A Prairie Home Companion
A Prairie Home Companion is a weekly radio variety show created and hosted by Garrison Keillor that aired live from 1974 to 2016. In 2016, musician Chris Thile took over as host, the successor show was renamed Live from Here. A Prairie Home Companion aired on Saturdays from the Fitzgerald Theater in Minnesota. S. cities. The show is known for its musical guests folk and traditional musicians, tongue-in-cheek radio drama, relaxed humor. Keillor's wry storytelling segment, "News from Lake Wobegon," was the show's best-known feature during his long tenure. Distributed by Minnesota Public Radio's distribution arm, American Public Media, A Prairie Home Companion was heard on 690 public radio stations in the United States at its peak in spring 2015 and reached an audience of four million U. S. listeners each week. The show borrowed its name from a radio program in existence in 1969, named after the Prairie Home Cemetery near Concordia College, in Moorhead, Minnesota, it inspired a 2006 film of the same name, written by Keillor, directed by Robert Altman, featuring Keillor, Kevin Kline, Lily Tomlin, Meryl Streep, Lindsay Lohan.
The Saturday-evening show was a partial spin-off of A Prairie Home Morning Show with Keillor and Tom Keith, which ran from 6 to 9 a.m. on Minnesota Public Radio and was continued by Keith and Dale Connelly for many years as The Morning Show. After researching the Grand Ole Opry for an article, Keillor became interested in doing a variety show on the radio. On July 6, 1974, the first live broadcast of A Prairie Home Companion took place; that show was broadcast from St. Paul in the Janet Wallace Auditorium of Macalester College. Twelve audience members turned out children; the second episode featured the first performance on the show by Butch Thompson, who became house pianist. Thompson stayed with the program until 1986 and still performs on the show. In 1978, the show moved into the World Theater in St. Paul, which Minnesota Public Radio purchased and renovated in 1986 and renamed the Fitzgerald Theater in 1994; this is the same venue. The show went off the air in 1987, with a "final performance" on June 13, Keillor married and spent some time abroad during the following two years.
For a brief time, the show was replaced—both on the air and in the World Theater—by Good Evening, hosted by Noah Adams, a live variety show designed by ex-Prairie Home and All Things Considered staffers to retain the audience Keillor had cultivated over the years. However, many stations opted instead to continue APHC repeats in its traditional Saturday time slot. In 1989, Keillor returned to radio with The American Radio Company of the Air, broadcast from the Brooklyn Academy of Music; the new program featured a broadly similar format to A Prairie Home Companion, with sketches and musical guests reflecting a more New York sensibility, rather than the country and folk music predominant in APHC. While Keillor sang and delivered a regular monologue on American Radio Company, Lake Wobegon was downplayed, as he felt it was "cruel" to talk to a Brooklyn audience about life in a small town. During this period, Keillor revived the full APHC format only for "annual farewell performances." In the fall of 1992, Keillor returned to the World Theater with ARC for the majority of the season, with Lake Wobegon and other APHC elements but unmistakably returning to prominence.
The following year, on October 2, 1993, the program reverted to the A Prairie Home Companion name and format. While many of the episodes originated from St. Paul, the show traveled to other cities around the U. S. and overseas for its live weekly broadcasts. Common road venues included The Town Hall in New York City, it broadcast a show each year from the Minnesota State Fair. The show was distributed nationally by Minnesota Public Radio in association with Public Radio International, its distributor was Minnesota Public Radio's distribution unit, American Public Media. Singer Sara Watkins of San Diego, California hosted the January 2011, broadcast; the format was the same, but Keillor appeared only as a guest actor and to deliver the News from Lake Wobegon. He claimed, it was reported that this could be the beginning of a trend toward Keillor's eventual retirement, on March 16, 2011, Keillor stated in an interview with the AARP that he would most retire from the show by the time he turned 70 in August 2012.
