Robertson Boulevard is a street in Los Angeles, in the U. S. state of California, that passes through the incorporated cities of West Hollywood, Beverly Hills, Culver City. Robertson Boulevard is a major north-south thoroughfare on the Westside of Los Angeles running through one of its neighborhoods, Pico-Robertson and between two of its neighborhoods and Crestview, its northern end is to the north of Santa Monica Boulevard at Keith Avenue, its southern end is at Washington Boulevard. Robertson Boulevard is accessible via exit #6 on the Santa Monica Freeway; the northern part of the street in West Hollywood and Beverly Hills is a trendy tree-lined shopping district. In West Hollywood, the neighborhood surrounding Robertson Boulevard consists of high-density apartment buildings and condominiums; the residential area surrounding the Robertson Boulevard shopping district in Beverly Hills is more family-oriented and is made up of single-family residences. Robertson Boulevard has become a haven for celebrities and paparazzi.
This is due to a large influx of unique boutiques and designer clothing & jewelry stores such as Agnes B, Lisa Kline, Kitson Boutique, Williams Sonoma, Armani Exchange, Michael Kors, Ralph Lauren, Ted Baker, M·A·C, Gypsy05, Tory Burch, Max Azria, Beach Bunny Swimwear, Erica Courtney, a mecca for many celebrity shoppers. In addition, several popular celebrity-infused eateries are located on Robertson Boulevard, such as The Ivy; the Kabbalah Centre is located on the street. South of West Hollywood and Beverly Hills and north of Culver City, Pico-Robertson and Crestview are upper-middle-class neighborhoods in West Los Angeles with a historical and substantial Jewish population. Alexander Hamilton High School, a diverse high school in the Beverlywood neighborhood in West Los Angeles is on Robertson Boulevard; the southern terminus of Robertson Boulevard is at the northern edge of Culver City. The Robertson Branch of Los Angeles Public Library is located at 1719 S. Robertson near the intersection of Airdrome.
Metro Local line 17 runs along Robertson Boulevard. The Metro Expo Line operates a rail station at Venice Boulevard
Museum of Jurassic Technology
The Museum of Jurassic Technology at 9341 Venice Boulevard in the Palms district of Los Angeles, was founded by David Hildebrand Wilson and Diana Drake Wilson in 1988. It calls itself "an educational institution dedicated to the advancement of knowledge and the public appreciation of the Lower Jurassic", the relevance of the term "Lower Jurassic" to the museum's collections being left uncertain and unexplained; the museum's collection includes a mixture of artistic, scientific and historic items, as well as some unclassifiable exhibits. The factual claims of many of the museum's exhibits strain credibility, provoking an array of interpretations. David Hildebrand Wilson received a MacArthur Foundation fellowship in 2001; the museum contains an unusual collection of exhibits and objects with varying and uncertain degrees of authenticity. The New York Times critic Edward Rothstein described it as a "museum about museums", "where the persistent question is: what kind of place is this?" Smithsonian magazine called it "a witty, self-conscious homage to private museums of yore... when natural history was only charted by science, museums were closer to Renaissance cabinets of curiosity."
In a similar vein, The Economist said the museum "captures a time chronicled in Richard Holmes's recent book The Age of Wonder, when science mingled with poetry in its pursuit of answers to life's mysterious questions."Lawrence Weschler's book, Mr. Wilson's Cabinet of Wonder: Pronged Ants, Horned Humans, Mice on Toast, And Other Marvels of Jurassic Technology, attempts to explain the mystery of the Museum of Jurassic Technology. Weschler explores the museum through conversations with its founder, David Wilson, through outside research on several exhibitions, his investigations into the history of certain exhibits led to varying results of authenticity. The Museum of Jurassic Technology at its heart, according to Wilson, is "a museum interested in presenting phenomena that other natural history museums are unwilling to present."The museum's introductory slideshow recounts that "In its original sense, the term,'museum' meant'a spot dedicated to the Muses, a place where man's mind could attain a mood of aloofness above everyday affairs'".
