Sony Pictures Entertainment Inc. is an American entertainment company that produces and distributes filmed entertainment through multiple platforms. Through an intermediate holding company called Sony Film Holding Inc. it is operated as a subsidiary of Sony Entertainment Inc., itself a subsidiary of Sony Corporation of America, a wholly owned subsidiary and the US headquarters of the Tokyo-based multinational technology and media conglomerate Sony Corporation. Based in Culver City, California, it encompasses Sony's motion picture, television production and distribution units, its group sales in the fiscal year 2017 has been reported to be $9.133 billion. SPE is the Motion Picture Association of America. Sony Pictures' film franchises include The Karate Kid, Spider-Man, Stuart Little, Men in Black, Robert Langdon, The Smurfs, Hotel Transylvania, Cloudy with a Chance of Meatballs, many more. On September 1, 1987, The Coca-Cola Company announced plans to spin off its assets of Columbia Pictures, which it had owned since 1982.
Under this arrangement, Coca-Cola would sell its entertainment assets to TriStar Pictures, of which it owned 39.6%. Tri-Star would be renamed to Columbia Pictures Entertainment, Inc. with Coca-Cola owning 49%, its shareholders owning 31%, Tri-Star's shareholders owning 20%. A new company was formed in early 1988 with the Tri-Star name to take over the studio's operations. On September 28, 1989, Sony obtained an option to purchase all of The Coca-Cola Company's stock in CPE for $27 per share; the next day, Sony announced that it reached an agreement with Guber-Peters Entertainment Company, Inc. to acquire CPE for $200 million when Sony hired Peter Guber and Jon Peters to be its co-chairmen. This was all led by Norio Ohga, the president and CEO of Sony during that time; the hiring of Guber and Peters by Sony to run Columbia was conflicted by a previous contract the producers had signed at Warner Bros. Time Warner's chairman, Steve Ross, threatened Sony with a lawsuit for breach of contract; the lawsuit would be subsequently dropped when Sony sold half-interest in Columbia House and cable distribution rights to Columbia's feature films, TV movies, miniseries to Warner Bros.
That same agreement saw Columbia sell its 35% interest in the Burbank Studios and acquired Lorimar Studios the MGM lot, from Warner Bros. On October 31, 1989, Sony completed a friendly takeover bid for the rest of shares of CPE, a public company listed on the New York Stock Exchange, acquired 99.3% of the common stock of the company. On November 8, 1989, Sony completed the acquisition by a "short-form" merger of its wholly owned subsidiary Sony Columbia Acquisition Corporation into CPE under Delaware law. Sony completed a tender offer for shares of common stock of the Guber-Peters Entertainment Company on November 6, 1989 and acquired the company 3 days later; the acquisition cost Sony $4.9 billion and was backed by five major Japanese banks Mitsui, Fuji and Industrial Bank of Japan. The company was renamed Sony Pictures Entertainment on August 7, 1991. Sony has since created numerous other film production and distribution units, such as creating Sony Pictures Classics for art-house fare, by forming Columbia TriStar Pictures by merging Columbia Pictures and TriStar Pictures in 1998, revitalizing Columbia's former television division Screen Gems.
It expanded its operations on April 8, 2005, when a Sony-led consortium acquired the legendary Hollywood studio Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, in a US$4.8 billion leveraged buyout, through the holding company MGM Holdings Inc. This in effect re-united the MGM studio name, with the MGM main studio lot, although somewhat confusingly, the bulk of the pre-1986 original MGM library ended up at Warner Bros. via the Ted Turner-Kirk Kerkovian "Turner Entertainment Company" transactions. The post-1986 MGM library consists of acquisitions of various third-party libraries, such as the Orion Pictures catalogue, leading to the MGM version of "Robocop". On June 4, 2008, SPE's wholly owned group 2JS Productions B. V. acquired Dutch production company 2waytraffic N. V. famous for Who Wants to Be a Millionaire?, acquired from the original production company Celador, You Are What You Eat for £114.3 million. In 2011, the Sony Pictures computer network was breached and one million user accounts associated with the SonyPictures.com website were leaked.
