2010 United States Census
The 2010 United States Census is the twenty-third and most recent United States national census. National Census Day, the reference day used for the census, was April 1, 2010; the census was taken via mail-in citizen self-reporting, with enumerators serving to spot-check randomly selected neighborhoods and communities. As part of a drive to increase the count's accuracy, 635,000 temporary enumerators were hired; the population of the United States was counted as 308,745,538, a 9.7% increase from the 2000 Census. This was the first census in which all states recorded a population of over half a million, as well as the first in which all 100 largest cities recorded populations of over 200,000; as required by the United States Constitution, the U. S. census has been conducted every 10 years since 1790. The 2000 U. S. Census was the previous census completed. Participation in the U. S. Census is required by law in Title 13 of the United States Code. On January 25, 2010, Census Bureau Director Robert Groves inaugurated the 2010 Census enumeration by counting World War II veteran Clifton Jackson, a resident of Noorvik, Alaska.
More than 120 million census forms were delivered by the U. S. Post Office beginning March 15, 2010; the number of forms mailed out or hand-delivered by the Census Bureau was 134 million on April 1, 2010. Although the questionnaire used April 1, 2010 as the reference date as to where a person was living, an insert dated March 15, 2010 included the following printed in bold type: "Please complete and mail back the enclosed census form today." The 2010 Census national mail participation rate was 74%. From April through July 2010, census takers visited households that did not return a form, an operation called "non-response follow-up". In December 2010, the U. S. Census Bureau delivered population information to the U. S. President for apportionment, in March 2011, complete redistricting data was delivered to states. Identifiable information will be available in 2082; the Census Bureau did not use a long form for the 2010 Census. In several previous censuses, one in six households received this long form, which asked for detailed social and economic information.
The 2010 Census used only a short form asking ten basic questions: How many people were living or staying in this house, apartment, or mobile home on April 1, 2010? Were there any additional people staying here on April 1, 2010 that you did not include in Question 1? Mark all that apply: Is this house, apartment, or mobile home – What is your telephone number? What is Person 1's name? What is Person 1's sex? What is Person 1's age and Person 1's date of birth? Is Person 1 of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin? What is Person 1's race? Does Person 1 sometimes live or stay somewhere else? The form included space to repeat all of these questions for up to twelve residents total. In contrast to the 2000 census, an Internet response option was not offered, nor was the form available for download. Detailed socioeconomic information collected during past censuses will continue to be collected through the American Community Survey; the survey provides data about communities in the United States on a 1-year or 3-year cycle, depending on the size of the community, rather than once every 10 years.
A small percentage of the population on a rotating basis will receive the survey each year, no household will receive it more than once every five years. In June 2009, the U. S. Census Bureau announced. However, the final form did not contain a separate "same-sex married couple" option; when noting the relationship between household members, same-sex couples who are married could mark their spouses as being "Husband or wife", the same response given by opposite-sex married couples. An "unmarried partner" option was available for couples; the 2010 census cost $13 billion $42 per capita. Operational costs were $5.4 billion under the $7 billion budget. In December 2010 the Government Accountability Office noted that the cost of conducting the census has doubled each decade since 1970. In a detailed 2004 report to Congress, the GAO called on the Census Bureau to address cost and design issues, at that time, had estimated the 2010 Census cost to be $11 billion. In August 2010, Commerce Secretary Gary Locke announced that the census operational costs came in under budget.
