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Cultural memory

Because memory is not just an individual, private experience but is part of the collective domain, cultural memory has become a topic in both historiography and cultural studies. These emphasize its implications and objects, respectively. Two schools of thought have emerged, one articulates that the present shapes our understanding of the past; the other assumes. It has, been pointed out that these two approaches are not mutually exclusive. Crucial in understanding cultural memory as a phenomenon is the distinction between memory and history. Pierre Nora put forward this distinction, pinpointing a niche in-between memory. Scholars disagree as to when to locate the moment representation "took over". Nora points to the formation of European nation states. For Richard Terdiman, the French revolution is the breaking point: the change of a political system, together with the emergence of industrialization and urbanization, made life more complex than before; this not only resulted in an increasing difficulty for people to understand the new society in which they were living, but as this break was so radical, people had trouble relating to the past before the revolution.

In this situation, people no longer had an implicit understanding of their past. In order to understand the past, it had to be represented through history; as people realized that history was only one version of the past, they became more and more concerned with their own cultural heritage which helped them shape a collective and national identity. In search for an identity to bind a country or people together, governments have constructed collective memories in the form of commemorations which should bring and keep together minority groups and individuals with conflicting agendas. What becomes clear is that the obsession with memory coincides with the fear of forgetting and the aim for authenticity. However, more questions have arisen whether there was a time in which "pure", non-representational memory existed – as Nora in particular put forward. Scholars like Tony Bennett rightly point out that representation is a crucial precondition for human perception in general: pure and objective memories can never be witnessed as such.

It is because of a sometimes too contracted conception of memory as just a temporal phenomenon, that the concept of cultural memory has been exposed to misunderstanding. Nora pioneered connecting memory to physical, tangible locations, nowadays globally known and incorporated as lieux de mémoire, he certifies these in his work as mises en abîme. Although he concentrates on a spatial approach to remembrance, Nora points out in his early historiographical theories that memory goes beyond just tangible and visual aspects, thereby making it flexible and in flux; this rather problematic notion characterized by Terdiman as the "omnipresence" of memory, implies that for instance on a sensory level, a smell or a sound can become of cultural value, due to its commemorative effect. Either in visualized or abstracted form, one of the largest complications of memorializing our past is the inevitable fact that it is absent; every memory we try to reproduce becomes – as Terdiman states – a "present past".

This impractical desire for recalling what is gone forever brings to surface a feeling of nostalgia, noticeable in many aspects of daily life but most in cultural products. Interest has developed in the area of'embodied memory'. According to Paul Connerton the body can be seen as a container, or carrier of memory, of two different types of social practice; the former includes all activities which are helpful for storing and retrieving information: photographing, taping, etc. The latter implies skilled performances which are sent by means of physical activity, like a spoken word or a handshake; these performances are accomplished by the individual in an unconscious manner, one might suggest that this memory carried in gestures and habits, is more authentic than'indirect' memory via inscribing. The first conceptions of embodied memory, in which the past is'situated' in the body of the individual, derive from late nineteenth century thoughts of evolutionists like Jean Baptiste Lamarck and Ernst Haeckel.

Lamarck’s law of inheritance of acquired characteristics and Haeckel's theory of ontogeny recapitulating phylogeny, suggested that the individual is a summation of the whole history that had preceded him or her. Memory can, for instance, be contained in objects. Souvenirs and photographs inhabit an important place in the cultural memory discourse. Several authors stress the fact that the relationship between memory and objects has changed since the nineteenth century. Stewart, for example, claims that our culture has changed from a culture of production to a culture of consumption. Products, according to Terdiman, have lost'the memory of their own process' now, in times of mass-production and commodification. At the same time, he claims, the connection between memories and objects has been institutionalized and exploited in the form of trade in souvenirs; these specific objects can refer to either a distant place. Stewart explains how our souvenirs authenticate our experiences and how they are a survival sign of events that exist only through the invention of narrative.

