Praça do Império
The Praça do Império is a city square and park situated adjacent to principal monuments and tourist attractions in the civil parish of Belém, municipality and Portuguese capital of Lisbon. Between 23 June and 2 December 1940, Lisbon realized the Exposição do Mundo Português, that included an urbanization plan that encompassed the area of Belém, that included the Praça do Império; the sculptures of the seahorses, that dominate the site, were completed by sculptor António Duarte were installed in 1940. A project to construct the Palácio do Ultramar was initiated in 1952, situated on the eastern edge of the park, authored by architects Cristino da Silva and Jacques Carlu. In 1973, a commemorative monument to the poet Augusto Gil was installed on the site, that included a bronze medallion and inscription by the municipal council of Lisbon; the roads around the square were used as a special stage in the 2011 to 2014 Rally de Portugal. The park is situated to the south of the Monastery of Santa Maria de Belém and west of the Centro Cultural de Belém.
The rectangular 175 by 175 metres square consists of successive quadrangles, that structure the space into passages and greenspaces. These converge in the central illuminated fountain on a square platform, covering an area of 3,300 square metres. On the extreme edges of the southern part of the square, along the Avenida da Índia are hippocamp statues, over reflecting pools. "A acção da Câmara Municipal de Lisboa na Exposição do Mundo Português", Revista Municipal, Portugal, 1940, pp. 24–26 "A fonte luminosa da Praça do Império, Nova maravilha de Lisboa", Revista Municipal, Portugal, 1963, pp. 31–33 Acciaiuoli, Exposições do Estado Novo, 1934 -1940, Livros Horizonte Ferreira, Rafael Laborde. Nobre, Pedro Nunes, Belém e a Exposição do Mundo Português: Cidade, Urbanidade e Património Urbano, Projeto de mestrado em Património Urbano da Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Portugal: Universidade Nova de Lisboa
Tejo Power Station
The Tejo Power Station was a thermoelectric power plant owned by the Companhias Reunidas de Gás e Electricidade, which supplied power to the city and entire Lisbon region. It is located in the Belém district of Portugal's capital and its activity spanned from 1909 to 1972, although as of 1951 it was used as a reserve power station. Over time, it underwent several adjustments and expansions, going through many different phases of construction and production, it now houses the Museu da Electricidade The original Tejo Power Station, whose buildings no longer exist, was built in 1909 and operated until 1921. In 1914, construction began on the low pressure boiler buildings and the machinery room, which were expanded several times. In 1941 construction on the high pressure boiler building took place, the power station's largest structure, expanded in 1951 with the addition of another boiler. Despite operating for the last time in 1972, it was only shut down in 1975, thus proving its great importance to the city of Lisbon as industrial archaeological heritage.
For this reason, in 1986 it was classified as an Asset of Public Interest. Since 1990, the Tejo Power Station is open as the Electricity Museum; the buildings built in 1909, which no longer exist, comprised the original Tejo Power Station, which remained operational until 1921. It was designed and projected by engineer Lucien Neu, construction was undertaken by the company Vieillard & Touzet. For years, the machinery was altered in order to increase the plant's output, in 1912, when all the equipment was installed, the plant had fifteen small Belleville boilers and five generating sets with a 7,75MW output. From 1916 until being deactivated in 1921, it received steam from the new boilers installed in the current low pressure building, was shut down and used as storage space and workshops from that time until 1938, when it was demolished to make room for construction of the high pressure boiler building; the low pressure naves began construction in 1914 and were completed in 1930, going through three important construction phases.
The first included construction of two industrial naves for the boilers, the machinery room for the alternators and for the substation. The second phase included the first expansion of the boiler room with a new longitudinal nave, the purchase of a new generating set, construction of a coal distributor and the docks to the refrigeration circuit's channels, it was in the third phase that the final expansion was carried out on the boiler room–with a new industrial nave of greater proportions than the previous ones–the machinery room and the substation. Thus, in the 1930s, the plant's boiler room included eleven low pressure boilers: ten Babcock & Wilcox and one Humboldt; the machinery room comprised five generating sets of varying outputs and brands: Escher & Wiss, AEG, Stal-Asea and Escher Wiss/Thompson. With the increased output from the two new AEG turbo-alternator sets installed in 1934, it was necessary to install new boilers that would operate with high pressure steam. Construction was carried out on property occupied by the original Tejo Power Station, demolished in 1938 to make way for construction of this new high pressure boiler building, the facility's most impressive structure.