On January 29, 2011, Erica Rhodes expressed frustration over not being picked to guest host. In September 2011, Keillor told The Tuscaloosa News that his last broadcast would be recorded in "early July 2013", that instead of a permanent replacement host, there will be "a whole group of people. A rotation of hosts", but in December 2011 Keillor said he had changed his mind and reconsidered his plans to retire because he still enjoyed hosting the show. On February 7 and 14, 2015, mandolinist Chris Thile hosted the show; as when Watkins hosted, the format remained unchanged, but Keillor did not make an appearance. Instead, storyteller Tristan Jimerson appeared on the February 7 show and comedienne/storyteller Elna Baker on the February 14 show. Thile's band Punch Brothers performed on the February 7 show. Thile was named permanent host of the show in late June 2015. Keil
Blueberries are perennial flowering plants with blue– or purple–colored berries. They are classified in the section Cyanococcus within the genus Vaccinium. Vaccinium includes cranberries and huckleberries. Commercial "blueberries" – including both wild and cultivated blueberries – are all native to North America; the highbush blueberry varieties were introduced into Europe during the 1930s. Blueberries are prostrate shrubs that can vary in size from 10 centimeters to 4 meters in height. In commercial production of blueberries, the species with small, pea–size berries growing on low–level bushes are known as "lowbush blueberries", while the species with larger berries growing on taller cultivated bushes are known as "highbush blueberries"; the leaves can be either deciduous or evergreen, ovate to lanceolate, 1–8 cm long and 0.5–3.5 cm broad. The flowers are bell-shaped, pale pink or red, sometimes tinged greenish; the fruit is a berry 5–16 millimeters in diameter with a flared crown at the end. They are covered in a protective coating of powdery epicuticular wax, colloquially known as the "bloom".
They have a sweet taste, with variable acidity. Blueberry bushes bear fruit in the middle of the growing season: fruiting times are affected by local conditions such as altitude and latitude, so the peak of the crop, in the northern hemisphere, can vary from May to August; the genus Vaccinium has a circumpolar distribution, with species being present in North America and Asia. Many commercially sold species with English common names including "blueberry" are from North America. Many North American native species of blueberries are grown commercially in the Southern Hemisphere in Australia, New Zealand and South American nations. Several other wild shrubs of the genus Vaccinium produce eaten blue berries, such as the predominantly European Vaccinium myrtillus and other bilberries, which in many languages have a name that translates to "blueberry" in English. See the Identification section for more information. Note: habitat and range summaries are from the Flora of New Brunswick, published in 1986 by Harold R. Hinds, Plants of the Pacific Northwest coast, published in 1994 by Pojar and MacKinnon.
Some other blue-fruited species of Vaccinium: Vaccinium koreanum Vaccinium myrtillus Vaccinium uliginosum Commercially offered blueberries are from species that occur only in eastern and north-central North America. Other sections in the genus, native to other parts of the world, including the Pacific Northwest and southern United States, South America and Asia, include other wild shrubs producing similar-looking edible berries, such as huckleberries and whortleberries and bilberries; these species are sometimes sold as blueberry jam or other products. The names of blueberries in languages other than English translate as "blueberry", e.g. Scots blaeberry and Norwegian blåbær. Blaeberry, blåbær and French myrtilles refer to the European native bilberry, while bleuets refers to the North American blueberry. Russian голубика does not refer to blueberries, which are non-native and nearly unknown in Russia, but rather to their close relatives, bog bilberries. Cyanococcus blueberries can be distinguished from the nearly identical-looking bilberries by their flesh color when cut in half.
Ripe blueberries have light green flesh, while bilberries and huckleberries are red or purple throughout. Blueberries are sold fresh or are processed as individually quick frozen fruit, purée, juice, or dried or infused berries; these may be used in a variety of consumer goods, such as jellies, blueberry pies, snack foods, or as an additive to breakfast cereals. Blueberry jam is made from blueberries, sugar and fruit pectin. Blueberry sauce is a sweet sauce prepared using blueberries as a primary ingredient. Blueberry wine is made from the flesh and skin of the berry, fermented and matured. Blueberries consist of 84 % water, they contain only negligible amounts of micronutrients, with moderate levels of the essential dietary mineral manganese, vitamin C, vitamin K and dietary fiber. Nutrient contents of blueberries are a low percentage of the DV. One serving provides a low caloric value of 57 kcal per 100 g serving and glycemic load score of 6 out of 100 per day. Blueberries contain anthocyanins, other polyphenols and various phytochemicals under preliminary research for their potential role in the human body.