This notion can be applied to another practice that has a specific re

The Brussels Journal

The Brussels Journal is a conservative blog, founded by the Flemish journalist Paul Beliën. It is named as one of the Counter-jihad movement's main channels, it was founded in 2005, has both an English language section with various international contributions, a Dutch section. The Brussels Journal bills itself as a member of the OpinionJournal Federation but does not appear among the list of members on OpinionJournal's own site, it is published by the Society for the Advancement of Freedom in Europe, a Swiss non-profit organisation. Paul Beliën's wife, Alexandra Colen, was a parliamentary member of Vlaams Belang. However, Beliën himself has been at odds with the party at times, criticizing the party for its populism. However, Beliën has since been employed as an advisor by Geert Wilders, leader of the Dutch, right-wing Party for Freedom. According to the Brussels Journal, it is a nonpartisan publication, most of its writers, both Belgian and non-Belgian, have no affiliation to any political party or organization.

According to an article in the Wall Street Journal by Bret Stephens, after a 17-year-old Belgian boy, Joe Van Holsbeeck, was murdered by romani from Poland, Paul Beliën wrote an article calling for the decriminalization of the possession of "self-defense weapons." The article was titled "Geef ons Wapens!". The government anti-discrimination agency Center for Equal Opportunities and Opposition to Racism claimed the article constituted incitement to violence and warned that unless it was removed, the blog would face state prosecution, although the words Muslim or Islam were not used in the article and the following sentence, by some claimed to be a "quote" was not in the article: Muslims are predators that have learned from childhood during the yearly feast of the sacrifice how to slaughter warm herd animals. Beliën removed the article; the article has been noted as an important event in the development of a harsher climate towards immigrants in Belgium. The incident caused the site to shift to English-centric in order to be able to present future such cases to the international media.

In June, Belgian police summoned Beliën for questioning regarding several articles, he wrote for the Brussels Journal. According to Beliën the police continued to invite him in for questioning. On 27 July 2011 Belgian media reported that the Belgian security agencies will ask the federal prosecutor to open a case file investigating relations between The Brussels Journal and Anders Behring Breivik, the confessed perpetrator of the 2011 Norway attacks; the security agencies would want clarity about a number of articles that have been published on the web site, that are part of 2083: A European Declaration of Independence, Breivik's manifesto. The Brussels Journal was the first news and opinion site to cover the Jyllands-Posten Muhammad cartoons controversy in English, bringing it to the attention to US bloggers, including Michelle Malkin, the mainstream media; the Brussels Journal republished the cartoons. This action was called a "deliberate provocation by the neocons," by an editorial in the Dutch language Knack magazine.

According to Knack, Brussels Journal's aim was to "make Americans and Europeans believe that all Muslims are violent and dangerous, after which the clash in Palestine and Syria can kick off." The Brussels Journal has featured contributions by Diana West, Daniel Hannan, John Laughland, Tiberge, Koenraad Elst, Takuan Seiyo, Jos Verhulst, Matthias Storme among others. The Brussels Journal OpinionJournal Federation Interview with Seiyo on


Otocky is a video game released in 1987 for the Family Computer Disk System in Japan. Developed by SEDIC and published by ASCII Corporation, the game was conceived and designed by Toshio Iwai. Natsuki Ozawa endorsed the game. Otocky can be described; the player's spaceship has a ball for a weapon. The note plays when the player presses the fire button, is quantized in time so that it matches the beat playing in the background. By using the weapon selectively the player can improvise music while playing; the ball is used to destroy enemies by touching them, to catch various types of objects: Musical Notes which must be collected to finish the level Letter'A's which change the musical instrument sound produced by the ball Letter'B's which provide a secondary weaponThe ball gets smaller when the player is touched by an enemy, until the player loses a life. Completing a certain number of levels unlocks a music editor which makes it possible for the player to compose their own melodies. Otocky is notable for being one of the first games that include creative/procedural generative music.