Inside, it housed three large Babcock & Wilcox high pressure boilers, which began operating in 1941. With the destruction of the original Tejo Power Station and the installation of the high pressure boiler building, the need arose for space for workshops and storage space, thus the CRGE purchased the properties adjoining the eastern side of the complex, where the old Senna Sugar Estates, Ltd. sugar refinery–owned by the Companhia de Açúcar de Moçambique –used to operate. It was necessary to create an auxiliary room for water treatment, installed inside the low pressure boiler building, thus dismantling the first two boilers. In 1950 the high pressure boiler building was expanded to include another boiler, which began operating the following year and constituted the plant's final expansion. With the entry into force in 1944 of Law 2002 – the National Electrification Law, which made producing hydroelectric power an absolute priority, the Tejo Power Station took on a secondary role in the electricity sector due to the construction of the first major hydroelectric station, the Castelo do Bode dam, which began operating in 1951 turning the Tejo Power Station into a reserve station.
Nonetheless, the Tejo Power Station operated without interruption between 1951 and 1968, except for in 1961. In 1972, as follow-up to an attempt against the Salazar regime, high voltage lines carrying electric power to Lisbon from the Castelo do Bode hydroelectric station were pulled down, the Tejo Power Station was once again reactivated, producing electricity for the last time in its history, it was shut down in 1975. After closing and nationalising the electric companies, it was decided that this old thermoelectric power station should be given new life and reopened for cultural purposes; the first team responsible for the Museum was formed in 1986, in 1990 it opened its doors to the general public. Between 2001 and 2005, the Museum underwent profound restructuring, from the entire architectural heritage to the museographic content. In 2006 the museum reopened its doors, but with a new type of museology, much more educational and dynamic. After continuous transformations and expansions over the years, the Tejo Power Station's architectural ensemble represents the masterful co
Estádio do Restelo
The Estádio do Restelo is a multi-purpose stadium in Lisbon, Portugal. The stadium has a capacity of 19,856 people and was built in 1956, in an old stone quarry, it is situated behind the Jerónimos Monastery in the Lisbon parish of Belém. It is used for football matches, by first division club Clube de Futebol Os Belenenses, but stages musical performances; the Pope John Paul II had celebrate a mass there assisted by more than 100.000 people. On 23 May 2000, American hard rock band Pearl Jam recorded a live album at the stadium. On 4 October The Smashing Pumpkins played in the stadium during the Sacred and Profane Tour, their last one before the band's breakup latter that year. Queen + Paul Rodgers performed at the stadium during their tour on 2 July 2005, being the first Queen show in Portugal and the first stadium show in 19 years for the band. On 18 July 2009 The Killers, Mando Diao, Brandi Carlile, The Walkmen and Bettershell made the lineup for the Lisbon's 15th edition of Super Bock Super Rock festival, held at the stadium.
The stadium hosted the 2014 UEFA Women's Champions League Final. In 2011, the portuguese soap opera "Sedução" produced by TVI told the history of a fictional player of Belenenses so some episodes were recorded at the stadium, including in game days
Afonso de Albuquerque Square
Afonso de Albuquerque Square is a public square in the Belém district of the city of Lisbon, Portugal. The square is located in front of Belém Palace, an early 18th-century palace that nowadays serves as residence for the President of Portugal; the square is named after the Second Governor of Portuguese India Afonso de Albuquerque, offers the best views of Belém Palace. It has a beautiful monument, in neo-Manueline style, by artists Silva Pinto and Costa Mota tio, inaugurated in 1902; the monument has reliefs about his life. The site of the square used to be a harbour, built in 1753. In 1807, Queen Mary I, Prince John VI and the royal family fled Lisbon from this harbour to Rio de Janeiro, in Brazil, to escape the Napoleonic troops which had invaded Portugal. Notable buildings include Belém Palace and the Nacional Coach Museum
Modern architecture, or modernist architecture was based upon new and innovative technologies of construction the use of glass and reinforced concrete. It emerged in the first half of the 20th century and became dominant after World War II until the 1980s, when it was replaced as the principal style for institutional and corporate buildings by postmodern architecture. Modern architecture emerged at the end of the 19th century from revolutions in technology and building materials, from a desire to break away from historical architectural styles and to invent something, purely functional and new; the revolution in materials came first, with the use of cast iron, plate glass, reinforced concrete, to build structures that were stronger and taller. The cast plate glass process was invented in 1848, allowing the manufacture of large windows; the Crystal Palace by Joseph Paxton at the Great Exhibition of 1851 was an early example of iron and plate glass construction, followed in 1864 by the first glass and metal curtain wall.