On November 18, 2012, Sony Pictures announced it has passed $4 billion with the success of releases: Skyfall, The Amazing Spider-Man, 21 Jump Street, Men in Black 3, Hotel Transylvania, Underworld: Awakening, The Vow, Resident Evil: Retribution. On November 21, 2013, SPE and Sony Entertainment's CEO Michael Lynton announced that SPE will shift emphasis from movies to television by cutting its 2014 film slate, it was announced on the same day, that there will be more Spider-Man sequels and spin-offs, though in February 10, 2015, Sony Pictures signed a deal with Disney's Marvel Studios to allow Spider-Man to appear in the Marvel Cinematic Universe, beginning with Captain America: Civil War, before appearing in Spider-Man: Homecoming, released on July 7, 2017. The deal allowed Sony to distribute and have creative control on any MCU film where Spider-Man is the main chara
Handycam is a Sony brand used to market its camcorder range. It was launched in 1985 as the name of the first Video8 camcorder, replacing Sony's previous line of Betamax-based models, the name was intended to emphasize the "handy" palm size nature of the camera, made possible by the new miniaturized tape format; this was in marked contrast to the larger, shoulder mounted cameras available before the creation of Video8, competing smaller formats such as VHS-C. Sony has continued to produce Handycams in a variety of guises since, developing the Video8 format to produce Hi8 and Digital8, using the same basic format to record digital video; the Handycam label continues to be applied. Select flagship Sony HandyCam models feature infrared night-vision, dubbed NightShot which utilizes an infrared light-emitting diode and an infrared filter, mechanically attached, detached to the sensor in order to enable the camcorder to record video footage in complete darkness; the NightShot feature is popular among a multitude of paranormal investigators, Travel Channel's Ghost Adventures.
Video8 Handycam Hi8 Handycam Digital8 Handycam DV Handycam HDV Handycam DVD-Handycam HDD Handycam Memory Stick Handycam Sony Handycam NEX-VG10 AVCHD Camcorder List of Sony trademarks Handycam website of Sony Middle East and Africa Handycam Camcorder page of Sony Singapore http://www.sony-asia.com/microsite/handycam/
HDCAM, introduced in 1997, is a high-definition video digital recording videocassette version of digital Betacam, using an 8-bit discrete cosine transform compressed 3:1:1 recording, in 1080i-compatible down-sampled resolution of 1440×1080, adding 24p and 23.976 progressive segmented frame modes to models. The HDCAM codec uses rectangular pixels and as such the recorded 1440×1080 content is upsampled to 1920×1080 on playback; the recorded video bit rate is 144 Mbit/s. Audio is similar, with four channels of AES3 20-bit, 48 kHz digital audio. Like Betacam, HDCAM tapes are produced in large cassette sizes; the main competitor to HDCAM is the DVCPRO HD format offered by Panasonic. It uses a similar compression scheme and bit rates ranging from 40 Mbit/s to 100 Mbit/s depending on frame rate. HDCAM is standardized as SMPTE 367M known as SMPTE D-11. SMPTE 367M known as SMPTE D-11, is the SMPTE standard for HDCAM; the standard specifies compression of high-definition digital video. D11 source picture rates can be 24, 24/1.001, 25 or 30/1.001 frames per second progressive scan, or 50 or 60/1.001 fields per second interlaced.
Each D11 source frame is composed of a luminance channel at 1920 x 1080 pixels and a chrominance channel at 960 x 1080 pixels. During compression, each frame's luminance channel is subsampled at 1440 x 1080, while the chrominance channel is subsampled at 480 x 1080. HDCAM SR was introduced in 2003 and standardised in SMPTE 409M-2005, it uses a higher particle density tape and is capable of recording in 10 bits 4:2:2 or 4:4:4 RGB with a video bit rate of 440 Mbit/s, a total data rate of 600 Mbit/s. The increased bit rate allows HDCAM SR to capture much more of the full bandwidth of the HD-SDI signal; some HDCAM SR VTRs can use a 2× mode with an higher video bit rate of 880 Mbit/s, allowing for a single 4:4:4 stream at a lower compression or two 4:2:2 video streams simultaneously. HDCAM SR uses MPEG-4 Part 2 Simple Studio Profile for compression, expands the number of audio channels up to 12 at 48 kHz/24-bit. There are 12 channels of audio recorded uncompressed at 24 bit 48 kHz sampling; each channel is capable of recording AES3 non-audio data.
