Intercultural Relations, sometimes called Intercultural Studies, is a new formal field of social science studies. It is a practical, multi-field discipline designed to train its students to understand and accomplish specific goals outside their own cultures. Intercultural Relations involves, at a fundamental level, learning how to see oneself and the world through the eyes of another, it is a broad rather than deep discipline that seeks to prepare students for interaction with cultures both similar to their own or different from their own. Some aspects of intercultural relations include, their power and cultural identity with how the relationship should be upheld with other foreign countries; the study of intercultural relations incorporates many different academic disciplines. As a field, it is most tied to anthropology and sociology, although a degree program in Intercultural Relations or Intercultural Studies may include the study of history, research methods, urban studies, gender studies, public health, many various natural sciences, human development, political science, religion and linguistics or other language training.
Intercultural programs are designed to translate these academic disciplines into a practical training curricula. Graduate programs will prepare students for academic research and publication. In today's global and multicultural world, students of Intercultural Relations can use their training in many fields both internationally and domestically, pursue careers in social work, community development, religious work, urban development. Intercultural relations offers the opportunity to direct you in experiencing and learning about the diverse relations within our world; the origins of the practical use of multi-field Intercultural Relations can be traced back to Christian missionaries seeking to relate the Christian gospel to other cultures in effective and culturally sensitive ways. Many Intercultural Studies programs are offered at religious institutions as training for missionaries and religiously motivated international development workers, therefore include some training in theology and evangelism.
However, in an globalized world, the broader discipline attracts persons from many backgrounds with many different career goals. Both bachelor's and master's degrees are offered in the discipline; some of the main topics of study are: Anthropology and Sociology Culture Theory Development of cultural competence Analyzing cultural patterns around the world World Religions Gender Studies Strategies for adapting Intercultural communication Teaching social skills to reduce cultural misunderstandings Research methodology in order to produce academic works and increase access to a culture Linguistics Intercultural relationships Interethnic relationships Interracial relationships Interreligious relationships Developmental Model of Intercultural Sensitivity Cross-cultural Cultural assimilation Cultural diversity Ethnocentrism Intercultural competence Interculturality Metacommunicative competence Racial integration Transculturation Intercambio Intercultural Universities in Mexico Stories about Intercultural Experiences and Cultural Exchange Compiled by The Glimpse Foundation CICB Center of Intercultural Competence Articles on Intercultural Communication
The New York Times
The New York Times is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership. Founded in 1851, the paper has won more than any other newspaper; the Times is ranked 17th in the world by circulation and 2nd in the U. S; the paper is owned by The New York Times Company, publicly traded and is controlled by the Sulzberger family through a dual-class share structure. It has been owned by the family since 1896. G. Sulzberger, the paper's publisher, his father, Arthur Ochs Sulzberger Jr. the company's chairman, are the fourth and fifth generation of the family to helm the paper. Nicknamed "The Gray Lady", the Times has long been regarded within the industry as a national "newspaper of record"; the paper's motto, "All the News That's Fit to Print", appears in the upper left-hand corner of the front page. Since the mid-1970s, The New York Times has expanded its layout and organization, adding special weekly sections on various topics supplementing the regular news, editorials and features.
Since 2008, the Times has been organized into the following sections: News, Editorials/Opinions-Columns/Op-Ed, New York, Sports of The Times, Science, Home and other features. On Sunday, the Times is supplemented by the Sunday Review, The New York Times Book Review, The New York Times Magazine and T: The New York Times Style Magazine; the Times stayed with the broadsheet full-page set-up and an eight-column format for several years after most papers switched to six, was one of the last newspapers to adopt color photography on the front page. The New York Times was founded as the New-York Daily Times on September 18, 1851. Founded by journalist and politician Henry Jarvis Raymond and former banker George Jones, the Times was published by Raymond, Jones & Company. Early investors in the company included Edwin B. Morgan, Christopher Morgan, Edward B. Wesley. Sold for a penny, the inaugural edition attempted to address various speculations on its purpose and positions that preceded its release: We shall be Conservative, in all cases where we think Conservatism essential to the public good.
We do not believe that everything in Society is either right or wrong. In 1852, the newspaper started a western division, The Times of California, which arrived whenever a mail boat from New York docked in California. However, the effort failed. On September 14, 1857, the newspaper shortened its name to The New-York Times. On April 21, 1861, The New York Times began publishing a Sunday edition to offer daily coverage of the Civil War. One of the earliest public controversies it was involved with was the Mortara Affair, the subject of twenty editorials in the Times alone; the main office of The New York Times was attacked during the New York City Draft Riots. The riots, sparked by the beginning of drafting for the Union Army, began on July 13, 1863. On "Newspaper Row", across from City Hall, Henry Raymond stopped the rioters with Gatling guns, early machine guns, one of which he manned himself; the mob diverted, instead attacking the headquarters of abolitionist publisher Horace Greeley's New York Tribune until being forced to flee by the Brooklyn City Police, who had crossed the East River to help the Manhattan authorities.