Otocky is a precursor of Rez, Tetsuya Mizuguchi's 2002 Dreamcast and PlayStation 2 game exploring similar themes of player action and musical evolution. Jake Kazdal, the only North-American member of United Game Artists, has confirmed that while the team did become acquainted with the Disk System game during the process of creating Rez, it has not been much of an influence in fact. List of Family Computer Disk System games Sound Fantasy SimTunes Electroplankton Rez HardcoreGaming 101 Otocky Page Otocky at MobyGames

James Yorke (bishop)

James Yorke was a British clergyman. Yorke was the son of 1st Earl of Hardwicke and Margaret Cocks, he was educated at Newcome's School, proceeding in 1748 to Cambridge. Yorke served as Rector of Great Horkesley, Essex, 1754–1756. In 1756 he was appointed Canon of the tenth stall at St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle, a position he held until 1762, he was Dean of Lincoln 1762–1781, Bishop of St David's from 1774 to 1779, Bishop of Gloucester from 1779 to 1781 and Bishop of Ely from 1781 to 1808. On 29 June 1762, Yorke married daughter of Isaac Maddox, the Bishop of Worcester, they had several children, including: Joseph Yorke, married Catherine Cocks, niece of Charles Cocks, 1st Baron Somers, became father of Joseph Yorke, politician Rev. Philip Yorke, married Hon. Anna Maria Cocks, daughter of the 1st Baron Somers, became father of Philip James Yorke and scientistHe was buried at Forthampton, Gloucestershire. "thePeerage". Retrieved 2008-09-25

Manila Industrial and Commercial Athletic Association

The Manila Industrial and Commercial Athletic Association was a sports association which existed in Manila, Philippines from 1938 to 1981. Throughout its existence, it staged various sports and was participated by prominent Philippine companies. After World War II, its basketball tournament became the country's premier basketball league until 1975, when nine of its members broke away to form the first professional basketball league in Asia, the Philippine Basketball Association. Afterwards, it would continue as a farm league of sorts for the PBA until the league closed down before the end of 1981. Old records says the pre-war MICAA champions were the Manila Ports Terminal; the Terminal would win three straight titles a decade from 1948–1950. The MICAA champion a year before was Olympic Sporting Goods. Philippine Airlines was the MICAA champion in 1951-52. In 1952, the Skymasters beat San Miguel Brewery for the title. PRISCO became champions in 1953–54; the All-Stars defeated YCO Redshirts for the 1953 MICAA title.

The YCO Redshirts won its first MICAA title in 1954 under coach Leo Prieto, winning against Republic Supermarket in the finale. In 1955, 7-UP Bottlers won their first championship on their maiden year, defeating San Miguel Brewery. YCO captured two titles in 1956-57. On July 27, 1957, the Redshirts beat 7-UP in the finale for their third championship in the last four years; the Ysmael Steel Admirals won the MICAA crown in 1958. In 1959, the Chelsea Clippers under coach Mateo Adao, defeated the YCO Painters to win their first championship. 1960s and the YCO-Ysmael rivalry: The YCO Painters and the Ysmael Steel Admirals battled against each other for cage supremacy in the 1960s era. YCO won over Ysmael in 1960, 1963 and 1964, while the Admirals defeated the Painters in 1961, winning the title by default after the Painters refuses to play in the third game of their best-of-three series. Ysmael repeated over YCO the following year in 1962 to retain the title. Ysmael regains the MICAA championship in 1965.

The Admirals beat old rival YCO Painters for the title in 1966 and won their third straight crown in 1967. In 1968, Mariwasa Akai won the crown, under coach Lauro Mumar, becoming the second team to win the title in their first season in the league; the following year in 1969, Mariwasa retains the MICAA crown. Champions from 1970 to 1981: 1970: The Crispa-Floro Redmanizers dethroned Mariwasa in the finals; the Redmanizers won the National Open crown earlier in the year and in the MICAA tournament, went undefeated with a 13-game win streak to capture their first title. 1971 All-Filipino: The Redmanizers began a new rivalry with the MERALCO Reddy Kilowatts, with coach Lauro Mumar moving from Mariwasa to MERALCO and taking over from Tito Eduque. In the 1971 All-Filipino finals, Crispa-Floro won their third straight title, defeating San Miguel Braves. 1971 Open: On July 11, 1971, MERALCO Reddy Kilowatts beats Crispa Redmanizers, 65-58, to rule the MICAA Open championship. 1972 Open: Mariwasa Akai won their third title in the last five years.