HDCAM SR is used for HDTV television production. As of 2007, many prime-time network television shows use HDCAM SR as a master recording medium; some HDCAM VTRs play back older Betacam variants, for example the Sony SRW-5500 HDCAM SR recorder plays back and records HDCAM and HDCAM SR tapes, with optional hardware plays and upconverts Digital Betacam tapes to HD format. Tape lengths are the same as for Digital Betacam, up to 40 minutes for S and 124 minutes for L tapes. In 24p mode the runtime increases to 155 minutes, respectively. HDCAM tapes are black with an orange lid, HDCAM SR tapes black with a cyan lid. 440 Mbit/s mode is known as SQ, 880 Mbit/s mode is known as HQ, this mode has become available in studio models as well as portable models available. In 2008 the SRW-5800 will give the "HQ" 4:4:4 option. Sony has announced a higher compression mode called "SR Lite"; as with the 440 and 880 mode, SR Lite utilizes the MPEG-4 Part 2 Simple Studio Profile but decreases the bit rate down to 220 Mbit/s for 60i and 183 Mbit/s for 50i.
SR Lite still maintains at 10 bit pixel depth. It allows for 50 and 60p at the cost of a doubled data rate; the Sony SRW-5800 HDCAM SR VTR has the ability to record both the left eye and right eye of 3D content to a single tape. It takes up twice as much space on the tape as a normal recording. Other HDSR decks support 3D such as the SRW-1 HDCAM SR Portable VTR and the SRW-5500/5000 which can play back either channel A or channel B of the Dual Stream 4:2:2 recording. XDCAM XAVC Guide To DTV Standards: Video Recording Overview of Digital Video Standards -- PowerPoint presentation
Cell is a multi-core microprocessor microarchitecture that combines a general-purpose PowerPC core of modest performance with streamlined coprocessing elements which accelerate multimedia and vector processing applications, as well as many other forms of dedicated computation. It was developed by Sony, IBM, an alliance known as "STI"; the architectural design and first implementation were carried out at the STI Design Center in Austin, Texas over a four-year period beginning March 2001 on a budget reported by Sony as approaching US$400 million. Cell is shorthand for Cell Broadband Engine Architecture abbreviated CBEA in full or Cell BE in part; the first major commercial application of Cell was in Sony's PlayStation 3 game console. Mercury Computer Systems has a dual Cell server, a dual Cell blade configuration, a rugged computer, a PCI Express accelerator board available in different stages of production. Toshiba had announced plans to incorporate Cell in high definition television sets, but seems to have abandoned the idea.
Exotic features such as the XDR memory subsystem and coherent Element Interconnect Bus interconnect appear to position Cell for future applications in the supercomputing space to exploit the Cell processor's prowess in floating point kernels. The Cell architecture includes a memory coherence architecture that emphasizes power efficiency, prioritizes bandwidth over low latency, favors peak computational throughput over simplicity of program code. For these reasons, Cell is regarded as a challenging environment for software development. IBM provides a Linux-based development platform to help developers program for Cell chips; the architecture will not be used unless it is adopted by the software development community. However, Cell's strengths may make it useful for scientific computing regardless of its mainstream success. In mid-2000, Sony Computer Entertainment, Toshiba Corporation, IBM formed an alliance known as "STI" to design and manufacture the processor; the STI Design Center opened in March 2001.
The Cell was designed over a period of four years, using enhanced versions of the design tools for the POWER4 processor. Over 400 engineers from the three companies worked together in Austin, with critical support from eleven of IBM's design centers. During this period, IBM filed many patents pertaining to the Cell architecture, manufacturing process, software environment. An early patent version of the Broadband Engine was shown to be a chip package comprising four "Processing Elements", the patent's description for what is now known as the Power Processing Element; each Processing Element contained 8 APUs, which are now referred to as SPEs on the current Broadband Engine chip. This chip package was regarded to run at a clock speed of 4 GHz and with 32 APUs providing 32 gigaFLOPS each, the Broadband Engine was shown to have 1 teraFLOPS of raw computing power; this design was fabricated using a 90 nm SOI process. In March 2007, IBM announced that the 65 nm version of Cell BE is in production at its plant in East Fishkill, New York.
