History of Nauru
The history of human activity in Nauru, an island country in the Pacific Ocean, began roughly 3,000 years ago when 12 Micronesian and Polynesian clans settled the island. Nauru was first settled by Micronesian and Polynesian peoples at least 3,000 years ago, traditionally only men were permitted to fish on the reef, and did so from canoes or by using trained man-of-war hawks. There were traditionally 12 clans or tribes on Nauru, which are represented in the 12-pointed star in the nations flag, Nauruans traced their descent on the female side. The first Europeans to encounter the island were on the British whaling ship Hunter, when the ship approached, many canoes ventured out to meet the ship. The Hunters crew did not leave the ship nor did Nauruans board and this name was used until Germany annexed the island 90 years later. From around 1830, Nauruans had contact with Europeans from whaling ships, the islanders traded food for alcoholic toddy and firearms. The first Europeans to live on the island, starting perhaps in 1830, were Patrick Burke and John Jones, Irish convicts who had escaped from Norfolk Island, according to Paradise for Sale.
Jones became Naurus first and last dictator, who killed or banished several other beachcombers who arrived later, the introduction of firearms and alcohol destroyed the peaceful coexistence of the 12 tribes living on the island. A 10-year internal war began in 1878 and resulted in a reduction of the population from 1,400 to around 900, alcohol was banned and some arms were confiscated. In 1886, Germany was granted the island under the Anglo-German Declaration, the island was annexed by Germany in 1888 and incorporated into Germanys New Guinea Protectorate. On 1 October 1888, the German gunboat SMS Eber landed 36 men on Nauru, accompanied by William Harris the German marines marched around the island and returned with the twelve chiefs, the white settlers and a Gilbertese missionary. The chiefs were kept under house arrest until the next morning, the Germans told the chiefs that they had to surrender all weapons and ammunition within 24 hours or the chiefs would be taken prisoner. By the morning of 3 October 765 guns and 1,000 rounds of ammunition were turned over, the Germans called the island Nawodo or Onawero.
The arrival of the Germans ended the war, and social changes brought about by the war established kings as rulers of the island, christian missionaries from the Gilbert Islands arrived at the island in 1888. The Germans ruled Nauru for almost three decades, robert Rasch, a German trader who married a native woman, was the first administrator, appointed in 1890. At the time there were twelve tribes on Nauru, Eamwidamit, Eamwit, Eano, Eoraru, Iruwa, today the twelve tribes are represented by the twelve-pointed star in the flag of Nauru. Phosphate was discovered on Nauru in 1900 by the prospector Albert Ellis, the Pacific Phosphate Company started to exploit the reserves in 1906 by agreement with Germany. The company exported its first shipment in 1907, in 1914, following the outbreak of World War I, Nauru was captured by Australian troops, after which Britain held control until 1920
A lasso, referred to as a lariat, riata, or reata, is a loop of rope designed as a restraint to be thrown around a target and tightened when pulled. It is a tool of the American cowboy. The word is a verb, to lasso is to throw the loop of rope around something. Although the tool has several names, such terms are rarely employed by those who actually use it, nearly all cowboys simply call it a rope. To most cowboys, the use of other terms — especially lasso — identifies the user as a layman, a lasso is made from stiff rope so that the noose stays open when the lasso is thrown. It allows the cowboy to easily open up the noose from horseback to release the cattle because the rope is stiff enough to be pushed a little, a high quality lasso is weighted for better handling. The lariat has a small reinforced loop at one end, called a honda or hondo, the honda can be formed by a honda knot, an eye splice, a seizing, rawhide, or a metal ring. The other end is sometimes tied simply in a small, the reata is made of braided rawhide and is made in lengths from 50 ft to over 100 ft.