In 1869, Henry Raymond died, George Jones took over as publisher. The newspaper's influence grew in 1870 and 1871, when it published a series of exposés on William Tweed, leader of the city's Democratic Party—popularly known as "Tammany Hall" —that led to the end of the Tweed Ring's domination of New York's City Hall. Tweed had offered The New York Times five million dollars to not publish the story. In the 1880s, The New York Times transitioned from supporting Republican Party candidates in its editorials to becoming more politically independent and analytical. In 1884, the paper supported Democrat Grover Cleveland in his first presidential campaign. While this move cost The New York Times a portion of its readership among its more progressive and Republican readers, the paper regained most of its lost ground within a few years. After George Jones died in 1891, Charles Ransom Miller and other New York Times editors raised $1 million dollars to buy the Times, printing it under the New York Times Publishing Company.
However, the newspaper was financially crippled by the Panic of 1893, by 1896, the newspaper had a circulation of less than 9,000, was losing $1,000 a day. That year, Adolph Ochs, the publisher of the Chattanooga Times, gained a controlling interest in the company for $75,000. Shortly after assuming control of the paper, Ochs coined the paper's slogan, "All The News That's Fit To Print"; the slogan has appeared in the paper since September 1896, has been printed in a box in the upper left hand corner of the front page since early 1897. The slogan was a jab at competing papers, such as Joseph Pulitzer's New York World and William Randolph Hearst's New York Journal, which were known for a lurid and inaccurate reporting of facts and opinions, described by the end of the century as "yellow journalism". Under Ochs' guidance, aided by Carr
Georges André Malraux DSO was a French novelist, art theorist and Minister of Cultural Affairs. Malraux's novel La Condition Humaine won the Prix Goncourt, he was appointed by President Charles de Gaulle as Minister of Information and subsequently as France's first Minister of Cultural Affairs during de Gaulle's presidency. Malraux was born in Paris in the son of Fernand-Georges Malraux and Berthe Félicie Lamy, his parents separated in 1905 and divorced. There are suggestions that Malraux's paternal grandfather committed suicide in 1909. Malraux was raised by his mother, maternal aunt Marie Lamy and maternal grandmother, Adrienne Lamy, who had a grocery store in the small town of Bondy, his father, a stockbroker, committed suicide in 1930 after the international crash of the stock market and onset of the Great Depression. From his childhood, associates noticed that André had marked vocal tics; the recent biographer Olivier Todd, who published a book on Malraux in 2005, suggests that he had Tourette syndrome, although that has not been confirmed.
Either way, most critics have not seen this as a significant factor in Malraux's life or literary works. The young Malraux left formal education early, but he followed his curiosity through the booksellers and museums in Paris, explored its rich libraries as well. Malraux's first published work, an article entitled "The Origins of Cubist Poetry", appeared in the magazine Action in 1920; this was followed in 1921 by three semi-surrealist tales, one of which, "Paper Moons", was illustrated by Fernand Léger. Malraux frequented the Parisian artistic and literary milieux of the period, meeting figures such as Demetrios Galanis, Max Jacob, François Mauriac, Guy de Pourtalès, André Salmon, Jean Cocteau, Raymond Radiguet, Florent Fels, Pascal Pia, Marcel Arland, Edmond Jaloux, Pierre Mac Orlan. In 1922, Malraux married Clara Goldschmidt. Malraux and his first wife separated in 1938 but didn't divorce until 1947, his daughter from this marriage, married the filmmaker Alain Resnais. By the age of twenty, Malraux was reading the work of the German philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche, to remain a major influence on him for the rest of his life.
Malraux was impressed with Nietzsche's theory of a world in continuous turmoil and his statement "that the individual himself is still the most recent creation", responsible for all of his actions. Most of all, Malraux embraced Nietzsche's theory of the Übermensch, the heroic, exalted man who would create great works of art and whose will would allow him to triumph over anything; the British Colonel T. E. Lawrence, aka "Lawrence of Arabia", holds a sinister reputation in France as the man, responsible for France's troubles in Syria in the 1920s. An exception was Malraux who regarded Lawrence as a role model, the intellectual-cum-man of action and the romantic, enigmatic hero. Malraux admitted to having a "certain fascination" with Lawrence, it has been suggested that Malraux's sudden decision to abandon the Surrealist literary scene in Paris for adventure in the Far East was prompted by a desire to emulate Lawrence who began his career as an archaeologist in the Ottoman Empire excavating the ruins of the ancient city of Carchemish in the vilayet of Aleppo in what is now modern Syria.