Locke credited the management practices of Census Bureau director Robert Groves, citing in particular the decision to buy additional advertising in locations where responses lagged, which improved the overall response rate. The agency has begun to rely more on questioning neighbors or other reliable third parties when a person could not be reached at home, which reduced the cost of follow-up visits. Census data for about 22% of U. S. househol
Forsyth is a city in Monroe County, United States. It is the county seat of Monroe County; the population was 3,776 at the 2000 census. Forsyth is part of the Macon Metropolitan Statistical Area, it is the former home of Tift College. The Forsyth Commercial Historic District is listed on the National Register of Historic Places and is a tourist attraction, it includes the Monroe County Courthouse and Courthouse Square as well as the surrounding area, including several examples of 19th-century architecture. Forsyth is home to the Confederate Cemetery, Tift College and Rum Creek Wildlife Management Area. Forsyth was laid out in 1823; that same year, the seat of Monroe County was transferred to Forsyth from Johnstonville. Forsyth, Georgia was named for John Forsyth, Governor of Georgia from 1827 to 1829 and Secretary of State under Presidents Andrew Jackson and Martin Van Buren. Forsyth is located at 33°02′06″N 83°56′17″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 5.0 square miles, all land.
As of the census of 2000, there were 3,776 people, 1,457 households, 1,027 families residing in the city. The population density was 758.8 people per square mile. There were 1,560 housing units at an average density of 313.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 40.3% White, 57.6% African American, 0.7% Native American, 0.90% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.6% of the population. There were 1,457 households out of which 30.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 39.5% were married couples living together, 26.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 29.5% were non-families. 26.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.57 and the average family size was 3.10. In the city, the population was spread out with 26.6% under the age of 18, 8.3% from 18 to 24, 28.2% from 25 to 44, 22.8% from 45 to 64, 14.2% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females, there were 82.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 74.8 males. The median income for a household in the city was $30,523, the median income for a family was $35,405. Males had a median income of $25,600 versus $17,536 for females; the per capita income for the city was $19,097. About 14.9% of families and 18.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 29.1% of those under age 18 and 11.5% of those age 65 or over. The Georgia Department of Corrections has moved into the former Tift College site in 2010. Burruss Correctional Training Center is located in Forsyth next to the Georgia Public Safety Training Center. Forsythe's first African American mayor, John Howard, served from 2011-2015. City Councilman Eric Wilson became mayor in 2015; the Monroe County School District holds pre-school to grade twelve, consists of three elementary schools, two middle schools, a high school. The district has 225 full-time teachers and over 3,872 students.
Samuel E. Hubbard Elementary School Katherine B. Sutton Elementary School T. G. Scott Elementary School Banks Stephens Middle School William M. Hubbard Middle School Mary Persons High School Tift College was located in Forsyth. Harold G. Clarke and legislator 7 Little Johnstons, reality TV personality family City of Forsyth, Georgia
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census, defined by the federal Office of Management and Budget and the United States Census Bureau, are self-identification data items in which residents choose the race or races with which they most identify, indicate whether or not they are of Hispanic or Latino origin. The racial categories represent a social-political construct for the race or races that respondents consider themselves to be and, "generally reflect a social definition of race recognized in this country." OMB defines the concept of race as outlined for the US Census as not "scientific or anthropological" and takes into account "social and cultural characteristics as well as ancestry", using "appropriate scientific methodologies" that are not "primarily biological or genetic in reference." The race categories include both national-origin groups. Race and ethnicity are considered separate and distinct identities, with Hispanic or Latino origin asked as a separate question. Thus, in addition to their race or races, all respondents are categorized by membership in one of two ethnic categories, which are "Hispanic or Latino" and "Not Hispanic or Latino".
However, the practice of separating "race" and "ethnicity" as different categories has been criticized both by the American Anthropological Association and members of US Commission on Civil Rights. In 1997, OMB issued a Federal Register notice regarding revisions to the standards for the classification of federal data on race and ethnicity. OMB developed race and ethnic standards in order to provide "consistent data on race and ethnicity throughout the Federal Government; the development of the data standards stem in large measure from new responsibilities to enforce civil rights laws." Among the changes, OMB issued the instruction to "mark one or more races" after noting evidence of increasing numbers of interracial children and wanting to capture the diversity in a measurable way and having received requests by people who wanted to be able to acknowledge their or their children's full ancestry rather than identifying with only one group. Prior to this decision, the Census and other government data collections asked people to report only one race.
