2010 United States Census
The 2010 United States Census is the twenty-third and most recent United States national census. National Census Day, the reference day used for the census, was April 1, 2010; the census was taken via mail-in citizen self-reporting, with enumerators serving to spot-check randomly selected neighborhoods and communities. As part of a drive to increase the count's accuracy, 635,000 temporary enumerators were hired; the population of the United States was counted as 308,745,538, a 9.7% increase from the 2000 Census. This was the first census in which all states recorded a population of over half a million, as well as the first in which all 100 largest cities recorded populations of over 200,000; as required by the United States Constitution, the U. S. census has been conducted every 10 years since 1790. The 2000 U. S. Census was the previous census completed. Participation in the U. S. Census is required by law in Title 13 of the United States Code. On January 25, 2010, Census Bureau Director Robert Groves inaugurated the 2010 Census enumeration by counting World War II veteran Clifton Jackson, a resident of Noorvik, Alaska.
More than 120 million census forms were delivered by the U. S. Post Office beginning March 15, 2010; the number of forms mailed out or hand-delivered by the Census Bureau was 134 million on April 1, 2010. Although the questionnaire used April 1, 2010 as the reference date as to where a person was living, an insert dated March 15, 2010 included the following printed in bold type: "Please complete and mail back the enclosed census form today." The 2010 Census national mail participation rate was 74%. From April through July 2010, census takers visited households that did not return a form, an operation called "non-response follow-up". In December 2010, the U. S. Census Bureau delivered population information to the U. S. President for apportionment, in March 2011, complete redistricting data was delivered to states. Identifiable information will be available in 2082; the Census Bureau did not use a long form for the 2010 Census. In several previous censuses, one in six households received this long form, which asked for detailed social and economic information.
The 2010 Census used only a short form asking ten basic questions: How many people were living or staying in this house, apartment, or mobile home on April 1, 2010? Were there any additional people staying here on April 1, 2010 that you did not include in Question 1? Mark all that apply: Is this house, apartment, or mobile home – What is your telephone number? What is Person 1's name? What is Person 1's sex? What is Person 1's age and Person 1's date of birth? Is Person 1 of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin? What is Person 1's race? Does Person 1 sometimes live or stay somewhere else? The form included space to repeat all of these questions for up to twelve residents total. In contrast to the 2000 census, an Internet response option was not offered, nor was the form available for download. Detailed socioeconomic information collected during past censuses will continue to be collected through the American Community Survey; the survey provides data about communities in the United States on a 1-year or 3-year cycle, depending on the size of the community, rather than once every 10 years.
A small percentage of the population on a rotating basis will receive the survey each year, no household will receive it more than once every five years. In June 2009, the U. S. Census Bureau announced. However, the final form did not contain a separate "same-sex married couple" option; when noting the relationship between household members, same-sex couples who are married could mark their spouses as being "Husband or wife", the same response given by opposite-sex married couples. An "unmarried partner" option was available for couples; the 2010 census cost $13 billion $42 per capita. Operational costs were $5.4 billion under the $7 billion budget. In December 2010 the Government Accountability Office noted that the cost of conducting the census has doubled each decade since 1970. In a detailed 2004 report to Congress, the GAO called on the Census Bureau to address cost and design issues, at that time, had estimated the 2010 Census cost to be $11 billion. In August 2010, Commerce Secretary Gary Locke announced that the census operational costs came in under budget.
