The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
In the United States, an honor society is a rank organization that recognizes excellence among peers. Numerous societies recognize various circumstances; the Order of the Arrow, for example, is the national honor society of the Boy Scouts of America. Chiefly, the term refers to scholastic honor societies, those that recognize students who excel academically or as leaders among their peers within a specific academic discipline. Many honor societies invite students to become members based on the scholastic rank and/or grade point averages of those students, either overall, or for classes taken within the discipline for which the honor society provides recognition. In cases where academic achievement would not be an appropriate criterion for membership, other standards are required for membership, it is common for a scholastic honor society to add a criterion relating to the character of the student. Some honor societies are invitation. Membership in an honor society might be considered exclusive, i.e. a member of such an organization cannot join other honor societies representing the same field.
Academic robes and regalia identifying by color the degree and other distinction, are controlled under rules of a voluntary Intercollegiate Code. In addition, various colored devices such as stoles, cords and medallions are used to indicate membership in a student's honor society. Of these and mortarboard tassels are most used to indicate membership. Most institutions allow honor cords, tassels and/or medallions for honor society members. Stoles are less common. All, if not all honor societies have chosen such colors, may sell these items of accessory regalia as a service or fundraiser. Many fraternities and sororities are referred to by their membership or by non-members as honor societies, vice versa, though this is not always the case. Honor societies exist at the high school, collegiate/university, postgraduate levels, although university honor societies are by far the most prevalent. In America, the oldest academic society, Phi Beta Kappa, was founded as a social and literary fraternity in 1776 at the College of William and Mary and organized as an honor society in 1898, following the establishment of the honor societies Tau Beta Pi for Engineering, Sigma Xi for Scientific Research, Phi Kappa Phi for all disciplines.
February 15, 1918 the first national honor society for senior women was established, Mortar Board, with chapters at four institutions Cornell University, The University of Michigan, The Ohio State University and Swarthmore College the society became coed. The Association of College Honor Societies is a predominantly American, voluntary association of national collegiate and post-graduate honor societies. ACHS was formed in 1925 to maintain desirable standards for honor societies. While ACHS membership is a certification that the member societies meet these standards, not all legitimate honor societies apply for membership in ACHS. Notable national and international honor societies based in or at schools include the following: Alpha Chi, ΑΧ, colors: Emerald Green and Sapphire blue Alpha Kappa Mu, ΑΚΜ Alpha Lambda Delta, ΑΛΔ Alpha Sigma Lambda, ΑΣΛ Alpha Sigma Nu, ΑΣΝ, colors: Maroon and Gold Delta Epsilon Sigma, ΔΕΣ Delta Epsilon Tau, ΔΕΤ Golden Key International Honour Society Mortar Board National College Senior Honor Society, Mortar Board National Society of Collegiate Scholars, NSCS, colors: Burgundy and Gold Phi Eta Sigma, ΦΗΣ Phi Kappa Phi, ΦΚΦ Phi Sigma Pi, ΦΣΠ, colors: Purple and Gold Phi Tau Phi, ΦΤΦ Tau Sigma, ΤΣ Lambda Sigma, ΛΣ Order of Omega Sigma Alpha Lambda, ΣΑΛ Eta Sigma Delta Alpha Kappa Delta, ΑΚΔ, color: Teal Alpha Upsilon Alpha, ΑΥΑ Beta Beta Beta, ΒΒΒ, color: Blood red and Leaf green Beta Kappa Chi, ΒΚΧ Gamma Theta Upsilon, ΓΘΥ Eta Sigma Phi, ΗΣΦ Theta Alpha Kappa, ΘΑΚ Theta Chi Beta, ΘΧΒ Iota Sigma Pi, ΙΣΠ Kappa Mu Epsilon, ΚΜΕ Kappa Omicron Nu, KON, colors: Burgundy and Cream Lambda Alpha, ΛΑ Lambda Iota Tau, ΛΙΤ Mu Alpha Theta, ΜΑΘ Mu Sigma Rho, ΜΣΡ Pi Gamma Mu, ΠΓΜ Pi Mu Epsilon, ΠΜΕ Pi Sigma Alpha, ΠΣΑ Sigma Zeta, ΣΖ Sigma Pi Sigma, ΣΠΣ, colors: Forest Green and Ivory Sigma Tau Delta, ΣΤΔ Upsilon Pi Epsilon, ΥΠΕ Phi Alpha Theta, ΦΑΘ Phi Beta Kappa, ΦΒΚ, Colors: Pink and Sky blue Phi Lambda Upsilon, ΦΛΥ Phi Sigma, ΦΣ Phi Sigma Tau, ΦΣΤ Ch
The Tome School is a private school in North East in Cecil County in the U. S. state of Maryland. It is one of the oldest schools in Maryland, it enrolls grades K - 12. The Tome School for Boys located on Main Street in Port Deposit, Maryland, in Cecil County, on the east bank of the Susquehanna River was founded by Jacob Tome, as a nonsectarian college preparatory school for boys, it opened for boarders and received its first students in 1894. It was part of a system of schools collectively known as the Jacob Tome Institute that began with kindergarten and extended through high school. Situated in the northeast corner of the state, the Tome School was popular, attracting all the students from the town of Port Deposit and many from outside, throughout Maryland and neighboring states. Tome left the school an endowment at his death in 1898. Under the direction of his widow, Evalyn N. Tome, the Board of Trustees hired Scottish immigrant James Cameron Mackenzie, to direct the school. MacKenzie, one of the most important late 19th-century secondary school educators, proposed using the endowment to create a separate upper-level boarding school for boys.