In this spirit, the dimly lit atmosphere and glass vitrines, labyrinthine floorplan lead visitors through an eclectic range of exhibits on art, natural history, history of science and anthropology, with a special focus on the history of museums and the variety of paths to knowledge. The museum attracts 25,000 visitors per year; the museum maintains more than thirty permanent exhibits, including: The Delani/Sonnabend Halls: Recalling the intertwining story of an ill-fated opera singer, Madalena Delani, with a theoretician of memory, Geoffrey Sonnabend, whose three-part work Obliscence: Theories of Forgetting and the Problem of Matter suggests that memory is an elaborate construction that humankind has created "to buffer ourselves against the intolerable knowledge of the irreversible passage of time and the irretrievability of its moments and events." There is only experience and the decay of experience, an idea he illustrates with a complex diagram of a plane intersecting a cone. Tell the Bees: Belief and Hypersymbolic Cognition: An exhibit of pre-scientific cures and remedies The Garden of Eden on Wheels: Collections from Los Angeles Area Trailer Parks The Unique World of Microminiatures of Hagop Sandaldjian: A collection of micro-miniature sculptures, each carved from a single human hair and placed within the eye of a needle.
On display: Goofy, Pope John Paul II, Napoleon I. Other microminiatures include violins. Micromosaics of Harold "Henry" Dalton: Microscopic mosaics from the 19th century depicting flowers and other objects, made from individual butterfly wing scales and diatoms The Stereofloral Radiographs of Albert G. Richards: A collection of stereographic radiographs of flowers Rotten Luck: The Decaying Dice of Ricky Jay: A collection of decomposing antique dice once owned by magician Ricky Jay and documented in his book Dice: Deception and Rotten Luck No One May Ever Have the Same Knowledge Again: Letters to Mt. Wilson Observatory: A small room dedicated to unusual letters and theories received by the Mount Wilson Observatory circa 1915–1935 The World is Bound with Secret Knots: The Life and Works of Athanasius Kircher: A survey of the fields of study and inventions of the 17th-century Jesuit polymath, the founder of the Museum Kircherianum in Rome The Lives of Perfect Creatures: The Dogs of the Soviet Space Program: An oil portrait gallery of the heroic cosmonaut canines Fairly Safely Venture: String Figures from Many Lands and their Venerable CollectorsFrom 1992 to 2006, the museum's Foundation Collection was on display in its Tochtermuseum at the Karl Ernst Osthaus-Museum in Hagen, Germany.
This exhibition was part of the Museum of Museums wing at the KEOM, which came into being under the stewardship of director Michael Fehr. In 2005, the museum opened its Tula Tea Room, a Russian-style tea room where Georgian tea and cookies are served; this room is a miniature reconstruction of the study of Tsar Nicolas II from the Winter Palace in St. Petersburg, Russia; the Borzoi Kabinet Theater screens a series of poetic
A traction substation, traction current converter plant or traction power substation is an electrical substation that converts electric power from the form provided by the electrical power industry for public utility service to an appropriate voltage, current type and frequency to supply railways, trams or trolleybuses with traction current. These systems can be used to convert three-phase 50 Hz or 60 Hz alternating current for the supply of AC railway electrification systems at a lower frequency and single phase, as used by many older systems, or to rectify AC into direct current for those systems using DC for traction power; the conversion equipment consisted of one or more motor-generator sets containing three-phase synchronous AC motors and single-phase AC generators, mechanically coupled to a common shaft. Rotary converters were used where the desired output was DC current from an AC source. In the 1920s, DC was derived using electronic valves. In modern systems, high-voltage DC "back-to-back" stations are used instead of mechanical equipment to convert between different frequencies and phases of AC power and solid-state thyristor rectifier systems are used for conversion from AC power to DC traction power.