Locke credited the management practices of Census Bureau director Robert Groves, citing in particular the decision to buy additional advertising in locations where responses lagged, which improved the overall response rate. The agency has begun to rely more on questioning neighbors or other reliable third parties when a person could not be reached at home, which reduced the cost of follow-up visits. Census data for about 22% of U. S. househol
Bledsoe County, Tennessee
Bledsoe County is a county located in the U. S. state of Tennessee. As of the 2010 census, the population was 12,876, its county seat is Pikeville. Bledsoe County was formed in 1807 from land, Indian Land as well as land carved from Roane County; the county was named for Anthony Bledsoe, a soldier in the Revolutionary War and was an early settler of Sumner County. He was killed in an Indian attack at Bledsoe's Station. Like many East Tennessee counties, Bledsoe County opposed secession on the eve of the Civil War. In Tennessee's Ordinance of Secession on June 8, 1861, the county's residents voted against secession by a margin of 500 to 197. General James G. Spears, a resident of Bledsoe, served as a vice president at the pro-Union East Tennessee Convention in May and June 1861, fought for the Union Army in the war. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 407 square miles, of which 406 square miles is land and 0.3 square miles is water. Cumberland County Rhea County Hamilton County Sequatchie County Van Buren County Bledsoe State Forest Fall Creek Falls State Natural Area Fall Creek Falls State Park As of the census of 2000, there were 12,367 people, 4,430 households, 3,313 families residing in the county.
The population density was 30 people per square mile. There were 5,142 housing units at an average density of 13 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 94.44% White, 3.70% Black or African American, 0.38% Native American, 0.11% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.19% from other races, 1.15% from two or more races. 1.12% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 4,430 households out of which 31.30% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 61.50% were married couples living together, 9.10% had a female householder with no husband present, 25.20% were non-families. 22.10% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.20% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.53 and the average family size was 2.94. In the county, the population was spread out with 23.10% under the age of 18, 8.40% from 18 to 24, 31.30% from 25 to 44, 25.80% from 45 to 64, 11.40% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years.
For every 100 females there were 121.00 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 121.30 males. The median income for a household in the county was $28,982, the median income for a family was $34,593. Males had a median income of $26,648 versus $20,639 for females; the per capita income for the county was $13,889. About 14.90% of families and 18.10% of the population were below the poverty line, including 21.00% of those under age 18 and 23.20% of those age 65 or over. Bledsoe County is home to a portion of Fall Creek Falls State Resort Park. Pikeville National Register of Historic Places listings in Bledsoe County, Tennessee USS Bledsoe County LST-356 Bledsoe County Chamber of Commerce TNGenweb Blesoe County – genealogical resources Bledsoe County at Curlie
Morgan County, Tennessee
Morgan County is a county located in the U. S. state of Tennessee. As of the 2010 census, the population was 21,987, its county seat is Wartburg. Morgan County is part of TN Combined Statistical Area. Morgan County was formed in 1817 from portions of Roane counties, it was named in honor of Daniel Morgan, an American Revolutionary War officer who commanded the troops that defeated the British at the Battle of Cowpens, who served as a U. S. congressman from Virginia. The county had been part of lands relinquished by the Cherokee with the signing of the Third Treaty of Tellico in 1805; the original county seat was Montgomery until 1870. On November 10, 2002, a tornado destroyed 50 homes. At least seven people were killed in the Morgan County communities of Mossy Joyner. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 522 square miles, of which 522 square miles is land and 0.3 square miles is water. The county, which lies on the eastern edge of the Cumberland Plateau, is known for its rugged mountain terrain, cold mountain streams and rivers.
The Crab Orchard Mountains comprise a large area of the county, which includes several designated wilderness areas, Frozen Head State Park, Lone Mountain State Forest. The Emory River rises on the slopes of Bird Mountain near Wartburg; the Obed River, a designated national wild and scenic river, empties into the Emory southwest of Wartburg. The Clear Fork, which forms part of Morgan's boundary with Fentress County, joins the New River in Scott County to the north to form the Big South Fork of the Cumberland River; the Cumberland Trail passes through Morgan County. Scott County Anderson County Roane County Cumberland County Fentress County Big South Fork National River and Recreation Area Obed Wild and Scenic River Catoosa Wildlife Management Area Frozen Head State Natural Area Frozen Head State Park Justin P. Wilson Cumberland Trail State Park Lone Mountain State Forest North Cumberland Wildlife Management Area Rugby State Natural Area As of the census of 2000, there were 19,757 people, 6,990 households, 5,235 families residing in the county.