Most polyphenol studies have been conducted using the highbush cultivar of blueberries, while content of polyphenols and anthocyanins in lowbush blueberries exceeds values found in highbush cultivars. Blueberries may be cultivated. In North America, the most common cultivated species is V. corymbosum, the northern highbush blueberry. Hybrids of this with other Vaccinium species adapted to southern U. S. climates are known collectively as southern highbush blueberries. So-called "wild" blueberries, smaller than cultivated highbush ones, have intense color; the lowbush blueberry, V. angustifolium, is found from the Atlantic provinces westward to Quebec and southward to Michigan and West Virginia. In some areas, it produces natural
Trout is the common name for a number of species of freshwater fish belonging to the genera Oncorhynchus and Salvelinus, all of the subfamily Salmoninae of the family Salmonidae. The word trout is used as part of the name of some non-salmonid fish such as Cynoscion nebulosus, the spotted seatrout or speckled trout. Trout are related to salmon and char: species termed salmon and char occur in the same genera as do fish called trout. Lake trout and most other trout live in freshwater lakes and rivers while there are others, such as the steelhead, which can spend two or three years at sea before returning to fresh water to spawn. Steelhead that live out their lives in fresh water are called rainbow trout. Arctic char and brook trout are part of the char family. Trout are an important food source for humans and wildlife, including brown bears, birds of prey such as eagles, other animals, they are classified as oily fish. The name'trout' is used for some species in three of the seven genera in the subfamily Salmoninae: Salmo, Atlantic species.
Fish referred to as trout include: Genus Salmo Adriatic trout, Salmo obtusirostris Brown trout, Salmo trutta River trout, S. t. morpha fario Lake trout/Lacustrine trout, S. t. morpha lacustris Sea trout, S. t. morpha trutta Flathead trout, Salmo platycephalus Marble trout, Soca River trout or Soča trout – Salmo marmoratus Ohrid trout, Salmo letnica, S. balcanicus, S. lumi, S. aphelios Sevan trout, Salmo ischchan Genus Oncorhynchus Biwa trout, Oncorhynchus masou rhodurus Cutthroat trout, Oncorhynchus clarki Coastal cutthroat trout, O. c. clarki Crescenti trout, O. c. c. f. crescenti Alvord cutthroat trout O. c. alvordensis Bonneville cutthroat trout O. c. utah Humboldt cutthroat trout O. c. humboldtensis Lahontan cutthroat trout O. c. henshawi Whitehorse Basin cutthroat trout Paiute cutthroat trout O. c. seleniris Snake River fine-spotted cutthroat trout, O. c. behnkei Westslope cutthroat trout O. c. lewisi Yellowfin cutthroat trout O. c. macdonaldi Yellowstone cutthroat trout O. c. bouvieri Colorado River cutthroat trout O. c. pleuriticus Greenback cutthroat trout O. c. stomias Rio Grande cutthroat trout O. c. virginalis Oncorhynchus gilae Gila trout, O. g. gilae Apache trout, O. g. apache Rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss Kamchatkan rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss mykiss Columbia River redband trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss gairdneri Coastal rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss irideus Beardslee trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss irideus var. beardsleei Great Basin redband trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss newberrii Golden trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss aguabonita Kern River rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss aguabonita var. gilberti Sacramento golden trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss aguabonita var. stonei Little Kern golden trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss aguabonita var. whitei Kamloops rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss kamloops Baja California rainbow trout, Nelson's trout, or San Pedro Martir trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss nelsoni Eagle Lake trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss aquilarum McCloud River redband trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss stonei Sheepheaven Creek redband trout Mexican golden trout, Oncorhynchus chrysogaster Genus Salvelinus Brook trout, Salvelinus fontinalis Aurora trout, S. f. timagamiensis Bull trout, Salvelinus confluentus Dolly Varden trout, Salvelinus malma Lake trout, Salvelinus namaycush Silver trout, † Salvelinus agassizi Hybrids Tiger trout, Salmo trutta X Salvelinus fontinalis Speckled Lake trout, Salvelinus namaycush X Salvelinus fontinalis Trout that live in different environments can have different colorations and patterns.