Traction current converter plants are either centralized. Central traction current converter plants are found in Germany and Switzerland, while decentralized traction current converter plants are found in Norway and the German states of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern and Brandenburg as well as parts of Great Britain. A List of railway electrification systems provides further detail. Traction powerstation Railway electrification system
Los Angeles and Independence Railroad
The Los Angeles and Independence Railroad, opened on October 17, 1875, was a steam-powered rail line which ran between the Santa Monica Long Wharf and 5th and San Pedro streets in downtown Los Angeles. Intended to reach San Bernardino and Independence via Cajon Pass to serve the Cerro Gordo Silver Mines near Panamint, the line was never extended past downtown Los Angeles and was acquired by Southern Pacific Railroad; the right-of-way was purchased by Los Angeles Metro in 1990 and is now used for the Expo Line light rail line. The Los Angeles and Independence Railroad Company was incorporated in January 1875 with Francisco P. Temple, John P. Jones, Robert S. Baker, T. N. Park, James A. Pritchard, J. S. Slauson, J. U. Crawford, as directors. Col. Crawford was general manager; the 16.67 miles of track between Los Angeles and Santa Monica were built without government subsidies or land grants, all in a little over ten months - using 67 Chinese laborers imported for the task. Right-of-way between Los Angeles and Santa Monica was given by local ranchers who were anxious to have access to a railroad.
The line opened October 17, 1875, with two trains a day running between Santa Monica and Los Angeles. Southern Pacific Railroad's refusal to allow crossing of their main line tracks prevented construction east of Los Angeles. Combined with the unexpected depletion and closure of the Panamint silver mine in 1877 and the resulting fiscal difficulty, the young steam line was sold to Southern Pacific on July 4, 1877. New owner Southern Pacific extended the existing wharf to allow access to larger ships by 1891; this wharf allowed ship-to-shore offloading, making the line a freight and passenger hauler of growing importance. However, the U. S. Government's 1899 decision to build a breakwater in San Pedro and create the Port of Los Angeles doomed both natural harbors' use for commercial shipping traffic. With the Port of Los Angeles nearing completion in 1908 and Santa Monica shipping traffic ceasing, Southern Pacific leased the railroad line and Santa Monica wharf to Los Angeles Pacific Railroad. Which electrified the portion between Sentous in that year.
The remainder of the line was electrified by 1911 when various electric railroads merged under the Pacific Electric name. The wharf was demolished in 1913. By 1920 the line was well known as the Santa Monica Air Line of the Pacific Electric Railway, providing electric freight and passenger service between Los Angeles and Santa Monica; the line was subsequently purchased for use as a light rail line, which began operation in 2012. In 2015, a Santa Monica restaurant named; the Independence offers drinks named after the station stops and a 140th anniversary party for the steam line. Worsfold, David I. "The Railroad and the Old Palms Depot". "Los Angeles & Independence Railroad Depot 1875". USC Libraries Digital Archive. "Drawing of the Santa Monica wharf used by the Los Angeles & Independence Railroad, ca.1877". USC Libraries Digital Archive. "Los Angeles and Independence Railroad Depot, San Pedro Street & Fourth Street, before 1888". USC Libraries Digital Archive
Expo Line (Los Angeles Metro)
The Expo Line is a 15.2 mi light rail line that runs between Downtown Los Angeles and Santa Monica. The line is named after Exposition Boulevard, it is one of the six lines in the Metro Rail system, is operated by the Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority. The Expo Line follows the right-of-way of the former Pacific Electric Santa Monica Air Line. Passenger service ended in 1953. Several Expo Line stations are built in the same location as Air Line stations, although no original station structures have been reused; when the Regional Connector is complete in 2021, the current Expo Line will be joined with the Eastside portion of the Gold Line, the new line will be named E Line. The color will be changed from aqua to gold on maps. An independent agency, the Exposition Metro Line Construction Authority, was given the authority to plan and construct the line by state law in 2003. After construction was completed, the line was handed over on January 15, 2016, to the Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority for testing and operation.
The line was built in two phases. Construction began in early 2006 and most stations opened to the public on April 28, 2012; the Culver City and Farmdale stations opened on June 20, 2012. Design and construction on the 6.6-mile portion between Culver City and Santa Monica started in September 2011. Testing along the phase 2 segment began on April 6, 2015, the segment opened on May 20, 2016; the Expo Line operates from 4:30 a.m. to 2:00 a.m. on weekdays and until 2:30 a.m. on Fridays and Saturdays. As of December 2016, trains run every 6 minutes during peak hours, every 12 minutes during middays, every 10 minutes during the evening, every 20 minutes after midnight. Maximum speed on the route is 55 mph: speeds within the city of Los Angeles are reduced; the Expo Line follows right of way used by the Los Angeles and Independence Railroad steam railroad, built in 1875, converted by Pacific Electric to electric traction and operated as the Santa Monica Air Line by 1920, providing both freight and passenger service between Los Angeles and Santa Monica.