The population density was 38 people per square mile. There were 7,714 housing units at an average density of 15 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 96.72% White, 2.23% Black or African American, 0.20% Native American, 0.12% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 0.14% from other races, 0.59% from two or more races. 0.61% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 6,990 households out of which 33.50% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 60.70% were married couples living together, 10.30% had a female householder with no husband present, 25.10% were non-families. 22.10% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.30% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.58 and the average family size was 3.01. In the county, the population was spread out with 23.20% under the age of 18, 8.80% from 18 to 24, 31.90% from 25 to 44, 24.50% from 45 to 64, 11.50% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years.
For every 100 females, there were 114.30 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 116.40 males. The median income for a household in the county was $27,712, the median income for a family was $31,901. Males had a median income of $25,683 versus $18,606 for females; the per capita income for the county was $12,925. About 13.50% of families and 16.00% of the population were below the poverty line, including 18.50% of those under age 18 and 15.80% of those age 65 or over. Harriman Sunbright Wartburg Oakdale Oliver Springs Coalfield Petros Burrville Chestnut Ridge Deer Lodge Joyner Lancing Mossy Grove Rugby Stephens Gobey National Register of Historic Places listings in Morgan County, Tennessee Dickenson, W. Calvin. Morgan County. Memphis, Tenn.: Memphis State University Press. ISBN 978-0878701575 Humphreys, James. "Becoming Americans: Social Change in Morgan County, Tennessee, 1850–1870." Journal of East Tennessee History, Vol. 84, pp. 23–39. Official site Morgan County Chamber of Commerce Morgan County, TNGenWeb - free genealogy resources for the county Morgan County at Curlie Morgan county landforms
The Cumberland Mountains are a mountain range in the southeastern section of the Appalachian Mountains. They are located in western Virginia, eastern edges of Kentucky, eastern middle Tennessee, including the Crab Orchard Mountains, their highest peak, with an elevation of 4,223 feet above mean sea level, is High Knob, located near Norton, Virginia. According to the USGS, the Cumberland Mountain range is 131 miles long and 20 miles wide, bounded by the Russell Fork on the northeast, the Pound River and Powell River on the southeast, Cove Creek on the southwest, Tackett Creek, the Cumberland River, Poor Fork Cumberland River, Elkhorn Creek on the northwest; the crest of the range forms the Kentucky and Virginia boundary from the Tennessee border to the Russell Fork River. Variant names of the Cumberland Mountains include Cumberland Mountain, Cumberland Range, Ouasioto Mountains, Ouasiota Mountains, Laurel Mountain, Pine Mountain, they are named for Duke of Cumberland. The Cumberland Mountains range includes Pine Mountain, Cumberland Mountain, Log Mountain, Little Black Mountain and Black Mountain, as well as others.
Oak Ridge National Laboratory is involved with the conservation of the mixed mesophytic forests within the northern Cumberland Plateau in Tennessee. The conservation organizations include The Nature Conservancy, the Doris Duke Charitable Foundation, the Natural Resources Defense Council with focus on the Cumberland Plateau; the Cumberland Mountains are a physiographic section of the larger Appalachian Plateau province, which in turn is part of the larger Appalachian physiographic division. Pine Mountain is a long, narrow ridge starting in northern Tennessee and extending northeastward into southeastern Kentucky and southwestern Virginia, its southwestern terminus is near Pioneer, it extends 122 miles to the northeast to near the Breaks Interstate Park in Kentucky and Virginia. Pine Mountain is at the headward ramp of the Pine Mountain Thrust Fault; the hard Lee-type sandstones of the Early Pennsylvanian form the ridge line. The sandstone strata crop out here because northwestward movement along the thrust fault caused these sandstones to be pushed up the ramp and over younger strata.