As Lawrence had first made his reputation in the Near East digging up the ruins of an ancient civilization, it was only natural that Malraux should go to the Far East to make his reputation in Asia digging up ancient ruins. Lawrence considered himself a writer first and foremost while presenting himself as a man of action, the Nietzschean hero who triumphs over both the environment and men through the force of his will, a persona that Malraux consciously imitated. Malraux wrote about Lawrence, whom he described admiringly as a man with a need for "the absolute", for whom no compromises were possible and for whom going all the way was the only way. Along the same lines, Malraux argued that Lawrence should not be remembered as a guerrilla leader in the Arab Revolt and the British liaison officer with the Emir Faisal, but rather as a romantic, lyrical writer as writing was Lawrence's first passion, which described Malraux well. Although Malraux courted fame through his novels and essays on art in combination with his adventures and political activism, he was an intensely shy and private man who kept to himself, maintaining a distance between himself and others.
Malraux's reticence led his first wife Clara to say she knew him during their marriage. In 1923, aged 22, Malraux and Clara left for the French Protectorate of Cambodia. Angkor Wat is a huge 12th century Hindu temple situated in the old capital of the Khmer empire. Angkor was "the world's largest urban settlement" in the 11th and 12th centuries supported by an elaborate network of canals and roads across mainland Southeast Asia before decaying and falling into the jungle; the rediscovery of the ruins of Angkor Wat in the jungle by the French explorer Henri Mouhot in 1861 had given Cambodia a romantic reputation in France, as the home of the vast, mysterious ruins of the Khmer empire. Upon reaching Cambodia, Malraux and friend Louis Chevasson undertook an expedition into unexplored areas of the former imperial settlements in search of hidden temples, hoping to find artifacts and items that could be sold to art collectors and museums. At about the same time archaeologists, with the approval of the French government, were removing large numbers of items from Angkor - many of which
Human interactions with insects
Human interactions with insects include both a wide variety of uses, whether practical such as for food and dyestuffs, or symbolic, as in art and literature, negative interactions including serious damage to crops and extensive efforts to eliminate insect pests. Academically, the interaction of insects and society has been treated in part as cultural entomology, dealing with "advanced" societies, in part as ethnoentomology, dealing with "primitive" societies, though the distinction is weak and not based on theory. Both academic disciplines explore the parallels and influence of insects on human populations, vice versa, they are rooted in anthropology and natural history, as well as the study of insects. Other cultural uses of insects, such as biomimicry, do not lie within these academic disciplines. More people make a wide range of uses of insects, both practical and symbolic. On the other hand, attitudes to insects are negative, extensive efforts are made to kill them; the widespread use of insecticides has failed to exterminate any insect pest, but has caused resistance to commonly-used chemicals in a thousand insect species.
Practical uses include as food, in medicine, for the valuable textile silk, for dyestuffs such as carmine, in science, where the fruit fly is an important model organism in genetics, in warfare, where insects were used in the Second World War to spread disease in enemy populations. One insect, the honey bee, provides honey, royal jelly, propolis and an anti-inflammatory peptide, melittin. Medical uses of insects include maggot therapy for wound debridement. Over a thousand protein families have been identified in the saliva of blood-feeding insects. Symbolic uses include roles in art, in music, in film, in literature, in religion, in mythology. Insect costumes are worn for parties and carnivals. Culture consists of the social behaviour and norms found in human societies and transmitted through social learning. Cultural universals in all human societies include expressive forms like art, dance, ritual and technologies like tool usage, cooking and clothing; the concept of material culture covers physical expressions such as technology and art, whereas immaterial culture includes principles of social organization, philosophy and science.
This article describes. Ethnoentomology developed from the 19th century with early works by authors such as Alfred Russel Wallace and Henry Walter Bates. Hans Zinsser's classic Rats and History showed that insects were an important force in human history. Writers like William Morton Wheeler, Maurice Maeterlinck, Jean Henri Fabre described insect life and communicated their meaning to people "with imagination and brilliance". Frederick Simon Bodenheimer's Insects as Human Food drew attention to the scope and potential of entomophagy, showed a positive aspect of insects. Food is the most studied topic in ethnoentomology, followed by medicine and beekeeping. In 1968, Erwin Schimitschek claimed cultural entomology as a branch of insect studies, in a review of the roles insects played in folklore and culture including religion, food and the arts. In 1984, Charles Hogue covered the field in English and from 1994 to 1997, Hogue's The Cultural Entomology Digest served as a forum on the field. Hogue argued that "Humans spend their intellectual energies in three basic areas of activity: surviving, using practical learning.