Mexican maguey and cotton ropes are used in the longer lengths. The lasso is used today in rodeos as part of the events, such as calf roping. It is used on working ranches to capture cattle or other livestock when necessary. After catching the cattle, the lasso can be tied or wrapped around the horn, with the lasso around the horn, the cowboy can use his horse as the equivalent of a tow truck with a winch. Part of the culture of both the vaqueros of Mexico and the cowboys of the Western United States is a related skill now called trick roping. Will Rogers was a practitioner of trick roping and the natural horsemanship practitioner Buck Brannaman got his start as a trick roper when he was a child. Huns are recorded as using lassos in battle to ensnare opponents prepared to defend themselves in combat around AD370. They were used by Tatars and are used by the Sami people. In Mongolia, a variant of the lasso called an uurga is used, lassoes are mentioned in The Greek History of Herodotus, seventh book.
It is not the wont of this people to arms, either of bronze or steel, except only a dirk, but they use lassoes made of thongs plaited together. Such is the manner in which this people fight, and now their horsemen were drawn up with the Persians, bolas Hogtie The Lasso, A Rational Guide to Trick Roping by Carey Bunks Footage of multiple Lasso World Champions How to Handle a Rope - Champ Gives Lessons
Yaren, in earlier times Makwa/Moqua, is a district of the Pacific nation of Nauru. It is the de facto capital of Nauru and is coextensive with Yaren Constituency, the district was created in 1968. Its original name, refers to Moqua Well, an underground lake, Yaren is located in the south of the island. Its area is 1.5 km2, and its elevation was 25 metres as of 2007, to the north of Yaren is Buada, to the east is Meneng and to the west is Boe. Yaren is usually listed as the capital of Nauru though this is incorrect, Yaren is accepted by the United Nations as the main district. English and Nauruan, the languages of Nauru, are spoken in the district. It returns two members to the Parliament of Nauru, the Moqua Well is situated in Yaren. Kieren Keke and medical doctor Charmaine Scotty, politician Dominic Tabuna, politician List of settlements in Nauru Media related to Yaren at Wikimedia Commons
Nauru, officially the Republic of Nauru and formerly known as Pleasant Island, is an island country in Micronesia in the Central Pacific. Its nearest neighbour is Banaba Island in Kiribati,300 kilometres to the east and it further lies northwest of Tuvalu, north of the Solomon Islands, east-northeast of Papua New Guinea, southeast of the Federated States of Micronesia and south of the Marshall Islands. With 10,084 residents in a 21-square-kilometre area, Nauru is the smallest state in the South Pacific and third smallest state by area in the world, behind only Vatican City and Monaco. Settled by native peoples from Micronesia and Polynesia, Nauru was annexed and claimed as a colony by the German Empire in the late 19th century, after World War I, Nauru became a League of Nations mandate administered by Australia, New Zealand and the United Kingdom. During World War II, Nauru was occupied by Japanese troops, after the war ended, the country entered into UN trusteeship. Nauru gained its independence in 1968, Nauru is a phosphate rock island with rich deposits near the surface, which allowed easy strip mining operations.
It has some remaining phosphate resources which, as of 2011, are not economically viable for extraction, Nauru boasted the highest per-capita income enjoyed by any sovereign state in the world during the late 1960s and early 1970s. When the phosphate reserves were exhausted, and the environment had been seriously harmed by mining. To earn income, Nauru briefly became a tax haven and illegal money laundering centre, from 2001 to 2008, and again from 2012, it accepted aid from the Australian Government in exchange for hosting the Nauru detention centre. As a result of dependence on Australia, many sources have identified Nauru as a client state of Australia. Nauru was first inhabited by Micronesians and Polynesians at least 3,000 years ago, there were traditionally 12 clans or tribes on Nauru, which are represented in the 12-pointed star on the countrys flag. Traditionally, Nauruans traced their descent matrilineally, inhabitants practised aquaculture, they caught juvenile ibija fish, acclimatised them to fresh water, and raised them in the Buada Lagoon, providing a reliable source of food.