These colors and patterns form as camouflage, based on the surroundings, will change as the fish moves to different habitats. Trout in, or newly returned from the sea, can look silvery, while the same fish living in a small stream or in an alpine lake could have pronounced markings and more vivid coloration. In general trout that are about to breed have intense coloration, they can look like an different fish outside of spawning season. It is impossible to define a particular color pattern as belonging to a specific breed. Trout have fins without spines, all of them have a small adipose fin along the back, near the tail; the pelvic fins sit well back on each side of the anus. The swim bladder is connected to the esophagus, allowing for gulping or rapid expulsion of air, a condition known as physostome. Unlike many other physostome fish, trout do not use their bladder as an auxiliary device for oxygen uptake, relying on their gills. There are many species, more populations, that are isolated from each other and morphologically different.
However, since many of these distinct populations show no significant genetic differences, what may appear to be a large number of species is considered a much smaller number of distinct species by most ichthyologists. The trout found in the eastern United States are a good example of this; the brook trout, the aurora trout, the silver trout all have physical characteristics and colorations that distinguish them, yet genetic analysis shows that they are one species, Salvelinus fontinalis. Lake trout, like brook trout, belong to the char genus. Lake trout inhabit many of the larger lakes in North America, live m
The raspberry is the edible fruit of a multitude of plant species in the genus Rubus of the rose family, most of which are in the subgenus Idaeobatus. Raspberries are perennial with woody stems. Raspberry derives its name from raspise, "a sweet rose-colored wine", from the Anglo-Latin vinum raspeys, or from raspoie, meaning "thicket", of Germanic origin; the name may have been influenced by its appearance as having a rough surface related to Old English rasp or "rough berry". Examples of raspberry species in Rubus subgenus Idaeobatus include: Rubus crataegifolius Rubus gunnianus Rubus idaeus Rubus leucodermis Rubus occidentalis Rubus parvifolius Rubus phoenicolasius Rubus rosifolius Rubus strigosus Rubus ellipticus Several species of Rubus called raspberries, are classified in other subgenera, including: Rubus deliciosus Rubus odoratus Rubus nivalis Rubus arcticus Rubus sieboldii Various kinds of raspberries can be cultivated from hardiness zones 3 to 9. Raspberries are traditionally planted in the winter as dormant canes, although planting of tender, plug plants produced by tissue culture has become much more common.
A specialized production system called "long cane production" involves growing canes for a year in a northern climate such as Scotland or Oregon or Washington, where the chilling requirement for proper bud break is attained, or attained earlier than the ultimate place of planting. These canes are dug and all, to be replanted in warmer climates such as Spain, where they flower and produce a early season crop. Plants are planted 2-6 per m in fertile, well drained soil. All cultivars of raspberries have perennial roots but, many do not have perennial shoots. In fact, most raspberries have shoots; the flowers can be a major nectar source for other pollinators. Raspberries can be locally invasive, they propagate using basal shoots, extended underground shoots that develop roots and individual plants. They can sucker new canes some distance from the main plant. For this reason, raspberries spread well, can take over gardens if left unchecked. Raspberries are propagated using cuttings, will root in moist soil conditions.
The fruit is harvested when it comes off the receptacle and has turned a deep color. This is when the fruits are sweetest. High tunnel bramble production offers the opportunity to bridge gaps in availability during late fall and late spring. Furthermore, high tunnels allow less hardy floricane-fruiting raspberries to overwinter in climates where they wouldn't otherwise survive. In the tunnel plants are established at close spacing prior to tunnel construction. Raspberries are an important commercial fruit crop grown in all temperate regions of the world. Many of the most important modern commercial red raspberry cultivars derive from hybrids between R. idaeus and R. strigosus. Some botanists consider the Eurasian and American red raspberries to belong to a single, circumboreal species, Rubus idaeus, with the European plants classified as either R. idaeus subsp. Idaeus or R. idaeus var. idaeus, the native North American red raspberries classified as either R. idaeus subsp. Strigosus, or R. idaeus var. strigosus.
Recent breeding has resulted in cultivars that are thornless and more upright, not needing staking. The black raspberry, Rubus occidentalis, is cultivated, providing both fresh and frozen fruit, as well as jams and other products, all with that species' distinctive flavor. Purple raspberries have been produced by horticultural hybridization of red and black raspberries, have been found in the wild in a few places where the American red and the black raspberries both grow naturally. Commercial production of purple-fruited raspberries is rare. Blue raspberry is a local name used in Prince Edward County, Canada for the cultivar'Columbian', a hybrid of R. strigosus and R. occidentalis. Fruits from such plants are called yellow raspberries. Most pale-fruited raspberries commercially sold in the eastern United States are derivatives of red raspberries. Yellow-fruited variants of the black raspberry are sometimes grown in home gardens. Red raspberries have been crossed with various species in other subgenera of the genus Rubus, resulting in a number of hybrids, the first of, the loganberry.