Entomology has long been concerned with survival and scientific study, but the branch of investigation that addresses the influence of insects in literature, music, the arts, interpretive history and recreation has only become recognized as a distinct field through Schimitschek's work. Hogue set out the boundaries of the field by saying: "The narrative history of the science of entomology is not part of cultural entomology, while the influence of insects on general history would be considered cultural entomology." He added: "Because the term "cultural" is narrowly defined, some aspects included in studies of human societies are excluded."Darrell Addison Posey, noting that the boundary between cultural entomology and ethnoentomology is difficult to draw, cites Hogue as limiting cultural entomology to the influence of insects on "the essence of humanity as expressed in the arts and humanities". Posey notes further that cultural anthropology is restricted to the study of "advanced", literate societies, whereas ethnoentomology studies "the entomological concerns of'primitive' or'noncivilized' societies".
Posey states at once. Brian Morris criticises the way that anthropologists treat non-Western attitudes to nature as monadic and spiritualist, contrast this "in gnostic fashion" with a simplistic treatment of Western 17th century, mechanistic attitude. Morris considers this "quite unhelpful, if not misleading", offers instead his own research into the multiple ways that the people of Malawi relate to insects and other animals: "pragma
Cultural diversity is the quality of diverse or different cultures, as opposed to monoculture, the global monoculture, or a homogenization of cultures, akin to cultural decay. The phrase cultural diversity can refer to having different cultures respect each other's differences; the phrase "cultural diversity" is sometimes used to mean the variety of human societies or cultures in a specific region, or in the world as a whole. Globalization is said to have a negative effect on the world's cultural diversity. Diversity refers to the attributes that people use to confirm themselves with respect to others, “that person is different from me.” These attributes include demographic factors as well as values and cultural norms. The many separate societies that emerged around the globe differs markedly from each other, many of these differences persist to this day; the more obvious cultural differences that exist between people are language and traditions, there are significant variations in the way societies organize themselves, such as in their shared conception of morality, religious belief, in the ways they interact with their environment.
Cultural diversity can be seen as analogous to biodiversity. By analogy with biodiversity, thought to be essential to the long-term survival of life on earth, it can be argued that cultural diversity may be vital for the long-term survival of humanity; the General Conference of UNESCO took this position in 2001, asserting in Article 1 of the Universal Declaration on Cultural Diversity that "...cultural diversity is as necessary for humankind as biodiversity is for nature."This position is rejected by some people, on several grounds. Firstly, like most evolutionary accounts of human nature, the importance of cultural diversity for survival may be an un-testable hypothesis, which can neither be proved nor disproved. Secondly, it can be argued that it is unethical deliberately to conserve "less developed" societies, because this will deny people within those societies the benefits of technological and medical advances enjoyed by those in the "developed" world. In the same manner that the promotion of poverty in underdeveloped nations as "cultural diversity" is unethical.
It is unethical to promote all religious practices because they are seen to contribute to cultural diversity. Particular religious practices are recognized by the WHO and UN as unethical, including female genital mutilation, child brides, human sacrifice. With the onset of globalization, traditional nation-states have been placed under enormous pressures. Today, with the development of technology and capital are transcending geographical boundaries and reshaping the relationships between the marketplace and citizens. In particular, the growth of the mass media industry has impacted on individuals and societies across the globe. Although beneficial in some ways, this increased accessibility has the capacity to negatively affect a society's individuality. With information being so distributed throughout the world, cultural meanings and tastes run the risk of becoming homogenized; as a result, the strength of identity of individuals and societies may begin to weaken. Some individuals those with strong religious beliefs, maintain that it is in the best interests of individuals and of humanity as a whole that all people adhere to a specific model for society or specific aspects of such a model.
Nowadays, communication between different countries becomes more frequent. And more and more students choose to study overseas for experiencing culture diversity, their goal is to develop themselves from learning overseas. For example, according to Fengling, Chen, Du Yanjun, Yu Ma's paper "Academic Freedom in the People's Republic of China and the United States Of America.", they pointed out that Chinese education more focus on "traditionally, teaching has consisted of spoon feeding, learning has been by rote. China's traditional system of education has sought to make students accept fixed and ossified content." And "In the classroom, Chinese professors are the authorities. On another hand, in United States of America education "American students treat college professors as equals." "American students' are encouraged to debate topics. The free open discussion on various topics is due to the academic freedom which most American colleges and universities enjoy." Discussion above gives us an overall idea about the differences between China and the United States on education.