Bandai Namco Entertainment used the cell processor for their 357 arcade board as well as the subsequent 369. In February 2008, IBM announced that it will begin to fabricate Cell processors with the 45 nm process. In May 2008, IBM introduced the high-performance double-precision floating-point version of the Cell processor, the PowerXCell 8i, at the 65 nm feature size. In May 2008, an Opteron- and PowerXCell 8i-based supercomputer, the IBM Roadrunner system, became the world's first system to achieve one petaFLOPS, was the fastest computer in the world until third quarter 2009; the world's three most energy efficient supercomputers, as represented by the Green500 list, are based on the PowerXCell 8i. The 45 nm Cell processor was introduced in concert with Sony's PlayStation 3 Slim in August 2009. By November 2009, IBM had discontinued the development of a Cell processor with 32 APUs but was still developing other Cell products. On May 17, 2005, Sony Computer Entertainment confirmed some specifications of the Cell processor that would be shipping in the then-forthcoming PlayStation 3 console.
This Cell configuration has one PPE on the core, with eight physical SPEs in silicon. In the PlayStation 3, one SPE is locked-out during the test process, a practice which helps to improve manufacturing yields, another one is reserved for the OS, leaving 6 free SPEs to be used by games' code; the target clock-frequency at introduction is 3.2 GHz. The introductory design is fabricated using a 90 nm SOI process, with initial volume production slated for IBM's facility in East Fishkill, New York; the relationship between cores and threads is a common source of confusion. The PPE core is dual threaded and manifests in software as two independent threads of execution while each active SPE manifests as a single thread. In the PlayStation 3 configuration as described by Sony, the Cell processor provides nine independent threads of execution. On June 28, 2005, IBM and Mercury Computer Systems announced a partnership agreement to build Cell-based computer systems for embedded applications such as medical imaging, industrial inspection and defense, seismic processing, telecommunications.
Mercury has since released blades, conventional rack servers and PCI Express accelerator boards with Cell processors. In the fall of 2006, IBM released the QS20 blade module using double Cell BE processors for tremendous performance in certain applications, reaching a peak of 410 gigaFLOPS in FP8 quarter precision per module; the QS22 based on the PowerXCell 8i processor was used for the IBM Roadrunner supercomputer. Mercury and IBM uses the utilized Cell processor with eight active SPEs. On April
Sony/ATV Music Publishing
Sony/ATV Music Publishing is an American music publisher owned by Sony Entertainment. The company was formed in 1995 with the merger of Sony Music Publishing and ATV Music, owned by entertainer Michael Jackson. Jackson had purchased ATV Music, which included the Lennon–McCartney song catalog, in 1985. In 2012, an investor consortium led by Sony/ATV Music Publishing acquired EMI Music Publishing to become the largest music publishing administrator in the world, with a library of over three million songs. In 2016, Sony bought the Jackson estate's 50% stake in Sony/ATV. Associated Television was a British television broadcasting company founded in 1955 by Lew Grade. Over the next two decades, ATV expanded through acquisitions to become an entertainment conglomerate with business lines in the record industry, music publishing and film production. ATV entered the music industry in 1958 when it acquired 50% of Pye Records, a British record company. ATV expanded into music publishing in 1966 when it acquired 50% of New World Music and Jubilee Music, subsidiaries of Chappell & Co.
ATV acquired the other 50% of Pye Records, making it a wholly owned subsidiary of ATV, including Pye Record's publishing subsidiary Welbeck Music. ATV acquired Northern Songs, publisher of the Lennon–McCartney song catalogue, in 1969; the catalog featured every song written by John Lennon and Paul McCartney. Northern Songs was co-owned by Lennon, McCartney, Brian Epstein and Dick James, who owned a controlling interest. In 1969, James offered to sell his shares to ATV. Lennon and McCartney attempted to gain a controlling interest in the company, their bid to gain control, part of a long and acrimonious fight, failed. The financial clout of Grade, their adversary in the bidding war, ensured that the songs written by the two Beatles passed into the control of ATV. In 1970, ATV formed a joint publishing venture with Kirshner Entertainment, called ATV-Kirshner Music; the partnership agreement expired at the end of 1972 at which time ATV Music was formed to manage all of ATV's publishing interests, including Northern Songs.