Because the sandstones are resistant to erosion, they form a prominent ridge along this ramp. The southwestern terminus of Pine Mountain is marked by the northwest-trending Jacksboro Fault, a lateral ramp fault; the northwestern slope of Pine Mountain is cliff-lined whereas the southeastern slope is gentle, this is the dip slope, it is parallel to the dip of the sandstones. This is the northern limb of the Middlesboro Syncline. Several gaps occur along Pine Mountain, these are caused by erosion along cross-cutting faults; these gaps include the gap at High Cliff, the Narrows gap at Pineville and Pound Gap near Jenkins, Kentucky. There are other minor gaps as well. Cumberland Mountain, not to be confused with the Cumberland Mountains within which it resides, is a long ridge extending from northeastern Tennessee, southeastern Kentucky and southwestern Virginia, its peak forms the boundary between Virginia in some areas. The southeastern side of Cumberland Mountain is a cliff-lined wall, a barrier to exploration and settlement in Kentucky during the westward expansion in the late eighteenth century.
The famous Cumberland Gap is one of several gaps along Cumberland Mountain that allowed access across the mountain. Cumberland Mountain is a long ridge running from near Caryville, northeastward to near Norton, Virginia, a distance of 97 miles; the southeastern slope of the ridge is cliff lined. The ridge is interrupted by several gaps, including Cumberland Gap, Big Creek Gap between Ivydell and LaFollette, Pennington Gap near Pennington Gap and Big Stone Gap near Big Stone Gap, Virginia; the crest of Cumberland Mountain ranges from 2,200 feet to 3,500 feet in elevation. Cumberland Mountain is parallel to Pine Mountain which lies from eight to ten miles to the northwest. Cumberland Mountain is part of the Cumberland Overthrust Sheet or block and is the northern limb of the Powell Valley Anticline, a ramp anticline; the ridge exists because hard Lee-type sandstones of Early Pennsylvanian Age crop out along this line. Softer rocks have been eroded away; the southwestern terminus of Cumberland Mountain is marked by the northwest-trending Jacksboro Fault, a lateral ramp fault.
The northwestern terminus is located near Norton, where the hard sandstones dip below the surface as the axis of the Powell Valley anticline plunges to the northeast. The various gaps in Cumberland Mountain are caused by rock weaknesses at cross-cutting faults or joints. For example, Cumberland Gap was caused by erosion along the cross-cutting Rocky Face Fault; the cliff-lined southeastern slope of Cumberland Mountain was created by erosion along the breached side of the Powell Valley Anticline. The more-gentle northwestern slope is the dip slope and parallel to the dip of the Early Pennsylvanian sandstones; this northwestward dip is the northern limb of the Powell Valley Anticline. Cumberland Mountain forms the drainage divide between the Cumberland River to the north and the Powell River to the south. Several mountains that lie between Pine Mountain and Cumberland Mountain include Black Mountain and Little Black Mountain as well as a number of smaller mountains (Short, Rich, Reynolds
Catoosa Wildlife Management Area
Catoosa Wildlife Management Area is a large game-management area on the Upper Cumberland Plateau in Morgan and Fentress counties in Tennessee in the United States. It comprises 82,000 acres of wild land administered by the Tennessee Wildlife Resources Agency; the Management Area is funded by hunters and fishermen, is popular with all outdoors enthusiasts, including backpackers, whitewater rafters. It has many trails for hiking, it has gravel roads and dirt track four-wheel drive roads for motorized exploration. Catoosa ranges from gentle rolling hills to some of the most rugged and extreme terrain in the country. Many rivers and streams have cut deep canyons into the Cumberland Plateau and Cumberland Mountains of the Management area allowing for beautiful vistas. Catoosa and several other WMAs are closed to entry between sunset and sunrise in order to reduce the effect of the activities that are considered incompatible to established wildlife management practices; because WMAs were purchased with funds generated by hunters, the TWRA regards hunting as the main priority on these areas.