The Recorders beat Crispa-Floro via two-game sweep in the championship series. Mariwasa coach Tito Eduque won his fourth MICAA title, first winning it with YCO in 1964 and with Ysmael in 1966-1967. 1972 All-Filipino: Crispa-Floro Redmanizers retains the All-Filipino crown, repeating over San Miguel Brewery in a finals rematch as the Braves just could not crack a MICAA title and were runner-up for the fourth time in their franchise history. 1973 All-Filipino: Mariwasa Akai wins the All-Filipino crown, defeating the highly-favored Crispa Redmanizers. The title series was best known for the Crispa six scandal where six Redmanizers - Jun Papa, Danny Florencio, Rey Alcantara, Rudolf Kutch, Virgilio Abarrientos and Ernesto de Leon, cut down their usual point output and the players' admission of their participation in the syndicate's bid to "manipulate" the result of the Mariwasa-Crispa first game of the MICAA finals. 1973: The Toyota Comets, playing with the reinstated Robert Jaworski and Alberto "Big Boy" Reynoso, captured their first MICAA crown, winning over Concepcion Motorolas in "cinderella fashion".

The Comets played as Komatsu Komets in the National Open and Panamin basketball tournament. 1974: The Crispa-Floro Redmanizers won their fourth MICAA title and regains the All-Filipino crown with a 2-0 series victory over defending champion Toyota Comets in their best-of-three playoffs. The Redmanizers clinched the title in Game two, 103-99 on October 15. Crispa-Floro was supposed to face U/Tex in the finals, but Toyota filed a protest that resulted to a scheduled replay. U/Tex lost by forfeiture; this was the first-ever Crispa-Toyota finals meeting and the last MICAA championship before the professional Philippine Basketball Association was born. 1975: The YCO Painters, under coach Ed Ocampo ended a long, title-drought, winning over Manilabank to capture the crown. 1976: Manilabank wins its first MICAA title, defeating the YCO Painters. 1977: Crown Motors defeated Solid Mills for their first championship. 1977: ITM won the invitational tournament in the year by defeating Crown Motors. 1978: Solid Mills scored a 2-1 finals series victory over YCO Painters, winning the deciding third game for their first championship.

1979: YCO Painters defeated Frigidaire in the third and final game of their best-of-three series as the Painters were once again champions after a four-year title drought. 1980: Multi-titled coach Arturo Valenzona won another championship in leading the APCOR Financiers to a 2-1 series win over YCO Pai


Kohekohe known as "Vanessa's Sneeze Leaf", is a medium-sized tree native to New Zealand. It is found in lowland and coastal forests throughout most of the North Island and occurs in the Marlborough Sounds in the north of the South Island. Mature trees grow up with a trunk up to a metre in diameter. Kohekohe forest used to be common in damp coastal and lowland areas in the North Island, but these forests have disappeared because the land was used for settlement or they were browsed by possums. A close relative of true mahogany, it is called New Zealand mahogany, because its wood is light and polishes to a fine red colour. Kohekohe is notable for having characteristics associated with trees growing in the tropics, for example, its white flowers and red fruit grow directly from the trunk or branches, it has large, pinnate leaves up to 40mm in length. Māori drank it as a tonic; the wood was used for building canoes but is soft and not as durable as other woods and tends to rot quickly. It is valued for carving.

Kohekohe was the dominant vegetation cover on Kapiti Island before it was cleared in the early 19th century for cultivation and farming. The kohekohe forest on Kapiti is recovering after possums were eradicated in 1986. Maori uses: Medicinal plants, Trees & Shrubs: Kohekohe, Dysoxylum at the Wayback Machine