The OMB states, "many federal programs are put into effect based on the race data obtained from the decennial census. Race data are critical for the basic research behind many policy decisions. States require these data to meet legislative redistricting requirements; the data are needed to monitor compliance with the Voting Rights Act by local jurisdictions". "Data on ethnic groups are important for putting into effect a number of federal statutes. Data on Ethnic Groups are needed by local governments to run programs and meet legislative requirements." The 1790 United States Census was the first census in the history of the United States. The population of the United States was recorded as 3,929,214 as of Census Day, August 2, 1790, as mandated by Article I, Section 2 of the United States Constitution and applicable laws."The law required that every household be visited, that completed census schedules be posted in'two of the most public places within, there to remain for the inspection of all concerned...' and that'the aggregate amount of each description of persons' for every district be transmitted to the president."
This law along with U. S. marshals were responsible for governing the census. One third of the original census data has been lost or destroyed since documentation; the data was lost in 1790–1830 time period and included data from: Connecticut, Maryland, New Hampshire, New York, North Carolina, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Delaware, New Jersey, Virginia. Census data included the name of the head of the family and categorized inhabitants as follows: free white males at least 16 years of age, free white males under 16 years of age, free white females, all other free persons, slaves. Thomas Jefferson the Secretary of State, directed marshals to collect data from all thirteen states, from the Southwest Territory; the census was not conducted in Vermont until 1791, after that state's admission to the Union as the 14th state on March 4 of that year. There was some doubt surrounding the numbers, President George Washington and Thomas Jefferson maintained the population was undercounted; the potential reasons Washington and Jefferson may have thought this could be refusal to participate, poor public transportation and roads, spread out population, restraints of current technology.
No microdata from the 1790 population census is available, but aggregate data for small areas and their compatible cartographic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. In 1800 and 1810, the age question regarding free white males was more detailed; the 1820
1910 United States Census
The Thirteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau on April 15, 1910, determined the resident population of the United States to be 92,228,496, an increase of 21.0 percent over the 76,212,168 persons enumerated during the 1900 Census. The 1910 Census switched from a portrait page orientation to a landscape orientation; the 1910 census collected the following information: Full documentation for the 1910 census, including census forms and enumerator instructions, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. The column titles in the census form are as follows: LOCATION. Street, road, etc. House number. 1. Number of dwelling house in order of visitation. 2. Number of family in order of visitation. 3. NAME of each person whose place of abode on April 15, 1910, was in this family. Enter surname first the given name and middle initial, if any. Include every person living on April 15, 1910. Omit children born since April 15, 1910. RELATION. 4. Relationship of this person to the head of the family.
PERSONAL DESCRIPTION. 5. Sex. 6. Color or race. 7. Age at last birthday. 8. Whether single, widowed, or divorced. 9. Number of years of present marriage. 10. Mother of how many children: Number born. 11. Mother of how many children: Number now living. NATIVITY. Place of birth of each person and parents of each person enumerated. If born in the United States, give the state or territory. If of foreign birth, give the country. 12. Place of birth of this Person. 13. Place of birth of Father of this person. 14. Place of birth of Mother of this person. CITIZENSHIP. 15. Year of immigration to the United States. 16. Whether naturalized or alien. 17. Whether able to speak English. OCCUPATION. 18. Trade or profession of, or particular kind of work done by this person, as spinner, laborer, etc. 19. General nature of industry, business, or establishment in which this person works, as cotton mill, dry goods store, etc. 20. Whether as employer, employee, or work on own account. If an employee— 21. Whether out of work on April 15, 1910.