Off-road vehicles and horses are only on certain roads and trails. Overnight camping is allowed on designated areas by permission of the area manager; the Catoosa WMA lies within the Emory River drainage, divided by a number of major stream drainages, including the Obed River, Daddy's Creek, Clear Creek, Otter Creek. The Emory River meets the Obed River in the southeast corner of the area; the terrain is moderately rolling, ranging in elevation from 1,100 feet to 2,300 feet, with deep canyons cut by the streams. Over 98 percent of the WMA is forested and the wildlife populations have been restored; the healthy deer herd produces trophy bucks for hunters, wild turkey numbers are growing fast. Other game animals include European wild boar, fox squirrels, gray squirrels, ruffed grouse, quail and mourning doves. Game fish include smallmouth bass, rock bass and muskellunge. Man's first use of the plateau was as hunting grounds. Artifacts found in caves and rock shelters suggest Mississippian and Cherokee hunters camped here but never established permanent dwellings.
The hunting grounds were visited seasonally by the Cherokees, Choctaws and Shawnees, were the subject of repeated conflicts. In the eighteenth century, longhunters came to hunt game, English, Scots-Irish and German settlers settled in small hamlets in the valleys. In 1797, Francis Bailey wrote, "...about five o'clock we arrived at Crab Orchard. Here we found a large plain or natural meadow, containing many hundred acres covered throughout its whole extent with a tall, rich grass." Two years in 1799, Martin Steiner wrote, "...then we crossed barren hills where only bushes grew. Now and one saw a little tree." There were many other such accounts indicating the open nature of the terrain and the presence of great herds of elk and bison. Ecologists believe the prairie-like environment arose from lightning-caused wildfire and grazing by megafauna; this natural community was maintained by periodic burning by the Native Americans. The plateau reforested; the white settlers visited the high country to mine coal and harvest timber before major industry came to the area with the first lumber mill in the 1870s.
By 1911, two coal and lumber companies had formed a syndicate that exploited the region until the main bridges on their rail lines were destroyed by a flood in 1929. As the companies cleared the woodland they leased these lands to small farms for arable and animal farming; the Great Depression prevented the industrial companies from reinvesting in the repair of their railroads and businesses began to fail. In 1940 the Crossville Exchange Club appointed a committee to encourage the state to purchase some of the abandoned land for a wildlife management area; the Conservation Commission bought 63,000 acres from the Tennessee Mineral and Lumber Company in 1942 using Pittman–Robertson federal aid funds. In 1949 the Tennessee Game and Fish Commission, now the Tennessee Wildlife Resources Agency, established a tentative purchase boundary encompassing some 90,000 acres within which they began to eliminate interior holdings through a land acquisition program; as of 1999 this program was still in train.
Tennessee Wildlife Resources Agency
The Cumberland River is a major waterway of the Southern United States. The 688-mile-long river drains 18,000 square miles of southern Kentucky and north-central Tennessee; the river flows west from a source in the Appalachian Mountains to its confluence with the Ohio River near Paducah and the mouth of the Tennessee River. Major tributaries include the Obey, Caney Fork and Red rivers. Although the Cumberland River basin is predominantly rural, there are some large cities on the river, including Nashville and Clarksville, both in Tennessee. In addition, the river system has been extensively developed for flood control, with major dams impounding both the main stem and many of its important tributaries, its headwaters are three separate forks that begin in Kentucky and converge in Baxter, KY, located in Harlan County. Martin's Fork starts near Hensley Settlement on Brush Mountain in Bell County and snakes its way north through the mountains to Baxter. Clover Fork starts on Black Mountain in Holmes Mill, near the Virginia border, flows west in parallel with Kentucky Route 38 until it reaches Harlan.