The other locally grown components of their diet included coconuts and pandanus fruit, the name Nauru may derive from the Nauruan word Anáoero, which means I go to the beach. The British sea captain John Fearn, a hunter, became the first Westerner to visit Nauru in 1798. From around 1830, Nauruans had contact with Europeans from whaling ships, around this time, deserters from European ships began to live on the island. The islanders traded food for alcoholic palm wine and firearms, the firearms were used during the 10-year Nauruan Tribal War that began in 1878. After an agreement with Great Britain, Nauru was annexed by Germany in 1888, the arrival of the Germans ended the civil war, and kings were established as rulers of the island. The most widely known of these was King Auweyida, christian missionaries from the Gilbert Islands arrived in 1888
Powerlifting is a strength sport that consists of three attempts at maximal weight on three lifts, bench press, and deadlift. As in the sport of Olympic weightlifting, it involves the athlete attempting a maximum weight single lift of a barbell loaded with weight plates. Powerlifting evolved from a known as odd lifts, which followed the same three-attempt format but used a wider variety of events. Eventually odd lifts became standardized to the current three, in competition, lifts may be performed equipped or un-equipped. Equipment in this context refers to a bench shirt or squat/deadlift suit or briefs. In some federations, knee wraps are permitted in the equipped but not un-equipped division, in others, Weight belts, knee sleeves, wrist wraps and special footwear may be used, but are not considered when distinguishing equipped from un-equipped lifting. Powerlifting has been a Paralympic sport since 1984 and, under the IPF, is a World Games sport, local and international competitions have been sanctioned by other federations operating independently of the IPF.
The roots of powerlifting are in traditions of strength training stretching back as far as Greek, the modern sport originated in the United States and the UK in the 1950s. Previously, the governing bodies in both countries had recognized various odd lifts for competition and record purposes. During the 1950s, Olympic weightlifting declined in the United States, in 1958, the AAUs National Weightlifting Committee decided to begin recognizing records for odd lifts. A national championship was scheduled for 1959, but it never happened. The first genuine national meet was held in September 1964 under the auspices of the York Barbell Company, Bob Hoffman, the owner of York Barbell, had been a long-time adversary of the sport. But his company was now making powerlifting equipment to make up for the sales it had lost on Olympic-style equipment, the magazines first Editor was the world-renowned John Grimek. During the late 1950s and early 1960s various odd lift events gradually developed into the specific lifts – the bench press, the squat, in 1965 the first named USA National Championships were held.
During the same period, lifting in Britain had factions, although at that time there were 42 recognized lifts, the Strength Set soon became the standard competition lifts, and both organizations held Championships on these lifts until 1965. In 1966, the Society of Amateur Weightlifters re-joined BAWLA and, in order to fall into line with the American lifts, the first British Championship was held in 1966. During the late 1960s and at the beginning of the 1970s, at the same time, in early November of each year and to commemorate Bob Hoffmans birthday, a prestige lifting contest was always held as part of Bob Hoffmans Birthday Party. In 1971, it was decided to make this event the World Weightlifting Championships, there was no such thing as teams and thus was predominantly a whole bunch of American lifters, plus four from Great Britain and one from the West Indies
Softball is a variant of baseball played with a larger ball on a smaller field. It was invented in 1887 in Chicago as an indoor game and it was at various times called indoor baseball, mush ball, softball, kitten ball, and because it was played by women, ladies baseball. The name softball was given to the game in 1926 because the used to be soft. A tournament held in 1933 at the Chicago Worlds Fair spurred interest in the game, the Amateur Softball Association of America governs the game in the United States and sponsors annual sectional and World Series championships. Womens fastpitch softball became a Summer Olympic sport in 1996, but it were dropped from the 2012 Games, there are three types of softball. In fastpitch softball, the pitch is fast, there are nine players on the field at one time, modified softball restricts the windmill windup of the pitcher, although the pitcher is allowed to throw as hard as possible with the restricted back swing. Softball rules vary somewhat from those of baseball, despite the name, the ball used in softball is not very soft.
It is about 12 in in circumference, which is 3 in larger than a baseball, Softball recreational leagues for children often use an 11-inch ball. In fast pitch softball the entire infield is sand, whereas the infield in baseball is grass except at the bases which are sand, the earliest known softball game was played in Chicago, Illinois on Thanksgiving Day,1887. It took place at the Farragut Boat Club at a gathering to hear the outcome of the Yale University, when the score was announced and bets were settled, a Yale alumnus threw a boxing glove at a Harvard supporter. The other person grabbed a took a swing at it, george Hancock called out Play ball. And the game began, with the boxing glove tightened into a ball and this first contest ended with a score of 41–40. The ball, being soft, was fielded barehanded, george Hancock is credited as the games inventor for his development of ball and an undersized bat in the next week. The Farragut Club soon set rules for the game, which spread quickly to outsiders, envisioned as a way for baseball players to maintain their skills during the winter, the sport was called Indoor Baseball.