ATV Music remained a successful organization in the music industry throughout the 1970s due to the performance of Northern Songs. ATV Music entered into co-publishing agreements with Lennon and McCartney, whose contract with Northern Songs expired in 1973. While ATV Music was successful, its parent company, now known as Associated Communications Corporation began experiencing financial difficulties. From 1978 to 1981, ACC's profits declined due to losses in its film division, share prices dropped dramatically; the main television arm of ATV lost its government-granted license in its then-current form and was restructured into Central Independent Television. In 1981, Grade entertained offers for Northern Songs. McCartney, with Lennon's widow Yoko Ono, offered £21 million but the offer was declined by Grade who decided not to sell Northern Songs separately after other suitors, including CBS Songs, EMI Music Publishing, Warner Communications, Paramount Pictures and the Entertainment Co. showed interest in buying ATV Music as a whole.
Meanwhile, Australian businessman Robert Holmes à Court had been acquiring shares of ACC and launched a takeover bid in earnest in January 1982. Grade resigned as chairman and was replaced by Holmes à Court who acquired a controlling interest in the company. After Holmes à Court assumed control of ACC, ATV Music was no longer for sale. In 1981, American singer Michael Jackson collaborated with Paul McCartney and recording several songs together. Jackson stayed at the home of McCartney and his wife Linda during the recording sessions, becoming friendly with both. One evening while at the dining table, McCartney brought out a thick, bound notebook displaying all the songs to which he owned the publishing rights. Jackson grew more excited, he inquired about how the songs were used. McCartney explained. Jackson replied by telling McCartney. McCartney laughed. Good joke."Jackson was first informed that the ATV catalog was up for sale in September 1984 by his attorney, John Branca, who had put together Jackson's earlier catalogue acquisitions.
Warned of the competition he would face in buying such popular songs, Jackson remained resolute in his decision to purchase them. Branca approached McCartney's attorney to query; the attorney stated. According to Bert Reuter, who negotiated the sale of ATV Music for Holmes à Court, "We had given Paul McCartney first right of refusal but Paul didn't want it at that time." Lennon's widow, Yoko Ono had been contacted as well but did not enter bidding. The competitors in the 1984 sale of ATV Music included Charles Koppelman and Marty Bandier's New York-based the Entertainment Co. Virgin Records, New York real estate tycoon Samuel J. LeFrak, financier Charles Knapp. On November 20, 1984, Jackson sent a bid of $46 million to Holmes à Court. Branca suggested the amount of the bid after having spent time evaluating the earnings of the catalogue and learning of another bid for $39 million. Jackson was only interested in the music copyrights, but the package included buildings, a recording studio and studio equipment.
The two sides signed a non-binding memorandum of mutual interest in December 1984 and Jackson's team began a four-month process of verifying ATV Music's legal documents, financial reports, every significant composition in the nearly 4000-song catalog. The two sides began drafting contracts in January 1985 and follow-through meetings began on March 16. Jackson's team describ
DVD is a digital optical disc storage format invented and developed in 1995. The medium can store any kind of digital data and is used for software and other computer files as well as video programs watched using DVD players. DVDs offer higher storage capacity than compact discs. Prerecorded DVDs are mass-produced using molding machines that physically stamp data onto the DVD; such discs are a form of DVD-ROM because data can only be not written or erased. Blank recordable DVD discs can be recorded once using a DVD recorder and function as a DVD-ROM. Rewritable DVDs can be erased many times. DVDs are used in DVD-Video consumer digital video format and in DVD-Audio consumer digital audio format as well as for authoring DVD discs written in a special AVCHD format to hold high definition material. DVDs containing other types of information may be referred to as DVD data discs; the Oxford English Dictionary comments that, "In 1995 rival manufacturers of the product named digital video disc agreed that, in order to emphasize the flexibility of the format for multimedia applications, the preferred abbreviation DVD would be understood to denote digital versatile disc."