Clover Fork once flowed through downtown Harlan and merged with Martins Fork at the intersection of Kentucky Route 38 and US Route 421 until a flood control project began in 1992 diverted it through a tunnel under Little Black Mountain from which it emerges in Baxter and converges with Martins Fork. Poor Fork begins as a small stream on Pine Mountain in Letcher County near Virginia, it flows southwest in parallel with Pine Mountain until it merges with the other two forks in Baxter. From there, the wider, now named Cumberland River continues flowing west through the mountains of Kentucky before turning northward toward Cumberland Falls; the 68-foot falls is one of the largest waterfalls in the southeastern United States and is one of the few places in the Western Hemisphere where a moonbow can be seen. Beyond Cumberland Falls, the river turns abruptly west once again and continues to grow as it converges with other creeks and streams, it receives the Laurel and Rockcastle rivers from the northeast and the Big South Fork of the Cumberland River from the south.
From here it flows into the man-made Lake Cumberland, formed by Wolf Creek Dam. The more than 100-mile reservoir is one of the largest artificial lakes in the eastern US. Near Celina, the river crosses south into Tennessee, where it is joined by the Obey River and Caney Fork. Northeast of Nashville, the river is dammed twice more, forming Cordell Hull Lake and Old Hickory Lake. After flowing through Nashville and picking up the Stones River, the river is dammed to form Cheatham Lake; the river turns northwest toward Clarksville, where it is joined by the Red River, flows back into Kentucky at the Land Between the Lakes National Recreation Area, a section of land nestled between Lake Barkley, fed by the Cumberland River, Kentucky Lake. The river flows north and merges with the Ohio River at Smithland, northeast of Paducah; the explorer Thomas Walker of Virginia in 1758 named the river, but whether for the Duke of Cumberland or the English county of Cumberland is not known. The Cumberland River was called Wasioto by the Shawnee Native Americans.
French traders called it the Riviere des Chaouanons, or "River of the Shawnee" for this association. The river was known as the Shawnee River for years after Walker's trip. Important first as a passage for hunters and settlers, the Cumberland River supported riverboat trade, which traveled to the Ohio and Mississippi rivers. Villages and cities were located at landing points along its banks. Through the middle of the 19th century, settlers depended on rivers as the primary transportation routes for trading and travel. In more recent history, a number of severe floods have struck various regions that the river flows through. In April 1977, Harlan and many surrounding communities were inundated with floodwaters, destroying most of the homes and businesses within the floodplain of the river; this event led to the building of the Martins Fork Dam for flood control and the diversion of the Clover Fork around the city of Harlan. In addition, the river was diverted through a mountain cut in Kentucky.
In late April and early May 2010, due to the 2010 Tennessee floods, the river overflowed its banks and flooded Nashville and Clarksville, Tennessee. The downtown area was ordered to evacuate. Quadrula tuberosa — Cumberland River endemic'Rough rockshell' freshwater mussel. List of longest rivers of the United States List of rivers of Kentucky List of rivers of Tennessee Media related to Cumberland River at Wikimedia Commons "Cumberland River"; the American Cyclopædia. 1879. "Cumberland River". The New Student's Reference Work. 1914
Cumberland Homesteads is a community located in Cumberland County, United States. Established by the New Deal-era Division of Subsistence Homesteads in 1934, the community was envisioned by federal planners as a model of cooperative living for the region's distressed farmers, coal miners, factory workers. While the cooperative experiment failed and the federal government withdrew from the project in the 1940s, the Homesteads community survived. In 1988, several hundred of the community's original houses and other buildings, which are characterized by the native "crab orchard" sandstone used in their construction, were added to the National Register of Historic Places as a historic district. By the early 1930s, decades of poor farming practices had rendered many of the small farms in East Tennessee untenable, the Great Depression had left thousands of coal miners and other industrial workers unemployed. In January 1934, the Division of Subsistence Homesteads chose Cumberland County as a site for one of its "stranded" agricultural communities, in which families were resettled on small farms and would work in community-owned businesses.