Under the name of Indoor-Outdoor, the game moved outside in the year. In 1895 Lewis Rober, Sr. of Minneapolis organized outdoor games as exercise for firefighters, Rober may not have been familiar with the Farragut Club rules. Fire Station No.19 in Minneapolis, Robers post from 1896 to 1906, was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in part for its association with the sports development, the first softball league outside the United States was organized in Toronto in 1897. The name softball dates back to 1926, the name was coined by Walter Hakanson of the YMCA at a meeting of the National Recreation Congress
Anibare is a district in the island nation Nauru, a part of the Anabar Constituency. It is located in the east of the island, and covers an area of 3.1 km2 and it has a population of about 250. It is thus Naurus largest district in area, and among the smallest in population, Naurus reputation for being densely populated is thus somewhat nuanced, since it refers principally to the average areas and populations of districts other than Anibare. A beach with coral sand near the Menen Hotel which is considered the best place on the island to surf or to swim. It contains the Anibare Harbor, a commercial fishing area. A Phosphate stockpile is located in western Anibare, geography of Nauru List of settlements in Nauru Rail transport in Nauru Media related to Anibare at Wikimedia Commons
Frigatebirds are a family of seabirds called Fregatidae which are found across all tropical and subtropical oceans. The five extant species are classified in a genus, Fregata. All have predominantly black plumage, deeply forked tails, females have white underbellies and males have a distinctive red gular pouch, which they inflate during the breeding season to attract females. Their wings are long and pointed and can span up to 2.3 metres, able to soar for weeks on wind currents, frigatebirds spend most of the day in flight hunting for food, and roost on trees or cliffs at night. Their main prey are fish and squid, caught when chased to the surface by large predators such as tuna. Frigatebirds are referred to as kleptoparasites as they occasionally rob other seabirds for food, a rough nest is constructed in low trees or on the ground on remote islands. A single egg is laid each breeding season, the duration of parental care is among the longest of any bird species, frigatebirds are only able to breed every other year.
The Fregatidae are a group to Suloidea which consists of cormorants, gannets. Three of the five extant species of frigatebirds are widespread, while two are endangered and restrict their breeding habitat to one island each. The oldest fossils date to the early Eocene, around 50 million years ago, classified in the genus Limnofregata, the three species had shorter, less-hooked bills and longer legs, and lived in a freshwater environment. The term Frigate Bird itself was used in 1738 by the English naturalist, the book included an illustration of the male bird showing the red gular pouch. Like the genus name, the English term is derived from the French mariners name for the bird la frégate—a frigate or fast warship, the etymology was mentioned by French naturalist Jean-Baptiste Du Tertre when describing the bird in 1667. Christopher Columbus encountered frigatebirds when passing the Cape Verde Islands on his first voyage across the Atlantic in 1492, in his journal entry for 29 September he used the word rabiforçado, modern Spanish rabihorcado or forktail.
In the Caribbean frigatebirds were called Man-of-War birds by English mariners and his Wings are very long, his feet are like other Land-fowl, and he builds on Trees, where he finds any, but where they are wanting on the ground. Frigatebirds were grouped with cormorants, and sulids as well as pelicans in the genus Pelecanus by Linnaeus in 1758 in the edition of his Systema Naturae. He described the characteristics as a straight bill hooked at the tip, linear nostrils, a bare face. The genus Fregata was defined by French naturalist Bernard Germain de Lacépède in 1799, louis Jean Pierre Vieillot described the genus name Tachypetes in 1816 for the great frigatebird. The genus name Atagen had been coined by German naturalist Paul Möhring in 1752, in 1874, English zoologist Alfred Henry Garrod published a study where he had examined various groups of birds and recorded which muscles of a selected group of five they possessed or lacked
Culture can be defined in numerous ways. In the words of anthropologist E. B, Tylor, it is that complex whole which includes knowledge, art, law and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society. The Cambridge English Dictionary states that culture is the way of life, especially the customs and beliefs. As a defining aspect of what it means to be human, culture is a concept in anthropology. The word is used in a sense as the evolved ability to categorize and represent experiences with symbols. The level of cultural sophistication has sometimes seen to distinguish civilizations from less complex societies. Mass culture refers to the mass-produced and mass mediated forms of culture that emerged in the 20th century. When used as a count noun, a culture is the set of customs, traditions, in this sense, multiculturalism is a concept that values the peaceful coexistence and mutual respect between different cultures inhabiting the same planet. Sometimes culture is used to describe specific practices within a subgroup of a society.