Notable hybrids include boysenberry, tayberry. Hybridization between the familiar cultivated red raspberries and a few Asiatic species of Rubus has been achieved. Numerous raspberry cultivars have been selected. Two types of raspberry are available for domestic cultivation.
Saint Paul Winter Carnival
The Saint Paul Winter Carnival is an annual festival in Saint Paul, United States. In 1885, a New York reporter wrote that Saint Paul was, "another Siberia, unfit for human habitation" in winter. Offended by this attack on their city, the Saint Paul Chamber of Commerce decided to prove not only that Saint Paul was habitable but that its citizens were much alive during winter, their most dominant season, thus was born the Saint Paul Winter Carnival. The first carnivals were held in 1886,'87,'88 and 1896, they were revived in 1916 and 1917. Beginning again in 1937, they continued through 1942, resuming on a permanent basis in 1946. In 1886, King Boreas the First was crowned and the first Winter Carnival commenced; this festival featured an ice palace, an elaborate creation made from the ice of Minnesota lakes, which has evolved into an internationally recognized icon for Saint Paul's festival. The event featured many activities including ice horse-racing; the former name uniquely and directly describes the activity as frozen lakes were used as race surfaces for sled-carts.
The events served to bring the community closer together, including members of nearby Native American tribes. Many members of local tribes would ride into the city and pitch tents to participate in the Winter Carnival; the Winter Carnival has grown over the years. The Royal Family fraternal organization makes over 400 appearances annually and participates in community activities around the Twin Cities Metro Area; as a community organization, the members of the Royal Family and Vulcan Krewe travel throughout the US and Canada visiting different communities and engaging in various festivals. They aim to support charitable causes; the Winter Carnival is held during January each year. It was not held during World War II out of respect for the conflict abroad; the Winter Carnival runs the following events as part of the celebration: Royal Coronation Grand Day Parade Jigsaw Puzzle Competition Hotdish Competition Family Day at Landmark Center Kids' Day Presented by the YMCA Frozen Family Fun Night Snow Sculpting Ice Sculpture Carving Klondike Kate Cabarets Historic Art Exhibit Torchlight Parade Winter Carnival Music Series Ice Bars And SOO Much MORE!
The Royal Family is selected through each character's fraternal organization, in the case of the queen and princesses, a pageant-style coronation. The Royal Family consists of: King Boreas Prime Minister Aurora, Queen of the Snows Captain of the King's Guard Sergeant of the King's Guard Titan, Prince of the North Wind North Wind Princess Euros, Prince of the East Wind East Wind Princess Zephyrus, Prince of the West Wind West Wind Princess Notos, Prince of the South Wind South Wind Princess. A minimum of four King's Guards; the Vulcan Krewe is selected by the Order of Fire and Brimstone along with the new Fire King, Vulcanus Rex, each year. Each year a new Krewe is hand selected through an interview process. Selected Krewe members must complete a five-year commitment to become a full-fledged member of Fire and Brimstone. After a member's fifth year, that individual is eligible to be a Fire King. Vulcanus Rex - The True King of the Saint Paul Winter Carnival. Of all the members of the Krewe, he is the only one to wear black.
General Flameous - Keeper of the flame. Legend says that it will be winter forever; the Duke of Klinker - The Fire King's aide-de-camp and the herder of the flock. The Klinker is the longest burning ember; the Count of Ashes - The raiser of sleeping spirits. The "swinger" of the Krewe; the Prince of Soot - The recorder of past memories. The "ladies' man"; the oldest member of the Krewe. Baron Hot Sparkus - Commander of the Lancer’s Legion and the Stoker of Emotions; the "spark plug" of the Vulcan Krewe. Count Embrious - The Fire King’s Chancellor of the Exchequer; the young and romantic one. The youngest member of the Krewe. Grand Duke Fertilious - Minister of Propaganda and the propagator of progeny; the member with the most children. The Fire King running suit, the uniform In the early carnivals, when the Fire King ran alone, he wore kingly attire and all, with heavy emphasis on the color red in the rest of the costume. In 1916, Ron Stewart, Vulcanus Rex I, wore a warm blanket coat with a wide sash and a headpiece with devil-type horns on it.