Most of the cooperative ventures failed and after World War II the government divested itself of the project. The community's general layout still appears. Cumberland Homesteads is located in a hilly area atop the Cumberland Plateau, just south of Crossville. Byrd Creek, a tributary of the Obed River, drains much of the community. Cumberland Mountain State Park, developed in the 1930s as a recreational area, is located in Cumberland Homesteads. U. S. Route 127 connects the Homestead area with Crossville and I-40 to the north and the Sequatchie Valley to the south. State Highway 68 connects the area to Spring City to the east; the Cumberland Homesteads Historic District, which covers over 10,000 acres, includes properties on Chestnut Lane, Coon Hollow Lane, County Seat Road, Crab Apple Lane, Crab Orchard Road, Deep Draw Road, Grassy Cove Road, Highland Lane, Huckleberry Road, Old Mail Road, Open Range Road, Pigeon Ridge Road, Saw Mill Road, Turkey Oak Road, Valley Road, as well as over a dozen structures in Cumberland Mountain State Park.
The passage of the National Industrial Recovery Act in 1933 created the Division of Subsistence Homesteads and gave the Roosevelt Administration $25,000,000 to purchase land for the creation of small farming communities for the nation's displaced workers. The Division focused on three types of settlements— communities of part-time farmers near wage-earning employment, communities of farmers resettled from unproductive land, communities of "stranded" industrial workers, namely miners and loggers; the latter type, which included Cumberland Homesteads, drew the most criticism, as many believed such communities would never be self-supporting. Cumberland County farm agent Robert Lyons led a local committee that drew up a proposal for a homestead community, which it submitted to the Division of Subsistence Hometeads in December 1933. Lyons had been influenced by earlier Plateau-area "back to the land" experiments, such as the Clifty Consolidated Coal Company's 1917 program that helped Fentress County miners purchase small farms, as well as relief efforts provided by local Quakers.
Due in part to the influence of Tennessee Valley Authority chairman and cooperative living proponent Arthur Morgan, the Division of Subsistence Homesteads accepted the Cumberland County proposal in January 1934. Over 20,000 acres of land south of Crossville were purchased from the Missouri Land Company, Cumberland Homesteads, Inc. was created to administer the project. The Civil Works Administration hired several hundred locals to prepare the newly acquired land, providing wages that ended the Great Depression in Cumberland County. Of the initial 233 families selected for the Cumberland Homesteads project, 30% were distressed farmers, 30% were unemployed miners, 30% were unemployed textile workers, 10% were struggling professionals. Tennessee Valley Authority architect William Macy Stanton, who designed a number of buildings in TVA's planned city of Norris, drew up basic designs for houses and other buildings at the Homesteads; the Civilian Conservation Corps built recreational buildings and a small lake for the community at what is now Cumberland Mountain State Park.
By late 1934, the community's first stone houses had been completed. A community-owned store and cannery were established in 1934, but both struggled with inexperienced management. Wage-paying industries never relocated to the Homesteads as the government had hoped, attempts by homesteaders to establish a coal mine and sorghum mill failed. Throughout the 1930s, the Homesteads project was overseen by a succession of agencies with differing philosophies, leaving the project without a clear purpose. By 1945, the federal government had extricated itself from the Homesteads project after allowing the remaining homesteaders to purchase their farms. Although the original purpose of the Homesteads project failed, the community survived, over half the farms remained in the hands of original homesteaders through the 1950s. Buildings at Cumberland Homesteads were constructed using a locally quarried sandstone known as "crab orchard" stone, known for its durability and reddish hue in late afternoon sunlight.
The most notable building in Cumberland Homesteads is the Homesteads Tower, a cross-shaped building centered around an eight-story octagonal water tower. This building housed the Homesteads offices, is now home to the Homesteads Tower Museum; the e