Samuel Pufendorf took over this metaphor in a context, meaning something similar. His use, and that of many writers after him, refers to all the ways in which human beings overcome their original barbarism, and through artifice, become fully human. To be cultural, to have a culture, is to inhabit a place sufficiently intensive to cultivate it—to be responsible for it, to respond to it, thus a contrast between culture and civilization is usually implied in these authors, even when not expressed as such. Cultural invention has come to any innovation that is new and found to be useful to a group of people and expressed in their behavior. Humanity is in a global accelerating culture change period, driven by the expansion of commerce, the mass media, and above all. Culture repositioning means the reconstruction of the concept of a society. Cultures are internally affected by both forces encouraging change and forces resisting change, Social conflict and the development of technologies can produce changes within a society by altering social dynamics and promoting new cultural models, and spurring or enabling generative action.
These social shifts may accompany ideological shifts and other types of cultural change, for example, the U. S. feminist movement involved new practices that produced a shift in gender relations, altering both gender and economic structures. Environmental conditions may enter as factors, Cultures are externally affected via contact between societies, which may produce—or inhibit—social shifts and changes in cultural practices
Australian rules football
The main way to score points is by kicking the oval-shaped ball between the two tall goal posts. The team with the score by the end of the match wins unless a draw is declared. During general play, players may position themselves anywhere on the field, the primary methods are kicking and running with the ball. There are rules on how the ball can be handled, for example, throwing the ball is not allowed and players must not get caught holding the ball. A distinctive feature of the game is the mark, where players anywhere on the field who catch a ball from a kick are awarded possession, possession of the ball is in dispute at all times except when a free kick or mark is paid. Players can tackle using their hands or use their body to obstruct opponents. The game features frequent physical contests, spectacular marking, fast movement of players and the ball and high scoring. The sports origins can be traced to matches played in Melbourne, Victoria in 1858. Its annual Grand Final is the highest attended club championship event in the world, the sport is played at amateur level in many countries and in several variations.
The games rules are governed by the AFL Commission with the advice of the AFLs Laws of the Game Committee, there is evidence of football being played sporadically in the Australian colonies in the first half of the 19th century. The earliest such match, held in St Kilda on 15 June, was between Melbourne Grammar and St Kilda Grammar. Born in Australia, Wills played a nascent form of rugby football whilst a pupil at Rugby School in England and his letter is regarded by many historians as giving impetus for the development of a new code of football today known as Australian football. Two weeks later, Wills friend, cricketer Jerry Bryant, posted an advertisement for a match at the Richmond Paddock adjoining the Melbourne Cricket Ground. This was the first of several kickabouts held that year involving members of the Melbourne Cricket Club, including Wills, Bryant, W. J. Hammersley, trees were used as goalposts and play typically lasted an entire afternoon. Without an agreed code of laws, some players were guided by rules they had learned in the British Isles.
Another significant milestone in 1858 was a match played under experimental rules between Melbourne Grammar and Scotch College, held at the Richmond Paddock. This 40-a-side contest, umpired by Wills and Scotch College teacher John Macadam, began on 7 August and it is commemorated with a statue outside the MCG, and the two schools have competed annually ever since in the Cordner-Eggleston Cup, the worlds oldest continuous football competition. Since the early 20th century, it has suggested that Australian football was derived from the Irish sport of Gaelic football