These developments together led to the first steel-framed skyscraper, the ten-story Home Insurance Building in Chicago, built in 1884 by William Le Baron Jenney. The iron frame construction of the Eiffel Tower the tallest structure in the world, captured the imagination of millions of visitors to the 1889 Paris Universal Exposition. French industrialist François Coignet was the first to use iron-reinforced concrete, that is, concrete strengthened with iron bars, as a technique for constructing buildings. In 1853 Coignet built the first iron reinforced concrete structure, a four-story house in the suburbs of Paris. A further important step forward was the invention of the safety elevator by Elisha Otis, first demonstrated at the Crystal Palace exposition in 1852, which made tall office and apartment buildings practical. Another important technology for the new architecture was electric light, which reduced the inherent danger of fires caused by gas in the 19th century; the debut of new materials and techniques inspired architects to break away from the neoclassical and eclectic models that dominated European and American architecture in the late 19th century, most notably eclecticism and Edwardian architecture, the Beaux-Arts architectural style.
This break with the past was urged by the architectural theorist and historian Eugène Viollet-le-Duc. In his 1872 book Entretiens sur L'Architecture, he urged: "use the means and knowledge given to us by our times, without the intervening traditions which are no longer viable today, in that way we can inaugurate a new architecture. For each function its material; this book influenced a generation of architects, including Louis Sullivan, Victor Horta, Hector Guimard, Antoni Gaudí. At the end of the 19th century, a few architects began to challenge the traditional Beaux Arts and Neoclassical styles that dominated architecture in Europe and the United States; the Glasgow School of Art designed by Charles Rennie MacIntosh, had a facade dominated by large vertical bays of windows. The Art Nouveau style was launched in the 1890s by Victor Horta in Belgium and Hector Guimard in France. In Barcelona, Antonio Gaudi conceived architecture as a form of sculpture. In 1903–1904 in Paris Auguste Perret and Henri Sauvage began to use reinforced concrete only used for industrial structures, to build apartment buildings.
Reinforced concrete, which could be molded into any shape, which could create enormous spaces without the need of supporting pillars, replaced stone and brick as the primary material for modernist architects. The first concrete apartment buildings by Perret and Sauvage were covered with ceramic tiles, but in 1905 Perret built the first concrete parking garage on 51 rue de Ponthieu in Paris. Henri Sauvage added another construction innovation in an apartment building on Rue Vavin in Paris. Between 1910 and 1913, Auguste Perret built the Théâtre des Champs-Élysées, a masterpiece of reinforced concrete construction, with Art Deco sculptural bas-reliefs on the facade by Antoine Bourdelle; because of the concrete construction, no columns blocked the spectator's view of the stage. Otto Wagner, in Vienna, was another pioneer of the new style. In his book Moderne Architektur he had called for a more rationalist style of architecture, based on "modern life", he designed a stylized ornamental metro station at Karlsplatz in Vienna an ornamental Art Nouveau residence, Majolika House, before moving to a much more geometric and simplified style, without ornament, in the Austrian Postal Savings Bank.
Wagner declared his intention to express the function of the building in its exterior. The reinforced concrete exterior was covered with plaques of marble attached with bolts of polished aluminum; the interior was purely functional and spare, a large open space of steel and concrete where the only decoration was the structure itself. The Viennese architect Adolf Loos began removing any ornament from his buildings, his S
Museum of Art, Architecture and Technology
The Museum of Art and Technology is a museum in Lisbon, Portugal. MAAT is the new cultural project for the city of Lisbon, focused on three areas - Art and Technology; the €20m museum sits on the River Tagus to the west of the city centre. and "one of Europe's most lyrical new museums". It establishes a connection between the new building and the Tejo Power Station, one of Portugal's most prominent examples of industrial architecture from the first half of the 20th century, one of the most visited museums in the country; the museum is designed by Amanda Levete Architects. MAAT's ambition is to present national and international exhibitions by contemporary artists and thinkers; the programme includes various curatorial perspectives on EDP Foundation's Art Collection, reflecting current subject matters and trends. MAAT's programme opened on 30 June 2016 with four exhibitions held in renovated spaces of the Tejo Power Station building. On 5 October of the same year, the new building opened to the public with a large-scale work by French artist Dominique Gonzalez-Foerster, created for this space.