22. Number of weeks out of work during year 1909. EDUCATION. 23. Whether able to read. 24. Whether able to write. 25. Attended school any time since September 1, 1909. OWNERSHIP OF HOME. 26. Owned or rented. 27. Owned free or mortgaged. 28. Farm or house. 29. Number of farm schedule. 30. Whether a survivor of the Union or Confederate Army or Navy. 31. Whether blind. 32. Whether deaf and dumb. Special Notation In 1912 and 1959, New Mexico, Arizona and Hawaii would become the 47th, 48th, 49th and 50th states admitted to the Union; the 1910 population count for each of these areas was 327,301, 204,354, 64,356 and 191,909 respectively. On this basis, the ranking list above would be modified as follows: First 42 ranked states - positions unchanged New Mexico, Arizona, Hawaii, Wyoming and Alaska; the original census enumeration sheets were microfilmed by the Census Bureau in the 1940s. The microfilmed census is available in rolls from the National Records Administration. Several organizations host images of the microfilmed census online, along which digital indices.
Microdata from the 1910 census are available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. 1911 U. S Census Report Contains 1910 Census results Historic US Census data census.gov/population/www/censusdata/PopulationofStatesandCountiesoftheUnitedStates1790-1990.pdf
Monroe County, Georgia
Monroe County is a county located in the U. S. state of Georgia. As of the 2010 census, the population was 26,424; the county seat is Forsyth. The county was created on May 15, 1821; the county was named for James Monroe. Monroe County is included in GA Metropolitan Statistical Area. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 398 square miles, of which 396 square miles is land and 2.2 square miles is water. The vast majority of Monroe County is located in the Upper Ocmulgee River sub-basin of the Altamaha River basin, with just a tiny southwestern corner of the county, west of a line between Yatesville and Culloden, located in the Upper Flint River sub-basin of the ACF River Basin. Butts County Jasper County Jones County Bibb County Crawford County Upson County Lamar County As of the census of 2000, there were 21,757 people, 7,719 households, 6,005 families residing in the county; the population density was 21/km². There were 8,425 housing units at an average density of 8/km².
The racial makeup of the county was 70.36% White, 27.93% Black, 0.35% Native American, 0.34% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 0.25% from other races, 0.74% from two or more races. 1.29% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 7,719 households out of which 35.80% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 59.60% were married couples living together, 13.80% had a female householder with no husband present, 22.20% were non-families. 18.90% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.40% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.74 and the average family size was 3.12. In the county, the population was spread out with 26.30% under the age of 18, 8.30% from 18 to 24, 30.40% from 25 to 44, 24.70% from 45 to 64, 10.30% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females, there were 99.40 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 97.20 males. The median income for a household in the county was $44,195, the median income for a family was $51,093.
Males had a median income of $34,433 versus $22,146 for females. The per capita income for the county was $19,580. About 7.30% of families and 9.80% of the population were below the poverty line, including 12.00% of those under age 18 and 13.30% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 26,424 people, 9,662 households, 7,157 families residing in the county; the population density was 66.8 inhabitants per square mile. There were 10,710 housing units at an average density of 27.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 73.3% white, 23.7% black or African American, 0.8% Asian, 0.3% American Indian, 0.9% from other races, 1.0% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 2.0% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 14.7% were American, 13.1% were English, 9.9% were German, 9.5% were Irish. Of the 9,662 households, 33.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 56.2% were married couples living together, 13.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 25.9% were non-families, 21.9% of all households were made up of individuals.
The average household size was 2.61 and the average family size was 3.03. The median age was 41.3 years. The median income for a household in the county was $48,297 and the median income for a family was $61,110. Males had a median income of $41,409 versus $32,810 for females; the per capita income for the county was $23,656. About 9.8% of families and 12.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 15.3% of those under age 18 and 12.9% of those age 65 or over. Culloden Forsyth National Register of Historic Places listings in Monroe County, Georgia
A city is a large human settlement. Cities have extensive systems for housing, sanitation, land use, communication, their density facilitates interaction between people, government organizations and businesses, sometimes benefiting different parties in the process. City-dwellers have been a small proportion of humanity overall, but following two centuries of unprecedented and rapid urbanization half of the world population now lives in cities, which has had profound consequences for global sustainability. Present-day cities form the core of larger metropolitan areas and urban areas—creating numerous commuters traveling towards city centers for employment and edification. However, in a world of intensifying globalization, all cities are in different degree connected globally beyond these regions; the most populated city proper is Chongqing while the most populous metropolitan areas are the Greater Tokyo Area, the Shanghai area, Jabodetabek. The cities of Faiyum and Varanasi are among those laying claim to longest continual inhabitation.
