were revoked and superseded by Executive Orders 6260 and 6261 of August 28 and 29, 1933, respectively. Executive Order 6102 led to the extreme rarity of the 1933 Double Eagle gold coin; the order caused all gold coin production to cease and all 1933 minted coins to be destroyed. About 20 illegal coins were stolen, leading to a standing United States Secret Service warrant for arrest and confiscation of the coin. A legalized surviving coin sold for over $7.5 million in 2002, making it one of the most valuable coins in the world. Numerous individuals and companies were prosecuted related to President Roosevelt's Executive Order 6102; the prosecutions took place under subsequent Executive Orders 6111, 6260, 6261 and the Gold Reserve Act of 1934.
There was a need to strengthen Executive Order 6102, as the one prosecution under the order was ruled invalid by federal judge John M. Woolsey, on the grounds that the order was signed by the President, not the Secretary of the Treasury as required; the circumstances of the case were that a New York attorney named Frederick Barber Campbell had one deposit at Chase National Bank of over 5,000 troy ounces of gold. When Campbell attempted to withdraw the gold, Chase refused, Campbell sued Chase. A federal prosecutor indicted Campbell on the following day for failing to surrender his gold; the prosecution of Campbell failed, but the authority of the federal government to seize gold was upheld, Campbell's gold was confiscated. The case was cause for the Roosevelt administration to issue a new order under the signature of the Secretary of the Treasury, Henry Morgenthau, Jr. Executive Orders 6260, 6261, related to the seizure of gold and the prosecution of gold hoarders. A few months Congress passed the Gold Reserve Act of 1934 which ratified President Roosevelt's orders.
A new set of Treasury regulations was issued providing civil penalties of confiscation of all gold and imposition of fines equal to double the value of the gold seized. Prosecutions of U. S. citizens and non-citizens followed the new orders, with a few notable cases: Gus Farber, a diamond and jewelry merchant from San Francisco, was prosecuted for the sale of thirteen $20 gold coins without a license. Secret Service agents discovered the sale with the help of the buyer. Farber, his father, 12 others were arrested in four American cities after a sting operation conducted by the United States Secret Service; the arrests took place in New York and three California cities, San Francisco, San Jose, Oakland. Morris Anolik was arrested in New York with $5,000 in U. S. and foreign gold coins.
Governor of New York
The Governor of New York is the chief executive of the U. S. state of New York. The governor is the head of the executive branch of New York's state government and the commander-in-chief of the state's military and naval forces; the current governor is Andrew Cuomo, a Democrat, who took office on January 1, 2011. The governor has a duty to enforce state laws, the power to either approve or veto bills passed by the New York State Legislature, to convene the legislature, to grant pardons, except in cases of treason and impeachment. Unlike the other government departments that compose the executive branch of government, the governor is the head of the state Executive Department; the officeholder is afforded the courtesy style of His/Her Excellency while in office. The governor of New York is considered a potential candidate for President. Ten governors have been major-party candidates for president, four, Martin Van Buren, Grover Cleveland, Theodore Roosevelt, Franklin D. Roosevelt have won. Six New York governors have gone on to serve as vice president.
Additionally two Governors of New York, John Jay and Charles Evans Hughes, have served as Chief Justice of the United States. Under the New York State Constitution, a person must be at least 30 years of age, a United States citizen, a resident of the state of New York for at least five years prior to being elected to serve as governor; the office of Governor was established by the first New York State Constitution in 1777 to coincide with the calendar year. An 1874 amendment extended the term of office to three years, but the 1894 constitution reduced it to two years; the most recent constitution of 1938 extended the term to the current four years. The Constitution of New York has provided since 1777 for the election of a Lieutenant Governor of New York, who acts as President of the State Senate, to the same term. In the event of the death, resignation or impeachment of the governor, or absence from the state, the lieutenant governor would take on the governor's duties and powers. Since the 1938 constitution, the lieutenant governor explicitly becomes governor upon such vacancy in the office.