Passenger service stopped in 1953 and diesel-powered freight deliveries ended in 1988. Local advocacy groups including Friends 4 Expo Transit supported the successful passage of Proposition C in 1990, which allowed the purchase of the entire right-of-way from Southern Pacific by Metro. Metro released a Major Investment Study in 2000 which compared bus rapid transit and light rail transit options along what was now known as the "Mid-City/Exposition Corridor"; the Culver City and Farmdale stations opened on June 20, 2012. Design and construction of the 6.6-mile portion between Culver City and Santa Monica started in September 2011. Testing along the phase 2 segment began on April 6, 2015, the segment opened on May 20, 2016; the Regional Connector is an under-construction light-rail subway corridor through Downtown Los Angeles, to connect the current Blue and Expo Lines to the current Gold Line, to allow a seamless one-seat ride between the Blue and Expo lines' current 7th Street/Metro Center terminus and Union Station.
Once the Regional Connector is completed, the Blue and Gold Lines will be simplified into two rail lines: a north-south line connecting Long Beach and Azusa, an east-west line connecting Santa Monica and East Los Angeles. Beginning in 2019, Metro will commence using a renaming system where each rail and bus rapid transit line will receive a letter and color; as a result, the Santa Monica-East L. A. line will be designated as E Line, retaining the "E" from the Expo gold coloring. The groundbreaking for the construction of the Regional Connector took place on September 30, 2014, the alignment is expected to be in public service by late 2021. By the summer of 2019, the northern half of the Metro Blue Line will be closed; the Expo Line will terminate at 23rd Street. The following is the complete list of stations from Downtown Los Angeles traveling west; the light rail vehicles used on the Expo Line were maintained at the division 11 yard in Long Beach, the same maintenance facility, used by the Blue Line.
However, the new division 14 yard, located east of Stewart Street and north of Exposition Boulevard in the vicinity of the 26th Street/Bergamot station in Santa Monica, was opened with the completion of Phase 2. Compatible with the rest of Metro's light-rail network, the Expo Line shares standard Metro light rail vehicles with the Blue Line. Metro estimates that it has 47 light rail cars to provide service on the Expo Line under the peak-hour assumption of 3-car trains running at 6-minute headways. Upon completion of Phase 2, it is expected that new P3010 light rail vehicles from Kinki Sharyo, that were ordered by the L. A. Metro board of directors in 2012, will begin operation, replacing the current LRVs in operation on the Expo Line; the Expo Line Bikeway parallels the route of the light rail line, includes a mixture of bike lanes on Exposition Boulevard and off-street paths alongside the rail tracks. On March 28, 2015, an Expo Line train collided with an automobile at an intersection causing the train to derail, injuring 12.
On December 10, 2015, a truck made an illegal left turn and collided with a test train in Santa Monica
Light rail, light rail transit, or fast tram is a form of urban rail transit using rolling stock similar to a tramway, but operating at a higher capacity, on an exclusive right-of-way. There is no standard definition, but in the United States, light rail operates along exclusive rights-of-way and uses either individual tramcars or multiple units coupled to form a train, lower capacity and lower speed than a long heavy-rail passenger train or metro system. A few light rail networks tend to have characteristics closer to rapid transit or commuter rail. Other light rail networks are tram-like in nature and operate on streets. Light rail systems are found on all inhabited continents, they have been popular in recent years due to their lower capital costs and increased reliability compared with heavy rail systems. Many original tram and streetcar systems in the United Kingdom, United States, elsewhere were decommissioned starting in the 1950s as the popularity of the automobile increased. Britain abandoned its last tram system, except for Blackpool, by 1962.
Although some traditional trolley or tram systems exist to this day, the term "light rail" has come to mean a different type of rail system. Modern light rail technology has West German origins, since an attempt by Boeing Vertol to introduce a new American light rail vehicle was a technical failure. After World War II, the Germans retained many of their streetcar networks and evolved them into model light rail systems. Except for Hamburg, all large and most medium-sized German cities maintain light rail networks; the basic concepts of light rail were put forward by H. Dean Quinby in 1962 in an article in Traffic Quarterly called "Major Urban Corridor Facilities: A New Concept". Quinby distinguished this new concept in rail transportation from historic streetcar or tram systems as: having the capacity to carry more passengers appearing like a train, with more than one car connected together having more doors to facilitate full utilization of the space faster and quieter in operationThe term light rail transit was introduced in North America in 1972 to describe this new concept of rail transportation.