But we cannot judge which one is better, because each culture has its own advantages and features. Thanks to those difference forms those make our world more colorful. For students who go abroad for education, if they can combine positive culture elements from two different cultures to their self-development, it would be a competitive advantage in their whole career. With current process of global economics, people who owned different perspectives on cultures stand at a more competitive position in current world. Cultural diversity is difficult to quantify, but a good indication is thought to be a count of the number of languages spoken in a region or in the world as a whole. By this measure we may be going through a period of precipitous decline in the world's cultural diversity. Research carried out in the 1990s by David Crystal suggested that at that time, on average, one language was f
Cultural anthropology is a branch of anthropology focused on the study of cultural variation among humans. It is in contrast to social anthropology, which perceives cultural variation as a subset of the anthropological constant. Cultural anthropology has a rich methodology, including participant observation and surveys. One of the earliest articulations of the anthropological meaning of the term "culture" came from Sir Edward Tylor who writes on the first page of his 1871 book: "Culture, or civilization, taken in its broad, ethnographic sense, is that complex whole which includes knowledge, art, law and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society." The term "civilization" gave way to definitions given by V. Gordon Childe, with culture forming an umbrella term and civilization becoming a particular kind of culture; the anthropological concept of "culture" reflects in part a reaction against earlier Western discourses based on an opposition between "culture" and "nature", according to which some human beings lived in a "state of nature".
Anthropologists have argued that culture is "human nature", that all people have a capacity to classify experiences, encode classifications symbolically, teach such abstractions to others. Since humans acquire culture through the learning processes of enculturation and socialization, people living in different places or different circumstances develop different cultures. Anthropologists have pointed out that through culture people can adapt to their environment in non-genetic ways, so people living in different environments will have different cultures. Much of anthropological theory has originated in an appreciation of and interest in the tension between the local and the global; the rise of cultural anthropology took place within the context of the late 19th century, when questions regarding which cultures were "primitive" and which were "civilized" occupied the minds of not only Marx and Freud, but many others. Colonialism and its processes brought European thinkers into direct or indirect contact with "primitive others."
The relative status of various humans, some of whom had modern advanced technologies that included engines and telegraphs, while others lacked anything but face-to-face communication techniques and still lived a Paleolithic lifestyle, was of interest to the first generation of cultural anthropologists. Parallel with the rise of cultural anthropology in the United States, social anthropology, in which sociality is the central concept and which focuses on the study of social statuses and roles, groups and the relations among them—developed as an academic discipline in Britain and in France; the umbrella term socio-cultural anthropology draws upon both cultural and social anthropology traditions. Anthropology is concerned with the lives of people in different parts of the world in relation to the discourse of beliefs and practices. In addressing this question, ethnologists in the 19th century divided into two schools of thought. Some, like Grafton Elliot Smith, argued that different groups must have learned from one another somehow, however indirectly.
Other ethnologists argued that different groups had the capability of creating similar beliefs and practices independently. Some of those who advocated "independent invention", like Lewis Henry Morgan, additionally supposed that similarities meant that different groups had passed through the same stages of cultural evolution. Morgan, in particular, acknowledged that certain forms of society and culture could not have arisen before others. For example, industrial farming could not have been invented before simple farming, metallurgy could not have developed without previous non-smelting processes involving metals. Morgan, like other 19th century social evolutionists, believed there was a more or less orderly progression from the primitive to the civilized. 20th-century anthropologists reject the notion that all human societies must pass through the same stages in the same order, on the grounds that such a notion does not fit the empirical facts. Some 20th-century ethnologists, like Julian Steward, have instead argued that such similarities reflected similar adaptations to similar environments.
Although 19th-century ethnologists saw "diffusion" and "independent invention" as mutually exclusive and competing theories, most ethnographers reached a consensus that both processes occur, that both can plausibly account for cross-cultural similarities. But these ethnographers pointed out the superficiality of many such similarities, they noted that traits that spread through diffusion were given different meanings and function from one society to another. Analyses of large human concentrations in big cities, in multidisciplinary studies by Ronald Daus, show how new methods may be applied to the understanding of man living in a global world and how it was caused by the action of extra-European nations, so highlighting the role of Ethics in modern anthropology. Accordingly, most of these anthropologists showed less interest in comparing cultures, generalizing about human nature, or discovering universal laws of cultural development, than in understanding particular cultures in those cultures' own terms.
Such ethnographers and their students promoted the idea of "cultural relativi
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti