Sandstone is a clastic sedimentary rock composed mainly of sand-sized minerals or rock grains. Most sandstone is composed of quartz or feldspar because these are the most common minerals in the Earths crust, like sand, sandstone may be any color, but the most common colors are tan, yellow, grey, pink and black. Since sandstone beds often form highly visible cliffs and other topographic features, quartz-bearing sandstone is converted into quartzite through heating and pressure, usually related to tectonic compression within orogenic belts. They are formed from cemented grains that may either be fragments of a rock or be mono-minerallic crystals. The cements binding these grains together are typically calcite, grain sizes in sands are defined within the range of 0.0625 mm to 2 mm. The formation of sandstone involves two principal stages, first, a layer or layers of sand accumulates as the result of sedimentation, either from water or from air. Typically, sedimentation occurs by the settling out from suspension.
The most common cementing materials are silica and calcium carbonate, which are derived either from dissolution or from alteration of the sand after it was buried. Colours will usually be tan or yellow, a predominant additional colourant in the southwestern United States is iron oxide, which imparts reddish tints ranging from pink to dark red, with additional manganese imparting a purplish hue. Red sandstones are seen in the Southwest and West of Britain, as well as central Europe. The regularity of the latter favours use as a source for masonry, either as a building material or as a facing stone. These physical properties allow the grains to survive multiple recycling events. Quartz grains evolve from rock, which are felsic in origin. Feldspathic framework grains are commonly the second most abundant mineral in sandstones, Feldspar can be divided into two smaller subdivisions, alkali feldspars and plagioclase feldspars. The different types of feldspar can be distinguished under a petrographic microscope, below is a description of the different types of feldspar.
Alkali feldspar is a group of minerals in which the composition of the mineral can range from KAlSi3O8 to NaAlSi3O8. Plagioclase feldspar is a group of solid solution minerals that range in composition from NaAlSi3O8 to CaAl2Si2O8. Lithic framework grains are pieces of ancient source rock that have yet to weather away to individual mineral grains, accessory minerals are all other mineral grains in a sandstone, commonly these minerals make up just a small percentage of the grains in a sandstone
Limestone is a sedimentary rock, composed mainly of skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as coral and molluscs. Its major materials are the minerals calcite and aragonite, which are different crystal forms of calcium carbonate, about 10% of sedimentary rocks are limestones. The solubility of limestone in water and weak acid solutions leads to karst landscapes, most cave systems are through limestone bedrock. The first geologist to distinguish limestone from dolomite was Belsazar Hacquet in 1778, like most other sedimentary rocks, most limestone is composed of grains. Most grains in limestone are skeletal fragments of organisms such as coral or foraminifera. Other carbonate grains comprising limestones are ooids, peloids and these organisms secrete shells made of aragonite or calcite, and leave these shells behind when they die. Limestone often contains variable amounts of silica in the form of chert or siliceous skeletal fragment, some limestones do not consist of grains at all, and are formed completely by the chemical precipitation of calcite or aragonite, i. e. travertine.
Secondary calcite may be deposited by supersaturated meteoric waters and this produces speleothems, such as stalagmites and stalactites. Another form taken by calcite is oolitic limestone, which can be recognized by its granular appearance, the primary source of the calcite in limestone is most commonly marine organisms. Some of these organisms can construct mounds of rock known as reefs, below about 3,000 meters, water pressure and temperature conditions cause the dissolution of calcite to increase nonlinearly, so limestone typically does not form in deeper waters. Limestones may form in lacustrine and evaporite depositional environments, calcite can be dissolved or precipitated by groundwater, depending on several factors, including the water temperature, pH, and dissolved ion concentrations. Calcite exhibits a characteristic called retrograde solubility, in which it becomes less soluble in water as the temperature increases. Impurities will cause limestones to exhibit different colors, especially with weathered surfaces, Limestone may be crystalline, granular, or massive, depending on the method of formation.
Crystals of calcite, dolomite or barite may line small cavities in the rock, when conditions are right for precipitation, calcite forms mineral coatings that cement the existing rock grains together, or it can fill fractures. Travertine is a banded, compact variety of limestone formed along streams, particularly there are waterfalls. Calcium carbonate is deposited where evaporation of the leaves a solution supersaturated with the chemical constituents of calcite. Tufa, a porous or cellular variety of travertine, is found near waterfalls, coquina is a poorly consolidated limestone composed of pieces of coral or shells. During regional metamorphism that occurs during the building process, limestone recrystallizes into marble
Scottish Gaelic or Scots Gaelic, sometimes referred to as Gaelic, is a Celtic language native to Scotland. A member of the Goidelic branch of the Celtic languages, Scottish Gaelic, like Modern Irish and Manx, developed out of Middle Irish. The 2011 census of Scotland showed that a total of 57,375 people in Scotland could speak Gaelic at that time, the census results indicate a decline of 1,275 Gaelic speakers from 2001. A total of 87,056 people in 2011 reported having some facility with Gaelic compared to 93,282 people in 2001, only about half of speakers were fully literate in the language. Nevertheless, revival efforts exist and the number of speakers of the language under age 20 has increased, Scottish Gaelic is neither an official language of the European Union nor the United Kingdom. Outside Scotland, a group of dialects collectively known as Canadian Gaelic are spoken in parts of Atlantic Canada, mainly Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island. In the 2011 census, there were 7,195 total speakers of Gaelic languages in Canada, with 1,365 in Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island where the responses mainly refer to Scottish Gaelic.
About 2,320 Canadians in 2011 claimed Gaelic languages as their mother tongue, with over 300 in Nova Scotia, aside from Scottish Gaelic, the language may be referred to simply as Gaelic. In Scotland, the word Gaelic in reference to Scottish Gaelic specifically is pronounced, outside Ireland and Great Britain, Gaelic may refer to the Irish language. Scottish Gaelic should not be confused with Scots, the Middle English-derived language varieties which had come to be spoken in most of the Lowlands of Scotland by the modern era. Prior to the 15th century, these dialects were known as Inglis by its own speakers, from the late 15th century, however, it became increasingly common for such speakers to refer to Scottish Gaelic as Erse and the Lowland vernacular as Scottis. Today, Scottish Gaelic is recognised as a language from Irish. Gaelic in Scotland was mostly confined to Dál Riata until the 8th century, when it began expanding into Pictish areas north of the Firth of Forth, by 900, Pictish appears to have become extinct, completely replaced by Gaelic.
An exception might be made for the Northern Isles, however, though the Pictish language did not disappear suddenly, a process of Gaelicisation was clearly underway during the reigns of Caustantín and his successors. By a certain point, probably during the 11th century, all the inhabitants of Alba had become fully Gaelicised Scots, by the 10th century, Gaelic had become the dominant language throughout northern and western Scotland, the Gaelo-Pictic Kingdom of Alba. Its spread to southern Scotland, was even and totalizing. Place name analysis suggests dense usage of Gaelic in Galloway and adjoining areas to the north and west as well as in West Lothian, less dense usage is suggested for north Ayrshire, the Clyde Valley and eastern Dumfriesshire. In south-eastern Scotland, there is no evidence that Gaelic was ever widely spoken, the area shifted from Cumbric to Old English during its long incorporation into the Anglo-Saxon Kingdom of Northumbria
In general, a rural area or countryside is a geographic area that is located outside towns and cities. Whatever is not urban is considered rural, typical rural areas have a low population density and small settlements. Agricultural areas are rural, though so are others such as forests. Different countries have varying definitions of rural for statistical and administrative purposes, in Canada, the census division has been used to represent regions and census consolidated sub-divisions have been used to represent communities. Intermediate regions have 15 to 49 percent of their living in a rural community. Predominantly urban regions have less than 15 percent of their living in a rural community. Predominantly rural regions are classified as rural metro-adjacent, rural non-metro-adjacent and rural northern, following Ehrensaft, as well, rural northern regions encompass all of the Yukon, Northwest Territories and Nunavut. Statistics Canada defines rural for their population counts and this definition has changed over time.
Typically, it has referred to the population living outside settlements of 1,000 or less inhabitants, the current definition states that census rural is the population outside settlements with fewer than 1,000 inhabitants and a population density below 400 people per square kilometre. 84% of the United States inhabitants live in suburban and urban areas, Rural areas occupy the remaining 90 percent. The U. S. Census Bureau, the USDAs Economic Research Service, an urbanized area consists of a central surrounding areas whose population is greater than 50,000. USDA The USDAs Office of Rural Development may define rural by various population thresholds, for example, a metropolitan county is one that contains an urbanized area, or one that has a twenty-five percent commuter rate to an urbanized area regardless of population. In 2014, the USDA updated their rural / non-rural area definitions based on the 2010 Census counts, Rural health definitions can be different for establishing under-served areas or health care accessibility in rural areas of the United States.
This became the Goldsmith Modification definition of rural, health care delivery in rural areas of the United States can be challenging. From 2005-2011, the rate of potentially preventable hospitalizations for acute conditions was highest in rural areas, in Brazil, theres different notions of rural area and countryside. Rural areas are any place outside an urban development and its carried by informal usage. Otherwise, countryside are officially defined as all municipalities outside the capitals metropolitan region. Some states as Mato Grosso do Sul doesnt have any metropolitan region, thus all of the state, Rio de Janeiro is singular in Brazil and its de facto a metropolitan state, as circa 70% of its population are located in Greater Rio
Cumbria is a non-metropolitan county in North West England. The county and Cumbria County Council, its government, came into existence in 1974 after the passage of the Local Government Act 1972. Cumbrias county town is Carlisle, in the north of the county, the county of Cumbria consists of six districts, and in 2008 had a population of just under half a million. Cumbria is one of the most sparsely populated counties in the United Kingdom, a large area of the south east of the county is within the Yorkshire Dales National Park while the east of the county fringes the North Pennines AONB. Much of Cumbria is mountainous, and it contains every peak in England over 3,000 feet above sea level, with Scafell Pike at 3,209 feet being the highest point of England. An upland and rural area, Cumbrias history is characterised by invasions, notable historic sites in Cumbria include Carlisle Castle, Furness Abbey, Hardknott Roman Fort, Brough Castle and Hadrians Wall, a UNESCO World Heritage Site. D. Based on inscriptional evidence from the area, the Roman civitas of the Carvetii seems to have covered portions of Cumbria, the names Cumbria, Cymru and Cumberland are derived from the name these people gave themselves, *kombroges in Common Brittonic, which originally meant compatriots.
In the Early Middle Ages, Cumberland formed the core of the Brittonic kingdom of Rheged, for the rest of the first millennium, Cumbria was contested by several entities who warred over the area, including the Brythonic Kingdom of Strathclyde and the Anglian kingdom of Northumbria. Most of modern-day Cumbria was a principality in the Kingdom of Scotland at the time of the Norman conquest of England in 1066, in 1092 Cumberland was invaded by William II and incorporated into England. There were at least three sieges of Carlisle fought between England and Scotland, and two sieges during the Jacobite risings. In particular, the west-coast towns of Workington and Barrow-in-Furness saw large iron and steel mills develop, Kendal and Carlisle all became mill towns, with textiles and biscuits among the products manufactured in the region. Later, the childrens writer Beatrix Potter wrote in the region and became a major landowner and its strategic authority is Cumbria County Council. Local papers The Westmorland Gazette and Cumberland and Westmorland Herald continue to use the name of their historic county, other publications, such as local government promotional material, describe the area as Cumbria, as do the Lake District National Park Authority and most visitors.
Cumbria is the most northwesterly county of England, the northernmost and southernmost points in Cumbria are just west of Deadwater and South Walney respectively. Kirkby Stephen and St Bees Head are the most easterly and westerly points of the county, at 978 metres Scafell Pike is the highest point in Cumbria and in England. Windermere is the largest natural lake in England, the Lancaster Canal runs from Preston into South Cumbria and is partly in use. The Ulverston Canal which once reached to Morecambe Bay is maintained although it was closed in 1945, the Solway Coast and Arnside and Silverdale AONBs lie in the lowland areas of the county, to the north and south respectively. Cumbria is bordered by the English counties of Northumberland, County Durham, North Yorkshire, the boundaries are along the Irish Sea to Morecambe Bay in the west, and along the Pennines to the east
Dunscore is a small village which lies 9 miles northwest of Dumfries on the B729, in Dumfriesshire, in the District Council Region of Dumfries and Galloway, southwest Scotland. The village of about 150 people, has a pub, a post office, the village hosts a gala event every August. It is the birthplace of the Church of Scotland missionary Jane Haining, Dunscore railway station opened in 1905, closed to passengers in 1943 and to goods in 1949. The station was on the Cairn Valley Railway which ran to Moniaive from Dumfries, the name Dunscore is of Cumbric origin, formed of the elements dīn fort and *ïsgor fortification, rampart. William J. Watson proposes the meaning fort of the bulwark or rampart, the long abandoned Dunscore Old Kirk was located near Fardingwell Farm, between Robert Burns Ellisland Farm and Robert Fergusons Isle Tower. In Thompsons 1832 map Ellisland was spelt Elliesland and was next to Isle Tower, the Laird of Lags Tomb is located at the surviving Dunscore Old Kirkburial ground, as is the grave of Captain Robert Riddell of Glenriddell, a close associate of Robert Burns
The Devonian is a geologic period and system of the Paleozoic, spanning 60 million years from the end of the Silurian,419.2 million years ago, to the beginning of the Carboniferous,358.9 Mya. It is named after Devon, where rocks from this period were first studied, the first significant adaptive radiation of life on dry land occurred during the Devonian. Free-sporing vascular plants began to spread across dry land, forming extensive forests which covered the continents, by the middle of the Devonian, several groups of plants had evolved leaves and true roots, and by the end of the period the first seed-bearing plants appeared. Various terrestrial arthropods became well-established, Fish reached substantial diversity during this time, leading the Devonian to often be dubbed the Age of Fish. The first ray-finned and lobe-finned bony fish appeared, while the placodermi began dominating almost every aquatic environment. The ancestors of all four-limbed vertebrates began adapting to walking on land, as their strong pectoral, in the oceans, primitive sharks became more numerous than in the Silurian and Late Ordovician.
The first ammonites, species of molluscs, trilobites, the mollusk-like brachiopods and the great coral reefs, were still common. The Late Devonian extinction which started about 375 million years ago severely affected marine life, killing off all placodermi, and all trilobites, save for a few species of the order Proetida. The palaeogeography was dominated by the supercontinent of Gondwana to the south, the continent of Siberia to the north, while the rock beds that define the start and end of the Devonian period are well identified, the exact dates are uncertain. According to the International Commission on Stratigraphy, the Devonian extends from the end of the Silurian 419.2 Mya, another common term is Age of the Fishes, referring to the evolution of several major groups of fish that took place during the period. Older literature on the Anglo-Welsh basin divides it into the Downtonian, Dittonian and Farlovian stages, in the Late Devonian, by contrast, arid conditions were less prevalent across the world and temperate climates were more common.
The Devonian Period is formally broken into Early and Late subdivisions, the rocks corresponding to those epochs are referred to as belonging to the Lower and Upper parts of the Devonian System. Early Devonian The Early Devonian lasted from 419.2 ±2.8 to 393.3 ±2.5 and began with the Lochkovian stage, which lasted until the Pragian. It spanned from 410.8 ±2.8 to 407.6 ±2.5, and was followed by the Emsian, which lasted until the Middle Devonian began,393. 3±2.7 million years ago. Middle Devonian The Middle Devonian comprised two subdivisions, first the Eifelian, which gave way to the Givetian 387. 7±2.7 million years ago. Late Devonian Finally, the Late Devonian started with the Frasnian,382.7 ±2.8 to 372.2 ±2.5, during which the first forests took shape on land. The first tetrapods appeared in the record in the ensuing Famennian subdivision. This lasted until the end of the Devonian,358. 9±2.5 million years ago, the Devonian was a relatively warm period, and probably lacked any glaciers
A residential area is a land use in which housing predominates, as opposed to industrial and commercial areas. Housing may vary significantly between, and through, residential areas and these include single-family housing, multi-family residential, or mobile homes. Zoning for residential use may permit some services or work opportunities or may totally exclude business and it may permit high density land use or only permit low density uses. Residential zoning usually includes a smaller FAR than business, commercial or industrial/manufacturing zoning, the area may be large or small. Development patterns may be regulated by restrictive covenants contained in the deeds to the properties in the development, restrictive covenants are not easily changed when the agreement of all property owners is required. The area so restricted may be large or small, residential areas may be subcategorized in the concentric zone model and other schemes of urban geography. Residential development is real estate development for residential purposes, some such developments are called a subdivision, when the land is divided into lots with houses constructed on each lot.
Such developments became common during the nineteenth century, particularly in the form of streetcar suburbs. In previous centuries, residential development was mainly of two kinds, rich people bought a townlot, hired an architect and/or contractor, and built a bespoke / customized house or mansion for their family. Poor urban people lived in shantytowns or in tenements built for rental, single-family houses were seldom built on speculation, that is for future sale to residents not yet identified. When cities and the class expanded greatly and mortgage loans became commonplace. Its large-scale practitioners disliked the term property speculator and coined the new residential development for their activity. Entire farms and ranches were subdivided and developed, often one individual or company controlling all aspects of entitlement, land development, infrastructure. Communities like Levittown, Long Island or Lakewood south of Los Angeles saw new homes sold at unprecedented rates—more than one a day.
Many techniques which had made the automobile affordable made housing affordable, standardization of design and small, repetitive tasks, advertising. Mass production resulted in a similar uniformity of product, and a comfortable lifestyle than cramped apartments in the cities. With the advent of government-backed mortgages, it could actually be cheaper to own a house in a new residential development than to rent, as with other products, continual refinements appeared. Curving streets, greenbelt parks, neighborhood pools, and community entry monumentation appeared, diverse floor plans with differing room counts, and multiple elevations appeared
Kinmount House is a 19th-century country house in the parish of Cummertrees within Dumfries and Galloway, south Scotland. It is located 6 kilometres west of Annan, the house was designed by Sir Robert Smirke for the Marquess of Queensberry, and completed in 1820. It is protected as a category A listed building, and the grounds are included on the Inventory of Gardens, the lands of Kinmount were granted to the Carlyle family in the 13th century, and acquired by William Douglas, 1st Earl of Queensberry, in 1633. The 4th Duke of Queensberry carried out extensive planting on the estate in the late 18th century, on his death in 1810 Kinmount passed to Charles Douglas, 6th Marquess of Queensberry, who commissioned a new house from the English architect Sir Robert Smirke. The Greek Revival house was built between 1813 and 1820, with Smirkes assistant William Burn acting as executant architect, the stonemason was John Park, and stone was brought from Cove quarry near Kirkpatrick-Fleming. In 1896 John Douglas, 9th Marquess of Queensberry, sold Kinmount to Edward Brook, Brook commissioned alterations and extensions to the house from Dumfries architects James Barbour and J. M.
Bowie. These included the roof balustrades and urns, and the court to the north-west. The house was used as a hospital during both the First and Second World Wars, the house is now owned by Kinmount Leisure Ltd, which rents out holiday accommodation with access to outdoor sports. The Kinmount and Hoddom estates are owned by the Brook family trust
Lady Florence Dixie
Lady Florence Caroline Dixie, was a Scottish traveller, war correspondent and feminist. Florence has been described as a tomboy who tried to match her brothers in physical activities, whether swimming and she rode astride, wore her hair short in a boyish crop, and refused to conform to fashion when being presented to Queen Victoria. She and her twin brother James were particularly close during childhood, calling each other Darling and she was close to her older brother John, whom she resembled in temperament, both being fearless and opinionated. Her childhood was marked by a number of dramatic and even tragic events, on 6 August 1858, when she was 3, Lady Florences father died in what was reported as a shooting accident, but was widely believed to have been suicide. In 1862 his widow Caroline acted upon a conviction and converted to Catholicism. She took her youngest children, Archibald and James to France and this led the childrens guardians to threaten Lady Queensberry with the loss of her children under English law.
The three were too young to choose a guardian under Scottish law and they remained in France for two years. Archibald converted and took orders, becoming a Roman Catholic priest. Carolines older daughter, became Catholic, when her Protestant fiance would not agree to raise their children in the Catholic faith, Gertrudes engagement was broken off. She entered a convent in Hammersmith and completed her novitiate to become a Sister of the Black Veil in 1867, eventually, it was agreed that Caroline would retain custody of the children, and they returned to England. Lady Florence was originally educated at home by a governess, but is described as defiant, after returning from France at age 9, the twins were separated. James was sent to a Catholic boarding school, and Florence to a convent school and she apparently found some consolation in writing poetry, her childhood verses were published much as The songs of a child, and other poems, under the pseudonym Darling. Another tragedy struck the family just days before Florences eldest brother, Queensberry travelled post-haste to Zermatt with the intention of bringing home his brothers body, but nothing had been found of Lord Francis but some tattered shreds of his clothing.
Queensberry, without a guide, and starting by moonlight, attacked the Matterhorn himself and it was largely a matter of chance that two guides found and rescued him before he died of cold. He wrote apologetically to Florence, I thought and thought where he was, and called him, I was half mad with misery, and I could not help it. Exceedingly amiable and talented Francis loss was felt by his family. In 1876, Florence would accompany Queensbury on his return to Zermatt, beyond the family, the tragedy was a long-running sensation, reported by newspapers all over the world, often in tones both sensational and denunciatory. On 3 April 1875, at the age of nineteen, Douglas married Sir Alexander Beaumont Churchill Dixie, 11th Baronet and he served as High Sheriff of Leicestershire for 1876
Redgauntlet is a historical novel by Sir Walter Scott, set in Dumfries, Scotland in 1765, and described by Magnus Magnusson as in a sense, the most autobiographical of Scotts novels. It describes the beginnings of a fictional third Jacobite Rebellion, and includes Wandering Willies Tale, the novels hero is a young man named Darsie Latimer. Early in the novel he is kidnapped by Hugh Redgauntlet, Darsies friend Alan Fairford sets out to rescue him. After much intrigue Darsie discovers that Redgauntlet is his uncle, and he discovers that a number of prominent Jacobites, and Prince Charles Edward Stuart himself are staying in the village. Redgauntlet has summoned them all to start a new Jacobite rebellion, the Prince is still reeling from the French naval defeats at Quiberon Bay and Lagos, which represented Charless last realistic chance to recover the British throne for the Stuart dynasty. Furthermore, Redgauntlet discovers that his fellow Jacobites are not as committed as he, during these discussions, General Campbell arrives amongst them to announce that he and the government know what the conspirators are up to.