The OED states that in 1995, "The companies said the official name of the format will be DVD. Toshiba had been using the name ‘digital video disc’, but, switched to ‘digital versatile disc’ after computer companies complained that it left out their applications.""Digital versatile disc" is the explanation provided in a DVD Forum Primer from 2000 and in the DVD Forum's mission statement. There were several formats developed for recording video on optical discs before the DVD. Optical recording technology was invented by David Paul Gregg and James Russell in 1958 and first patented in 1961. A consumer optical disc data format known as LaserDisc was developed in the United States, first came to market in Atlanta, Georgia in 1978, it used much larger discs than the formats. Due to the high cost of players and discs, consumer adoption of LaserDisc was low in both North America and Europe, was not used anywhere outside Japan and the more affluent areas of Southeast Asia, such as Hong-Kong, Singapore and Taiwan.
CD Video released in 1987 used analog video encoding on optical discs matching the established standard 120 mm size of audio CDs. Video CD became one of the first formats for distributing digitally encoded films in this format, in 1993. In the same year, two new optical disc storage formats were being developed. One was the Multimedia Compact Disc, backed by Philips and Sony, the other was the Super Density disc, supported by Toshiba, Time Warner, Matsushita Electric, Mitsubishi Electric, Thomson, JVC. By the time of the press launches for both formats in January 1995, the MMCD nomenclature had been dropped, Philips and Sony were referring to their format as Digital Video Disc. Representatives from the SD camp asked IBM for advice on the file system to use for their disc, sought support for their format for storing computer data. Alan E. Bell, a researcher from IBM's Almaden Research Center, got that request, learned of the MMCD development project. Wary of being caught in a repeat of the costly videotape format war between VHS and Betamax in the 1980s, he convened a group of computer industry experts, including representatives from Apple, Sun Microsystems and many others.
This group was referred to as the Technical Working Group, or TWG. On August 14, 1995, an ad hoc group formed from five computer companies issued a press release stating that they would only accept a single format; the TWG voted to boycott both formats unless the two camps agreed on a converged standard. They recruited president of IBM, to pressure the executives of the warring factions. In one significant compromise, the MMCD and SD groups agreed to adopt proposal SD 9, which specified that both layers of the dual-layered disc be read from the same side—instead of proposal SD 10, which would have created a two-sided disc that users would have to turn over; as a result, the DVD specification provided a storage capacity of 4.7 GB for a single-layered, single-sided disc and 8.5 GB for a dual-layered, single-sided disc. The DVD specification ended up similar to Toshiba and Matsushita's Super Density Disc, except for the dual-layer option and EFMPlus modulation designed by Kees Schouhamer Immink.
Philips and Sony decided that it was in their best interests to end the format war, agreed to unify with companies backing the Super Density Disc to release a single format, with technologies from both. After other compromises between MMCD and SD, the computer companies through TWG won the day, a single format was agreed upon; the TWG collaborated with the Optical Storage Technology Association on the use of their implementation of the ISO-13346 file system for use on the new DVDs. Movie and home entertainment distributors adopted the DVD format to replace the ubiquitous VHS tape as the primary consumer digital video distribution format, they embraced DVD as it produced higher quality video and sound, provided superior data lifespan, could be interactive. Interactivity on LaserDiscs had proven desirable to consumers collectors; when LaserDisc prices dropped from $100 per
Exmor is the name of a technology Sony implemented on some of their CMOS image sensors. It performs on-chip analog/digital signal conversion and two-step noise reduction in parallel on each column of the CMOS sensor. Exmor R is a back-illuminated version of Sony's CMOS image sensor. Exmor R was announced by Sony on 11 June 2008 and was the world's first mass-produced implementation of the back-illuminated sensor technology Sony claims that Exmor R is twice as sensitive as a normal front illuminated sensor; this active pixel sensor is found in several Sony mobile phones and cameras as well as Apple's iPhone 2G and 5. The Exmor R sensor allows the camera of the smartphone to capture high definition movies and stills in low light areas. Exmor R was limited to smaller sensors for camcorders, compact cameras and mobile phones, but the Sony ILCE-7RM2 full-frame camera introduced on the 10 June 2015 features an Exmor R sensor as well. Exmor RS is a stacked CMOS image sensor announced by Sony on 20 August 2012.
Not Backlit + Not Stacked. Backlit + Not Stacked. Backlit + Stacked. Bionz – image processor HAD CCD – Sony Expeed – Nikon image/video processors Toshiba CMOS Samsung CMOS OmniVision