Should the office of lieutenant governor become vacant, the president pro tempore of the state senate performs the duties of a lieutenant governor until the governor can take back the duties of the office, or the next election. Although no provision exists in the constitution for it, precedent set in 2009 allows the governor to appoint a lieutenant governor should a vacancy occur. Should the president pro tempore be unable to fulfill the duties, the speaker of the assembly is next in the line of succession; the lieutenant governor nominated separately. Line of succession in full Lieutenant Governor Temporary President of the Senate Speaker of the Assembly Attorney General Comptroller Commissioner of Transportation Commissioner of Health Commissioner of Commerce Industrial Commissioner Chairman of the Public Service Commission Secretary of State Politics of New York Official website Governor's Office in the New York Codes and Regulations
New York (state)
New York is a state in the Northeastern United States. New York was one of the original thirteen colonies. With an estimated 19.54 million residents in 2018, it is the fourth most populous state. To distinguish the state from the city with the same name, it is sometimes called New York State; the state's most populous city, New York City, makes up over 40% of the state's population. Two-thirds of the state's population lives in the New York metropolitan area, nearly 40% lives on Long Island; the state and city were both named for the 17th century Duke of York, the future King James II of England. With an estimated population of 8.62 million in 2017, New York City is the most populous city in the United States and the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States. The New York metropolitan area is one of the most populous in the world. New York City is a global city, home to the United Nations Headquarters and has been described as the cultural and media capital of the world, as well as the world's most economically powerful city.
The next four most populous cities in the state are Buffalo, Rochester and Syracuse, while the state capital is Albany. The 27th largest U. S. state in land area, New York has a diverse geography. The state is bordered by New Jersey and Pennsylvania to the south and Connecticut and Vermont to the east; the state has a maritime border with Rhode Island, east of Long Island, as well as an international border with the Canadian provinces of Quebec to the north and Ontario to the northwest. The southern part of the state is in the Atlantic coastal plain and includes Long Island and several smaller associated islands, as well as New York City and the lower Hudson River Valley; the large Upstate New York region comprises several ranges of the wider Appalachian Mountains, the Adirondack Mountains in the Northeastern lobe of the state. Two major river valleys – the north-south Hudson River Valley and the east-west Mohawk River Valley – bisect these more mountainous regions. Western New York is considered part of the Great Lakes region and borders Lake Ontario, Lake Erie, Niagara Falls.
The central part of the state is dominated by the Finger Lakes, a popular vacation and tourist destination. New York had been inhabited by tribes of Algonquian and Iroquoian-speaking Native Americans for several hundred years by the time the earliest Europeans came to New York. French colonists and Jesuit missionaries arrived southward from Montreal for trade and proselytizing. In 1609, the region was visited by Henry Hudson sailing for the Dutch East India Company; the Dutch built Fort Nassau in 1614 at the confluence of the Hudson and Mohawk rivers, where the present-day capital of Albany developed. The Dutch soon settled New Amsterdam and parts of the Hudson Valley, establishing the multicultural colony of New Netherland, a center of trade and immigration. England seized the colony from the Dutch in 1664. During the American Revolutionary War, a group of colonists of the Province of New York attempted to take control of the British colony and succeeded in establishing independence. In the 19th century, New York's development of access to the interior beginning with the Erie Canal, gave it incomparable advantages over other regions of the U.
S. built its political and cultural ascendancy. Many landmarks in New York are well known, including four of the world's ten most-visited tourist attractions in 2013: Times Square, Central Park, Niagara Falls, Grand Central Terminal. New York is home to the Statue of Liberty, a symbol of the United States and its ideals of freedom and opportunity. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance, environmental sustainability. New York's higher education network comprises 200 colleges and universities, including Columbia University, Cornell University, New York University, the United States Military Academy, the United States Merchant Marine Academy, University of Rochester, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top 40 in the nation and world; the tribes in what is now New York were predominantly Algonquian. Long Island was divided in half between the Wampanoag and Lenape; the Lenape controlled most of the region surrounding New York Harbor.
North of the Lenape was the Mohicans. Starting north of them, from east to west, were three Iroquoian nations: the Mohawk, the original Iroquois and the Petun. South of them, divided along Appalachia, were the Susquehannock and the Erie. Many of the Wampanoag and Mohican peoples were caught up in King Philip's War, a joint effort of many New England tribes to push Europeans off their land. After the death of their leader, Chief Philip Metacomet, most of those peoples fled inland, splitting into the Abenaki and the Schaghticoke. Many of the Mohicans remained in the region until the 1800s, however, a small group known as the Ouabano migrated southwest into West Virginia at an earlier time, they may have merged with the Shawnee. The Mohawk and Susquehannock were the most militaristic. Trying to corner trade with the Europeans, they targeted other tribes; the Mohawk were known for refusing white settlement on their land and banishing any of their people who converted to Christianity. They posed a major threat to the Abenaki and Mohicans, while the Susquehannock conquered the Lenape in the 1600s.
The most devastating event of the century, was the Beaver Wars. From 1640–1680, Iroquoian peoples waged campaigns which extended from modern-day Michigan to Virginia against Algonquian and Siouan tribes, as well as each other; the ai