Two hundred acres on the bluff above the town of stone granite buildings and the broad picturesque Susquehanna River were purchased for this purpose. MacKenzie in turn consulted with Robert Swain Peabody, of the prominent Boston architectural firm of Peabody & Stearns, concerning the design of the new Jacob Tome Institute. Following a design competition in 1900, supervised by Peabody, the Board of Trustees selected designs by partner architects William Boring, Edward Lippincott Tilton, co-designers of the U. S. immigration station at Ellis Island in New York harbor and other significant structures, in the popular beaux arts architectural style. Over the next five years, stone buildings were built on the bluffs above Port Deposit using its famous local Port Deposit granite overlooking the Susquehanna River; the tree-lined streets of the campus were designed by nationally well known landscape architect Frederick Law Olmsted, who had designed New York's Central Park and converged at the steps of Memorial Hall.
Olmsted selected well-known landscape architect Charles Wellford Leavitt, to design the school's gardens. By 1902, the school had an endowment of $2 million. Thirteen of these buildings survive: Memorial Hall, three dormitories, the Chesapeake Inn dormitory and dining hall, the Director's residence, the Monroe Gymnasium, six Master's cottages. In the early 1900s, Tome played football annually against The Baltimore City College, the third oldest public high school in America, founded 1839, with an interscholastic football team program dating back to the 1880s and had several other schools and colleges on its schedule; the rivalry was even. The City's Collegians beat Tome 5-0 in 1903 and 11-8 in 1904, but Tome won 32-0 in 1912 and 37-0 in 1915. Other rivalries were versus the Baltimore Polytechnic Institute, the mathematics/science/technology public high school, established 1883, City College's arch-rival; these were the few other public secondary schools, in addition to several other private or religious schools and academies in the region offering worthy sports and academic competition.
In 1906, school director Abram W. Harris, along with Phi Beta Kappa members on the Tome School faculty, organized Alpha Delta Tau fraternity, which became the Cum Laude Society; the school enjoyed a prestigious reputation for a number of years. Its students included R. J. Reynolds, Jr. as well as children of the famous financial / business Mellon and Carnegie families. The school property and buildings were listed on the National Register of Historic Places as a historic district in 1984. After thriving for several decades, the Jacob Tome Institute fell into difficult financial straits during the Great Depression of the 1930s and was closed in 1941; the following year at the beginning of World War II, the property, along with the additional land from 70 surrounding farms, was acquired by condemnation by the United States government for the use of the United States Navy for development as a U. S. Naval Training Center; the institute's former buildings were converted to use by the Naval Academy Preparatory School to prepare future midshipmen for the U.
S. Naval Academy further south at Maryland. USNTC Bainbridge was activated on October 1, 1942, operated throughout World War II, Korean War and Vietnam War, the Cold War era, it closed as a military facility on March 31, 1976. During 34 years of operation, USNTC Bainbridge, graduated over 500,000 recruits. For over a decade, from 1979-1991, the Susquehanna Job Corps Center occupied the campus. In 2000, the site was transferred to the State of Maryland, which subsequently turned it over to the Bainbridge Development Corporation. Meanwhile, the Tome School moved back to its original site on Main Street in Port Deposit. In 1971, the Tome School moved to a hundred-acre campus in North East, Maryland; the co-educational school enrolls students from kindergarten through twelfth grade. The curriculum provides a broad liberal arts education in an environment emphasizing academic success, high standards of personal behavior, full participation in school life; the student body is divided among three schools: Lower School.
Students begin Spanish language study in first grade. Middle School. Students are required to take Latin study in the seventh grade through eighth grade. Upper School. Students concent