This attire continued through 1939. Again, in 1940, Vulcanus Rex VI, E. R. Reiff, designed the basic running suit worn today; the horns were replaced by two feathers at the back of the head with a central fin running across the top of the head from front to back. In 1959 the feathers disappeared by order of John Works. In February, 2012, Vulcanus Rex LXXV. There are six primary pieces to the current running suit: the hat, the running suit, the cape, gloves and grease; these ceremonies were started in 1956. Every year, the Fire King "knights" hundreds of individuals. Special people are singled out by his "Krewe" for this award. A knighting certificate consists of a "title" being bestowed, a certificate being presented. Titles bestowed reflect the individual's special contribution to a community, club or organization, or family; the current fire engine being used by the Krewe was built in 1932 by Luverne Fire Apparatus of Luverne, Minnesota. Starting out in 193
Native Americans in the United States
Native Americans known as American Indians, Indigenous Americans and other terms, are the indigenous peoples of the United States, except Hawaii. There are over 500 federally recognized tribes within the US, about half of which are associated with Indian reservations; the term "American Indian" excludes Native Hawaiians and some Alaska Natives, while Native Americans are American Indians, plus Alaska Natives of all ethnicities. Native Hawaiians are not counted as Native Americans by the US Census, instead being included in the Census grouping of "Native Hawaiian and other Pacific Islander"; the ancestors of modern Native Americans arrived in what is now the United States at least 15,000 years ago much earlier, from Asia via Beringia. A vast variety of peoples and cultures subsequently developed. Native Americans were affected by the European colonization of the Americas, which began in 1492, their population declined precipitously due to introduced diseases as well as warfare, territorial confiscation and slavery.
After the founding of the United States, many Native American peoples were subjected to warfare and one-sided treaties, they continued to suffer from discriminatory government policies into the 20th century. Since the 1960s, Native American self-determination movements have resulted in changes to the lives of Native Americans, though there are still many contemporary issues faced by Native Americans. Today, there are over five million Native Americans in the United States, 78% of whom live outside reservations; when the United States was created, established Native American tribes were considered semi-independent nations, as they lived in communities separate from British settlers. The federal government signed treaties at a government-to-government level until the Indian Appropriations Act of 1871 ended recognition of independent native nations, started treating them as "domestic dependent nations" subject to federal law; this law did preserve the rights and privileges agreed to under the treaties, including a large degree of tribal sovereignty.
For this reason, many Native American reservations are still independent of state law and actions of tribal citizens on these reservations are subject only to tribal courts and federal law. The Indian Citizenship Act of 1924 granted U. S. citizenship to all Native Americans born in the United States. This emptied the "Indians not taxed" category established by the United States Constitution, allowed natives to vote in state and federal elections, extended the Fourteenth Amendment protections granted to people "subject to the jurisdiction" of the United States. However, some states continued to deny Native Americans voting rights for several decades. Bill of Rights protections do not apply to tribal governments, except for those mandated by the Indian Civil Rights Act of 1968. Since the end of the 15th century, the migration of Europeans to the Americas has led to centuries of population and agricultural transfer and adjustment between Old and New World societies, a process known as the Columbian exchange.
As most Native American groups had preserved their histories by oral traditions and artwork, the first written sources of the conflict were written by Europeans. Ethnographers classify the indigenous peoples of North America into ten geographical regions with shared cultural traits, called cultural areas; some scholars combine the Plateau and Great Basin regions into the Intermontane West, some separate Prairie peoples from Great Plains peoples, while some separate Great Lakes tribes from the Northeastern Woodlands. The ten cultural areas are as follows: Arctic, including Aleut and Yupik peoples Subarctic Northeastern Woodlands Southeastern Woodlands Great Plains Great Basin Northwest Plateau Northwest Coast California Southwest At the time of the first contact, the indigenous cultures were quite different from those of the proto-industrial and Christian immigrants; some Northeastern and Southwestern cultures, in particular, were matrilineal and operated on a more collective basis than that with which Europeans were familiar.