The Prince is allowed to go into exile, and his followers peacefully disperse, seeing that the Jacobite cause is now lost, joins the Prince in exile. Darsie is set free having always remained loyal to the current king, Alan was studying for the law, but his companion had started for his first country ramble, and the story commences with a long correspondence between them. Darsie obtained an explanation from him, and was told to prepare for a journey disguised as a woman. After being closely questioned and detained for a few days, he was allowed to return with a guide to the inn. Darsie was travelling thither with Herries and his followers, when he discovered that Lilias, who accompanied them, was his sister, and learnt from her his own real name and rank. Ewart was, ordered to have his brig in readiness, the Rebellion was over before it could begin. His instructions, from King George were to all concerned in the plot to disperse. The Pretender was, led by the Laird of Redgauntlet to the beach, and Lilias offered to accompany her uncle in his voluntary exile.
Lilias, of course, married Alan, and Herries, who had asked his nephews pardon for attempting to make a rebel of him, threw away his sword, and became the prior of a monastery. Magnus Magnusson wrote, Its two young heroes, Alan Fairford and Darsie Latimer, between them reflect the duality of Scotts own character, Alan Fairford is Scotts Edinburgh self, Darsie Latimer is his Borders self. They discover an ultimate commitment to the Hanoverian peace, the scene is one of the finest in Scott. The two worlds are brought together, and the romantic one disintegrates
Annan, Dumfries and Galloway
Annan is a town and former royal burgh in Dumfries and Galloway, south-west Scotland. Its public buildings include Annan Academy, of which the writer Thomas Carlyle was a pupil, the Town Hall was built in Victorian style in 1878, using the local sandstone. Annan features a Historic Resources Centre, in Port Street, some of the windows remain blocked up to avoid paying the window tax. Each year on the first Saturday in July, Annan celebrates the Royal Charter, entertainment includes a procession, field displays and massed pipe bands. Annan stands on the River Annan—from which it is named—nearly 2 miles from its mouth and it is 15 mi from Dumfries by rail, in the region of Dumfries and Galloway on the Solway Firth in the south of Scotland. Eastriggs is about 3 mi to the east and Gretna is about 8 mi to the east, Annan Castle formed the original home of the de Brus family, known as the Bruces, lords of Annandale, which most famously produced Robert the Bruce. It was at Annan in December 1332 that Bruce supporters overwhelmed Balliols forces to bring about the end of the first invasion of Scotland in the Second War of Scottish Independence, the Balliols and the Douglases were more or less closely associated with Annan.
During his retreat from Derby, Bonnie Prince Charlie stayed in the High Street at the inn where LAuberge now stands, with the river embanked, Annan served as a maritime town whose shipyards built many clippers and other boats. A cairn on the jetty commemorates Robert Burns, who worked as an exciseman here in the 1790s, although the port is now mainly dry, a few stranded boats remain. Annan Academy has a history that goes back to the 17th century and its current campus on St Johns Road primarily dates to the 1960s. Annan previously formed a constituency of the Parliament of Scotland and the Convention of Estates, in 1871, the Dumfries Burghs had a population of 3172 and the royal burgh of Annan,4174, governed by a provost and 14 councillors. A Harbour Trust was established in 1897 to improve the port, by 1901, the population was 5805, living principally in red sandstone buildings. The train turntable was designed and developed in Annan, it can be today in the York Railway Museum. Just outside the town, the Chapelcross nuclear power station has now shut down and is being decommissioned, the four cooling towers were demolished in 2007.
Nearby, John Maxwell, 4th Lord Herries, built Hoddom Castle, to the east of the town lies the settlement of Watchill and the similarly named Watchhall. Part of the A75, between Annan and Dumfries, is reported to be haunted, Annandale distillery has now officially re-opened in Annan, which last produced a Lowland Malt 90 years ago, although it is still in early stages. In the 19th century, Annan was connected to the Glasgow & Southwestern Railway, the Caledonian Railway, and it exported cured hams, cattle and grain to England, it produced cotton goods, ropes and salmon. By the First World War, it was a center of bacon-curing, tanning, sandstone quarrying, Annan Bridge, a stone bridge of three arches, built between 1824 and 1827, carries road traffic over the River Annan