A city is distinguished from other human settlements by its great size, but by its functions and its special symbolic status, which may be conferred by a central authority. The term can refer either to the physical streets and buildings of the city or to the collection of people who dwell there, can be used in a general sense to mean urban rather than rural territory. A variety of definitions, invoking population, population density, number of dwellings, economic function, infrastructure, are used in national censuses to classify populations as urban. Common population definitions for a city range between 1,500 and 50,000 people, with most U. S. states using a minimum between 5,000 inhabitants. However, some jurisdictions set no such minimums. In the United Kingdom, city status is awarded by the government and remains permanently, resulting in some small cities, such as Wells and St Davids. According to the "functional definition" a city is not distinguished by size alone, but by the role it plays within a larger political context.
Cities serve as administrative, commercial and cultural hubs for their larger surrounding areas. Examples of settlements called city which may not meet any of the traditional criteria to be named such include Broad Top City and City Dulas, Anglesey, a hamlet; the presence of a literate elite is sometimes included in the definition. A typical city has professional administrators and some form of taxation to support the government workers; the governments may be based on heredity, military power, work projects such as canal building, food distribution, land ownership, commerce, finance, or a combination of these. Societies that live in cities are called civilizations; the word city and the related civilization come, via Old French, from the Latin root civitas meaning citizenship or community member and coming to correspond with urbs, meaning city in a more physical sense. The Roman civitas was linked with the Greek "polis"—another common root appearing in English words such as metropolis. Urban geography deals both with their internal structure.
Town siting has varied through history according to natural, technological and military contexts. Access to water has long been a major factor in city placement and growth, despite exceptions enabled by the advent of rail transport in the nineteenth century, through the present most of the world's urban population lives near the coast or on a river. Urban areas as a rule cannot produce their own food and therefore must develop some relationship with a hinterland which sustains them. Only in special cases such as mining towns which play a vital role in long-distance trade, are cities disconnected from the countryside which feeds them. Thus, centrality within a productive region influences siting, as economic forces would in theory favor the creation of market places in optimal mutually reachable locations; the vast majority of cities have a central area containing buildings with special economic and religious significance. Archaeologists refer to this area by the Greek term temenos; these spaces reflect and amplify the city's centrality and importance to its wider sphere of influence.
Today cities have downtown, sometimes coincident with a central business district. Cities have public spaces where anyone can go; these include owned spaces open to the public as well as forms of public land such as public domain and the commons. Western philosophy since the time of the Greek agora has considered physical public space as the substrate of the symbolic public sphere. Public art adorns public spaces. Parks and other natural sites within cities provide residents with relief from the hardness and regularity of typical built environments. Urban structure follows one or more basic patterns: geomorphic, concentric and curvilinear. Physical environment constrains the form in which a city is built. If located on a mountainside, urban structure may rely on winding roads, it may be adapted to its means of subsistence. And it may be set up for optimal defense given the surrounding landscape. Beyond these "geomorphi
Alfred Blalock was a 20th-century American surgeon most noted for his research on the medical condition of shock as well as Tetralogy of Fallot— known as Blue baby syndrome. He developed the Blalock-Thomas-Taussig Shunt, a surgical procedure he developed together with surgical technician Vivien Thomas and pediatric cardiologist Helen Taussig to relieve the cyanosis from Tetralogy of Fallot; this operation ushered in the modern era of cardiac surgery. Blalock worked at both Vanderbilt University and the Johns Hopkins University, where he studied both as an undergraduate and worked as chief of surgery, he is known as a medical pioneer who won various awards, including Albert Lasker Clinical Medical Research Award. Blalock was nominated several times for the prestigious Nobel Prize in Medicine. Blalock was born in Culloden, the son of Martha "Mattie" and George Zadock Blalock, a merchant. At the age of 14, he entered as a senior at Georgia Military College, a preparatory school for the University of Georgia.