This is a project conceived for all kinds of public, of all ages, boasting an educational programme of multidisciplinary activities about art and technology – all initiatives which encourage creative thinking and new ways of acquiring and developing knowledge. The museum hosted the Eurovision's "Blue Carpet" event, where all the contestants and their delegations are presented before the press and public, on 6 May 2018; the official Opening Ceremony of the 2018 contest, which will take place at the nearby Electricity Museum. Official website
The Belém Palace, or alternately National Palace of Belém, over time, been the official residence of Portuguese monarchs and, after the installation of the First Republic, the Presidents of the Portuguese Republic. Located in the civil parish of Santa Maria de Belém, the palace is located on a small hill that fronts the Praça Afonso de Albuquerque, near the historical centre of Belém and the Monastery of the Jerónimos, close to the waterfront of the Tagus River; the five buildings that make up the main façade of the Palace date back to the second half of the 17th century, were built at a time when the monarchy and nobility desired to seek respite from the urbanized confines of Lisbon. The site was part of the Outeiro das Vinhas, a property that fronted the beach of the Tagus River. D. Manuel of Portugal, a diplomat and poet, the son of the 1st Count of Vimioso, acquired the land in 1559, naming it Quinta de Belém and constructing a building with three salons and two atria. By the mid-17th century the property was linked to a scion of the Royal Court transferred to the possession of the Counts of Aveiras and occupied by a convent.
The land was acquired by King John V, who ordered its reconstruction in 1726. It encompassed two parcels, the Quinta de Baixo and Quinta do Meio, which the monarch purchased from João da Silva Telo, 3rd Count of Aveiros for 200,000 cruzados, in addition to the contiguous farmlands of the Counts of São Lourenço, with the objective of constructing a summer home. Although it is unclear when the first building was completed, by 1754 Queen Maria Anna of Austria had died in the residence. During the aftermath of the 1755 Lisbon earthquake, it was determined that there was superficial damage and no fear of collapse, but a number of repairs were completed between 1755 and 1756. Under supervision of the architect João Pedro Ludovice, the Casa Real de Campo de Belém or Palácio das Leoneiras received attention. Work included replacing tile and repairs to the stables. Around 1770, architect Mateus Vicente de Oliveira undertook reconstruction of the total estate; this was the beginning of several small projects within the residence that included the painting of the Sala das Bicas, the replacement of azulejo tiles along the southern veranda, construction of the birdhouses.
Initial construction of the Neoclassical horse training arena designed by the Italian Giacomo Azzolini began in 1828. The space is now occupied by the National Coach Museum After 1807, with the departure of the royal family for Brazil, the furniture and artwork were removed from the palace, the building was abandoned until the end of the Liberal Wars. By 1839, the palace was once again used to hold royal balls, served as the temporary residence for visiting royal dignitaries. In 1840, during extensive renovations of the Palace of Necessidades, the royal family returned to Belém and resided in the palace during that decade; the Infanta Antónia was born there in 1845. By 1850, renovation of the grand ballroom was complete, permitting Queen Maria II to receive Portuguese society, in September 1861, the Infanta was married there to Prince Leopold of Hohenzollern. In November 1861, the Infante Augusto died, followed by the Infante João on Christmas. A succession of deaths forced the Royal Family to abandon the palace, it once again became a residence for visiting dignitaries.
This change in purpose was accompanied by small repairs to the building, as well as the installation of gas lines and new lighting. In 1886, after his marriage to Princess Amélie of Orléans, King Carlos ordered renovations of the palace to prepare it as the royal residence; these were completed under the direction of architect Rafael de Silva Castro. The palace was the birthplace of the Prince Royal Luís Filipe in 1887 and Manuel in 1889. Between 1902 and 1903, remodeling of the interior spaces was undertaken by Rosendo Carvalheira, with the additional construction of a visitors house on the north walk of the Pátio das Damas to receive delegations of foreign dignitaries; this addition was inaugurated with the official visit of the King of Spain, Alfonso XIII, to Portugal at the end of 1903. The following year, the training stables were separated from the palace and destined to shelter the National Coach Museum. By a royal decree published in the Diário do Governo, the palace ceased to operate as a royal residence, passed to the Treasury for the "accommodation of heads of state and foreign missions that come on an official visit to Lisbon, leaving for that purpose by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs".
Following the 5 October 1910 Revolution, the Secretaria-Geral da Presidência da República moved into the palace on 24 August 1911, as article 45 of the Constitution prohibited the Chief of State from occupying a residence on properties held by the State. A loophole in the document allowed the authorization on 28 June 1912 of a government edict to rent an annex alongside the Palace for 100,000 réis per month to house the first President Manuel de Arriaga, who preferred to live in his local residence and work at the palace; this policy of renting the space continued throughout the period of the First Republic. After the assassination of President Sidónio Pais in 1918 at the Rossio railway station, the ex-President's body lay in state in the Sala Luís XV until his burial; the official residency law for the President of the Republic was promulgated on 24 March 1928. It specified that the President and his family would be permitted to reside in one of the national palaces. At the time of the promulgation