The first of the new light rail systems in North America began operation in 1978 when the Canadian city of Edmonton, adopted the German Siemens-Duewag U2 system, followed three years by Calgary and San Diego, California. The concept proved popular, although Canada has few cities big enough for light rail, there are now at least 30 light rail systems in the United States. Britain began replacing its run-down local railways with light rail in the 1980s, starting with the Tyne and Wear Metro and followed by the Docklands Light Railway in London; the historic term light railway was used because it dated from the British Light Railways Act 1896, although the technology used in the DLR system was at the high end of what Americans considered to be light rail. The trend to light rail in the United Kingdom was established with the success of the Manchester Metrolink system in 1992; the term light rail was coined in 1972 by the U. S. Urban Mass Transportation Administration to describe new streetcar transformations that were taking place in Europe and the United States.
In Germany the term Stadtbahn was used to describe the concept, many in UMTA wanted to adopt the direct translation, city rail. However, UMTA adopted the term light rail instead. Light in this context is used in the sense of "intended for light loads and fast movement", rather than referring to physical weight; the infrastructure investment is usually lighter than would be found for a heavy rail system. The Transportation Research Board defined "light rail" in 1977 as "a mode of urban transportation utilizing predominantly reserved but not grade-separated rights-of-way. Electrically propelled. LRT provides a wide range of passenger capabilities and performance characteristics at moderate costs." The American Public Transportation Association, in its Glossary of Transit Terminology, defines light rail as:...a mode of transit service operating passenger rail cars singly on fixed rails in right-of-way, separated from other traffic for part or much of the way. Light rail vehicles are driven electrically with power being drawn from an overhead electric line via a trolley or a pantograph.
However, some diesel-powered transit is designated light rail, such as the O-Train Trillium Line in Ottawa, Canada, the River Line in New Jersey, United States, the Sprinter in California, United States, which use diesel multiple unit cars. Light rail is similar to the British English term light railway, long-used to distinguish railway operations carried out under a less rigorous set of regulation using lighter equipment at lower speeds from mainline railways. Light rail is a generic international English phrase for these types of rail systems, which means more or less the same thing throughout the English-speaking world; the use of the generic term light rail avoids some serious incompatibilities between British and American English. T
Venice Boulevard is a major east–west thoroughfare in Los Angeles, running from the ocean in the Venice district, past the I-10 intersection, into downtown Los Angeles. It was known as West 16th Street under the Los Angeles numbered street system; the western terminus of Venice Boulevard is Ocean Front Walk in Venice. Proceeding easterly, it assumes the designation California State Route 187 crossing Lincoln Boulevard; the route passes through the Mar Vista neighborhood. Further east, it forms the boundary between Palms and Culver City and passes near Sony Pictures Studios. Continuing northeast into the Crestview neighborhood in West Los Angeles, the SR 187 designation terminates at the intersection with Cadillac Avenue and the ramp carrying traffic from westbound I-10. Continuing to parallel Washington Boulevard directly to its south, as it does for much of its length, the route proceeds between the Pico-Robertson neighborhood in West Los Angeles and Lafayette Square in Mid-City, through the Mid-Wilshire district, through Arlington Heights and Harvard Heights, dips under the Harbor Freeway, continues into the heart of downtown Los Angeles, where it turns into East 16th Street at Main Street.
Metro Local line 33 and Metro Rapid line 733 operate on Venice Boulevard. The Metro Expo Line serves a rail station at its intersection with Robertson Boulevard. Prior to 1932, West 16th Street ended at Crenshaw Boulevard. In that year part of the Pacific Electric Railway right of way was taken and Venice Boulevard was cut through from La Brea Avenue to Crenshaw. At that time West 16th Street was renamed Venice Boulevard. Venice High School is located near the intersection with Walgrove Avenue. Loyola High School is located by Vermont Avenue; the Angelus-Rosedale Cemetery lies on Venice