The majority of Indigenous American tribes maintained their hunting grounds and agricultural lands for use of the entire tribe. Europeans at that time had patriarchal cultures and had developed concepts of individual property rights with respect to land that were different; the differences in cultures between the established Native Americans and immigrant Europeans, as well as shifting alliances among different nations in times of war, caused extensive political tension, ethnic violence, social disruption. Before the European settlement of what is now the United States, Native Americans suffered high fatalities from contact with new European diseases, to which they had not yet acquired immunity. Smallpox epidemics are thought to have caused the greatest loss of life for indigenous populations. William M Denevan, noted author and Professor Emeritus of Geography at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, said on this subject in his essay "The Pristine Myth: The Landscape of the Americas in 1492".
Old World diseases were the primary killer. In many regions the tropical lowlands, populations fell by 90 percent or more in the first century after the contact. "Estimates of the pre-Columbian population of what today constitutes the U. S. vary ranging from William M Denevan's 3.8 million in his 1992 w
Culture of the United States
The culture of the United States of America is of Western culture origin and form, but is influenced by a multicultural ethos that includes African, Native American, Asian and Latin American people and their cultures. It has its own social and cultural characteristics, such as dialect, arts, social habits and folklore; the United States of America is an ethnically and racially diverse country as a result of large-scale migration from many countries throughout its history. Many American cultural elements from popular culture, have spread across the globe through modern mass media; the European roots of the United States are in the English settlers of colonial America during British rule. The varieties of English people as opposed to the other peoples in the British Isles were the overwhelming majority ethnic group in the 17th century and were 47.9% of percent of the total population of 3. 9 million. They constituted 60% of the whites at the first census in 1790, The American Revolution, Colin Bonwick, 1991, p. 254.
The English ethnic group contributed the major cultural and social mindset and attitudes that evolved into the American character. Of the total population in each colony they numbered from 30% in Pennsylvania to 85% in Massachusetts, Becoming America, Jon Butler, 2000, pp. 9–11. Large non-English immigrant populations from the 1720s to 1775, such as the Germans, Scotch Irish, added enriched and modified the English cultural substrate, The Encyclopedia of Colonial and Revolutionary America, Ed. John Mack Faragher, 1990, pp. 200–202. The religious outlook was some versions of Protestantism; the British colonies inherited the English language, legal system, British culture, the majority cultural heritage. Parts of what are now the United States were colonized by France, the Netherlands, Denmark and Japan. Though overtaken by British or American territorial expansion, the longer they lasted the more these earlier colonial societies contributed to modern-day culture, including place names, religion and food.
Jeffersonian democracy was a foundational American cultural innovation, still a core part of the country's identity. Thomas Jefferson's Notes on the State of Virginia was the first influential domestic cultural critique by an American and was written in reaction to the views of some influential Europeans that America's native flora, including humans, were degenerate. Major cultural influences have been brought by historical immigration from Germany in much of the country and Italy in the Northeast, Japan in Hawaii. Latin American culture is pronounced in former Spanish areas but has been introduced by immigration, as has Asian American cultures. Forced migration during the Atlantic slave trade, followed by liberation won in the American Civil War created African-American culture which pervades the South and other areas receiving internal immigrants during the Great Migrations. Blending Southern and traditional African culture to some degree, this uniquely American culture has its own dialect.
Rap and music videos featuring African-American urban street culture have appeared in countries and melded with local performance cultures worldwide. Though many mainland Native American tribes and nations were overpowered by European colonists and American territorial expansion, but in the areas they were pushed out of left cultural influences such as place names, knowledge about New World crops. Native culture remains strong in areas with large undisturbed or relocated populations, including traditional government and communal organization of property now managed by Indian reservations; the fate of native culture after contact with Europeans is quite varied. For example, Taíno culture in U. S. Caribbean territories is nearly extinct and like most Native American languages, the Taíno language is no longer spoken. In contrast the Hawaiian language and culture of the Native Hawaiians has survived in Hawaii and mixed with that of immigrants from the mainland U. S. and to some degree Japanese immigrants.
It influences mainstream American culture with notable exports like surfing and Hawaiian shirts. Most languages native to what is now U. S. territory have gone extinct, the economic and mainstream cultural dominance of English threatens the surviving ones in most places. The most common native languages include Samoan, Navajo language, Sioux, a spectrum of Inuit languages. Ethnic Samoans are a majority in American Samoa. American culture includes both conservative and liberal elements and religious competitiveness, political structures, risk taki