Shortly after, Blalock attended the University of Georgia as a sophomore undergraduate, skipping his freshman year. While in college, Blalock was involved in the university social life and athletics, he played tennis and golf, was a member of the Delta Chapter of the Sigma Chi fraternity, was secretary and treasurer of his senior class. After graduating with an A. B. in 1918 at the age of 19, Blalock entered the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, where he roomed with and began a lifelong friendship with Tinsley Harrison, a student who would go on to specialize in cardiovascular medicine. At Johns Hopkins, his record was not considered "outstanding", given that he graduated near the middle of his class, although he was a member of Alpha Omega Alpha. Blalock excelled in surgical courses while he was a student at Hopkins, this made him come to the realization that he wanted to be a surgeon. In medical school, Blalock was known by his friends and classmates as a "ladies man" due to his frequent trips to Goucher College, a women's school located nearby.
Blalock earned his medical degree at Johns Hopkins in 1922, hoping to gain appointment to a surgical residency at Johns Hopkins due to his admiration of William S. Halsted; because of this, Blalock decided to remain in Baltimore for the next three years. However, he was denied a surgical residency with Halsted because of his average academic record. Instead, Blalock decided to complete an internship in urology, in which he performed exceptionally well, he completed one year of an assistant residency on the general surgical service, an externship in ENT. In September 1925, Blalock joined Tinsley Harrison at Vanderbilt University in Nashville to complete his residency under Barney Brooks, Vanderbilt University Hospital's first Professor of Surgery and Chief of the Surgical Service. During his Vanderbilt years, Blalock spent much of his time in the surgical research laboratory, which he found both challenging and exciting. While at Vanderbilt, Blalock became interested and began studying the nature and treatment of hemorrhagic and traumatic shock.
At Vanderbilt, in the year 1938, Blalock conducted an experiment where the left subclavian artery was connected to the left pulmonary artery. The experiment was meant to induce pulmonary hypertension. By conducting his research and experimenting on dogs, Blalock discovered that surgical shock resulted from the loss of blood, which led him to encourage the use of blood plasma or whole blood products to prevent. Blalock's innovative research resulted in the saving of many lives on the battlefield during World War II. Blalock had frequent bouts of tuberculosis, which developed during his years at Vanderbilt. While working in Vanderbilt in 1930, Blalock became busy and had several obligations that kept him from spending much time in the laboratory; because of this, Blalock began searching for a new lab assistant that he would be able to count on to carry out all of his experiments. He ended up hiring a young African-American carpenter, as his lab technician. Although Blalock hired Thomas as a lab technician, he was titled a janitor.
From Blalock’s perspective, Thomas learned how to perform surgical procedures, carry out experiments, record data for Blalock's research. As they got to know each other, Blalock granted Thomas increased independence in the laboratory, something, uncommon for an African American, at that time. Blalock and Thomas carried out various experiments relating to shock and cardiac output, as well as developed a technique for adrenal transplantation. Together, they developed innovative, unheard of techniques such as the transplantation of the kidney to the neck in order to remove the kidney’s nerve supply and study the effect on “Goldblatt hypertension”. Blalock and Thomas built a strong, though unequal, relationship over the years, somewhat marred toward the end by Blalock's unwillingness to give Thomas full credit for his contribution to their collaboration. In 1941 Alfred Blalock was asked to return to the Johns Hopkins hospital to work as chief of surgery and director of the department of surgery of the medical school.
When Blalock was offered this position, he requested that his assistant Vivien Thomas come with him. While working together at Hopkins and Thomas developed a shunt technique to bypass coarctation of the aorta. Helen Taussig, a cardiologist, presented to Blalock the problem of the blue baby syndrome - a congenital heart defect known as Tetralogy of Fallot which results in inadequate oxygenation of the blood. In 1944 Blalock, with Thomas by his